• Title, Summary, Keyword: Green Rice$^{(R)}$

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Resistance of the New Varieties Milyang $\#21\;and\;\#23$ to Plant-and Leaf-hoppers (멸구$\cdot$매미충에 대한 수도 신품종 밀양 21 및 23호의 저항성)

  • Choi S. Y.;Lee J. O.;Lee H. R.;Park J. S.
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.147-151
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    • 1976
  • Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the new rice varieties Milyang $\#$21 and $\#$23 at the seedling stage to the brown planthopper(Nilaparvata lugens), small brown planthopper(Laodelphax striatellus), white-back planthopper(Sogatella furcifera), green rorice leafhopper(Nephotettix cincticeps) and zigzag-striped leafhopper (Recilia dorsalis) The varieties Yushin and T(N)-1 were used as susceptible check and the resistant check varieties were Mudgo to brown planthopper, ASD-7 :o small brown planthopper, Colombo to white-back planthopper, IR2061 (46763) to green rice leafhopper and Vellailanalgayan to zigzag-striped leafhopper. The varieties Milyang $\#$21 and $\#$23 were moderate in plant reaction only to the green rice leafhopper and $\#$23 was moderately resistant in plant rection only to the small brown planthopper. The nymphs of plant-and leaf-hoppers were more prefered Milyang $\#$21 and $\#$23 and susceptible check-varieties were more preferred for feeding than the resistant check-varieties. The green rice leafhopper and aigzag·striped leafhopper much more prefered Milyang $\#$21 and $\#$23 for oviposition, while brown planthopper and small brown planthopper more prefered the resistant cheeks than test varieties and susceptible checks. However, there was no any steady relationship in ovipositional preference between resistant and susceptible to the hoppers. Shorter nymphal-periods and higher rate of adult emergence were observed in the test varieties and the susceptible checks compared with the resistant checks. In conclusion, the varieties Milyang $\#$21 and $\#$23 seemed to be lack of true resistance to the plant-and leaf-hoppers from the viewpoints of antibiosis and feeding preference.

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Occurrence of Virus Diseases on Major Crops in 2008 (2008년 우리나라 주요 작물 바이러스병 발생 상황)

  • Kim, Jeong-Soo;Lee, Su-Heon;Choi, Hong-Soo;Kim, Mi-Kyeong;Kwak, Hae-Ryun;Cho, Jeom-Deog;Choi, Gug-Seoun;Kim, Jin-Young
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2009
  • Viruses diagnosed on crops including rice plants from farmers or agricultural extension agencies cover the country were 11 species including Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2) in 2008. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was the most important virus having the detection rate of 22.9%. Two viruses of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tobacco leaf curl virus (TLCV) inducing leaf yellow and curl diseases on tomatoes were occurred newly with the detection rate of 12.2% and 4.0%, respectively, in 2008. Rice stripe virus (RSV) was occurred on 869.5 ha mainly at Jindo and Haenam areas in Jeollanamdo province. At Jindo area, 12 plots were damaged severely with the infected hill rate of 83.8%. At the main production area of oriental melon at Seongju, almost all fruits from whole sale market at Seongju were infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) as the detection rate of 87%. The areas occurred TSWV in Korea were 25 totally from 2003 including 7 areas newly reported in 2008 including Naju in Jeoallanamdo. TSWV could be reduced as 0.1 % from 5.3% by covering insect proof net in vinyl house after chemical soil sterilization. Tomato yellow leaf curl disease was occurred on April in 2008 at Tongyoung area in Kyeongsangnamdo, and detected continuously at 13 areas, 7 in Kyeongsangnamdo, 4 in Jeollabukdo and 2 in Jejudo. Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) was occurred abruptly in a confined space of a civil breeding greenhouse and a cultivar evaluation field followed by disuse 17.4 M/T of potato tubers. No PSTVd was detected at 17 fields cultivated the related potatoes to the bred company by RT-PCR.

Structure-activity relationships on the selective herbicidal activity between rice plant and barnyard grass by the N-phenyl substituents in 2-(4-(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyloxy)-phenoxy)-N-phenyl propionamide derivatives (2-(4-(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyloxy) phenoxy)-N-phenyl propionamide 유도체 중 N-phenyl 치환체들에 의한 벼와 피의 선택적 제초활성에 미치는 구조-활성관계)

  • Sung, Nack-Do;Lee, Sang-Ho;Chang, Hae-Sung;Kim, Dae-Whang;Kim, Jin-Suk
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 1999
  • A some of synthesized 2-(4-(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyloxy)phenoxy)-N-phenyl propionamide derivativesa substrates were found to selectivity significantly with both rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) for those her- bicidal activities with post emergence in up land. The selectivity of substrates against rice plant better than that of Fenoxaprop-ethyl. The structure activity relationship (SAR) n the selectivity of N-phenyl substituents were analyzed by the Free-Wilson and Hansch method. The SAR approach against barnyard grass is shown that the optimal ($({\pi})_{opt.}=1.60$) hydrophobicity and electron donating effects ($0<{\sigma}$ & 0$(ES)_{opt.}=0.87$) so that the herbicidal activity against rice plant can be decreased. The significance of these results on the selectivity between barnyard grass and rice plant is discussed. And it is assumed that the 2-ethoxy-3-methoxy-4-dimethylamino group substituent ($pI_{50}$=6.60, 1g/ha) is selected as the most highest herbicidal activity against barngard grass in green house.

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Determining Nitrogen Topdressing Rate at Panicle Initiation Stage of Rice based on Vegetation Index and SPAD Reading (유수분화기 식생지수와 SPAD값에 의한 벼 질소 수비 시용량 결정)

  • Kim Min-Ho;Fu Jin-Dong;Lee Byun-Woo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.386-395
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    • 2006
  • The core questions for determining nitrogen topdress rate (Npi) at panicle initiation stage (PIS) are 'how much nitrogen accumulation during the reproductive stage (PNup) is required for the target rice yield or protein content depending on the growth and nitrogen nutrition status at PIS?' and 'how can we diagnose the growth and nitrogen nutrition status easily at real time basis?'. To address these questions, two years experiments from 2001 to 2002 were done under various rates of basal, tillering, and panicle nitrogen fertilizer by employing a rice cultivar, Hwaseongbyeo. The response of grain yield and milled-rice protein content was quantified in relation to RVIgreen (green ratio vegetation index) and SPAD reading measured around PIS as indirect estimators for growth and nitrogen nutrition status, the regression models were formulated to predict PNup based on the growth and nitrogen nutrition status and Npi at PIS. Grain yield showed quadratic response to PNup, RVIgreen around PIS, and SPAD reading around PIS. The regression models to predict grain yield had a high determination coefficient of above 0.95. PNup for the maximum grain yield was estimated to be 9 to 13.5 kgN/10a within the range of RVIgreen around PIS of this experiment. decreasing with increasing RVIgreen and also to be 10 to 11 kgN/10a regardless of SPAD readings around PIS. At these PNup's the protein content of milled rice was estimated to rise above 9% that might degrade eating quality seriously Milled-rice protein content showed curve-linear increase with the increase of PNup, RVIgreen around PIS, and SPAD reading around PIS. The regression models to predict protein content had a high determination coefficient of above 0.91. PNup to control the milled-rice protein content below 7% was estimated as 6 to 8 kgN/10a within the range of RVIgreen and SPAD reading of this experiment, showing much lower values than those for the maximum grain yield. The recovery of the Npi applied at PIS ranged from 53 to 83%, increasing with the increased growth amount while decreasing with the increasing Npi. The natural nitrogen supply from PIS to harvest ranged from 2.5 to 4 kg/10a, showing quadratic relationship with the shoot dry weight or shoot nitrogen content at PIS. The regression models to estimate PNup was formulated using Npi and anyone of RVIgreen, shoot dry weight, and shoot nitrogen content at PIS as predictor variables. These models showed good fitness with determination coefficients of 0.86 to 0.95 The prescription method based on the above models predicting grain yield, protein content and PNup and its constraints were discussed.

Estimation of Nondestructive Rice Leaf Nitrogen Content Using Ground Optical Sensors (지상광학센서를 이용한 비파괴 벼 엽 질소함량 추정)

  • Kim, Yi-Hyun;Hong, Suk-Young
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.435-441
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    • 2007
  • Ground-based optical sensing over the crop canopy provides information on the mass of plant body which reflects the light, as well as crop nitrogen content which is closely related to the greenness of plant leaves. This method has the merits of being non-destructive real-time based, and thus can be conveniently used for decision making on application of nitrogen fertilizers for crops standing in fields. In the present study relationships among leaf nitrogen content of rice canopy, crop growth status, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values were investigated. We measured Green normalized difference vegetation index($gNDVI=({\rho}0.80{\mu}m-{\rho}0.55{\mu}m)/({\rho}0.80{\mu}m+{\rho}0.55{\mu}m)$) and NDVI($({\rho}0.80{\mu}m-{\rho}0.68{\mu}m)/({\rho}0.80{\mu}m+{\rho}0.68{\mu}m)$) were measured by using two different active sensors (Greenseeker, NTech Inc. USA). The study was conducted in the years 2005-06 during the rice growing season at the experimental plots of National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology located at Suwon, Korea. The experiments carried out with randomized complete block design with the application of four levels of nitrogen fertilizers (0, 70, 100, 130kg N/ha) and same amount of phosphorous and potassium content of the fertilizers. gNDVI and rNDVI increased as growth advanced and reached to maximum values at around early August, G(NDVI) were a decrease in values of observed with the crop maturation. gNDVI values and leaf nitrogen content were highly correlated at early July in 2005 and 2006. On the basis of this finding we attempted to estimate the leaf N contents using gNDVI data obtained in 2005 and 2006. The determination coefficients of the linear model by gNDVI in the years 2005 and 2006 were 0.88 and 0.94, respectively. The measured and estimated leaf N contents using gNDVI values showed good agreement ($R^2=0.86^{***}$). Results from this study show that gNDVI values represent a significant positive correlation with leaf N contents and can be used to estimate leaf N before the panicle formation stage. gNDVI appeared to be a very effective parameter to estimate leaf N content the rice canopy.

Studies on Screening Rice Cultivars for Drought Resistance I. Screening at Seedling Stage (수도 한발저항성 품종 선발에 관한 연구)

  • Hak-Soo SUH
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 1979
  • Seven hundred and forty eight rice cultivars were screened for drought tolerance at seedling stage in a special green house. A number of cultivars such as Wonkiljo, Hanyangdo, YR 52-$_{x}\textrm{BF}_7-67, Satominori, Mamoriaka, Akanomochi 114, Thkebenimochi, IR 937-55-3, IR2735-F_3B-6-2, IR 2871-53-2, $_{x}\textrm{BFI76}^9/Dwan, Khoo lliok Mali-4-2-105, Os6, Palawan, IRAT10, TOS 2583 and H-l05 seemed to be tolerant to drought at seedling stage. There was negative correlation between drought resistance score and growth of plant height and water content of culm and leaf after drought treatment, and highly positive correlation between resistance to blast and resistance to drought at seedling stage. There was no relationship between drought resistance and germination speed, plant height before drought treatment.

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Current status on the development of GM plants based on the published articles and patents in Korea (논문 및 특허의 분석을 통한 국내 GM식물의 개발 현황)

  • Lee, Shin-Woo
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.394-399
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    • 2010
  • During the last three years (2007 to 2009), 1,212 articles of SCI journals, 451 articles of non-SCI journals, and 348 items of registered patents were reported by the research scientists involved in the BioGreen 21 Project, Rural Development Administration and Crop Functional Genomics Center (CFGC), The 21st century Frontier Program, in Korea. Out of these, the percentages of articles or patents directly related to the development of GM plants were 6.0% (SCI), 10.2% (non-SCI) and 12.6% (patents) from BioGreen 21 Project while 15.7% (SCI), 21.1% (non-SCI) and 81.6% (patents) from CFGC, respectively. It was observed that rice and pepper were major host crops for genetic modification mainly to provide the resistance or tolerance activities against to biotic as well as abiotic stresses. Very low cases were reported for the field test of GM plants regarding to the commercialization (less than 15 articles). These observations indicates that more research grants needs to be invested for the risk assessment of GM plants under early developmental stage to commercialize in Korea.

EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF TEA WASTE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF GROWING CALVES

  • Begum, J.;Reza, A.;Islam, M.R.;Rahman, M.M.;Zaman, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.175-179
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    • 1996
  • Twelve indigenous(desi) growing male calves of 9-12 months of age($95.3{\pm}12.6kg$) were divided into 4 groups having 3 animals in each group. Each group of calves received 1 kg fresh concentrate mixtures where tea waste was supplemented as 0($T_0$), 50($T_1$), 100($T_2$) and 150($T_3$) g $d^{-1}$ with the replacement of equal amount of concentrate mixtures. In addition, each calf received ad libitum chopped rice straw and 2 kg green grass a day. Dry matter intake increased by offering higher levels of tea waste except in the treatment $T_3$. Daily gain(g $d^{-1}$) was comparatively higher in $T_2$ group(314.6g) compared to other treatments. Feed efficiency(kg DM $kg^{-1}$ gain) was also higher in $T_2$ group(9.9) where feed cost $kg^{-1}$ gain was also comparatively lower(Tk. 25.7) than the other treatments. Dry matter and CP digestibility increased with the increase in supplementation of tea wastes except in the treatment $T_3$.

Antifungal Activity of Benzoic Acid from Bacillus subtilis GDYA-1 against Fungal Phytopathogens (Bacillus subtilis GDYA-1로부터 분리한 benzoic acid의 식물병원성 곰팡이에 대한 항균활성)

  • Yoon, Mi-Young;Seo, Kook-Hwa;Lee, Sang-Heon;Choi, Gyung-Ja;Jang, Kyoung-Soo;Choi, Yong-Ho;Cha, Byeong-Jin;Kim, Jin-Cheol
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2012
  • A bacterial strain antagonistic to some fungal phytopathogens was isolated from the stem of a Persimmon tree in Yeongam, Korea. This bacterium was identified as Bacillus subtilis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and designated as B. subtilis GDYA-1. In in vivo experiment, the fermentation broth exhibited antifungal activities against Magnaporthe oryzae on rice plants, Phytophthora infestans on tomato plants, and Puccinia recondita on wheat plants. We isolated one antifungal compound and its chemical structure was determined by mass and $^1H$-NMR spectral data. The antifungal substance was identified as benzoic acid. It inhibited mycelial growth of M. oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and P. capsici with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values, ranging from 62.5 to 125 ${\mu}g/ml$. Moreover, the substance effectively suppressed Phytophthora blight of red pepper caused by P. capsici in a pot experiment. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal activity of benzoic acid against phytopathogenic fungi. Benzoic acid and B. subtilis GDYA-1 may contribute to environmental-friendly protect crops from phytopathogenic fungi.

'Joseong', a New Early-Heading Forage Triticale Cultivar for Paddy Field of Double Cropping (이모작 재배에 적합한 조숙성 조사료용 트리티케일 신품종 '조성')

  • Han, Ouk-Kyu;Park, Tae-Il;Park, Hyung-Ho;Song, Tae-Hwa;Ju, Jung-Il;Jeung, Jae-Hyun;Kang, Sung-Joo;Kim, Dae-Ho;Choi, Hong-Jib;Park, Nam-Geon;Kim, Kee-Jong;Hwang, Jong-Jin;Baek, Seong-Beum;Kwon, Young-Up
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.193-202
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    • 2012
  • 'Joseong', a winter forage triticale cultivar (X Triticosecale Wittmack), was developed by the breeding team at the Department of Rice and Winter Cereal Crop, NICS, RDA in 2010. The cultivar 'Joseong' was selected from the cross FAHAD_5/RHINO1R.1D 5+10 5D'5B'//FAHAD_5 by CIMMYT (Mexico) in 1992. Subsequent generations were handled in pedigree selection program at Mexico from 1993 to 1998, and a line 'CTSS92Y-A-4Y-0M-5Y-0B' was selected for earliness and good agronomic characteristics. After preliminary and advance yield test in Korea for 2 years, the line designated as a line name of 'Iksan26'. The 'Iksan26' was subsequently evaluated for earliness and forage yield in 7 different locations such as Jeju, Iksan, Cheongwon, Yesan, Naju, Daegu, and Jinju from 2008 to 2010 and finally named as 'Joseong'. The cultivar 'Joseong' has characteristics of dark green leaf, yellow culm and spike, and large grain of yellowish brown color. The heading date of cultivar 'Joseong' was April 24, which was 5 days earlier than that of check cultivar 'Shinyoung'. It showed better tolerance or resistance to lodging, wet injury, powdery mildew, and leaf rust than those of the check cultivar 'Shinyoung'. The average forage dry matter yield of cultivar 'Joseong' at milk-ripe stage was 14.5 MT $ha^{-1}$, which was lower than 16.5 MT $ha^{-1}$ of the check cultivar 'Shinyoung'. The silage quality of 'Joseong' (5.3%) was lower to the check cultivar 'Shinyoung' (6.0%) in crude protein content, while was 2.1% superior to the check cultivar 'Shinyoung' (61.9%) in TDN (total digestible nutrients). It showed 5.1 MT $ha^{-1}$ of grain yield, which was 40% higher than that of the check cultivar 'Shinyoung' (3.65 MT $ha^{-1}$). This cultivar is recommended for fall sowing crop in the area where daily minimum mean temperatures are averaged higher than $-10^{\circ}C$ in January, and as a winter crop using whole crop forage before planting rice in around Korea.