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Antioxidative Activity Against Oxidation of Human Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) by Bacillus sp. RH -5 Isolated from Marine Origin (해양에서 분리한 bacillus sp. RH-5에 의한 사람 Low Density Lipoprotein(LDL) 산화에 대한 항산화 활성)

  • 류병호;정진웅;김동석;박종옥
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.6-13
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidative activity on oxidaton of human low density lipoprotein from marine microorganisms. Bacillus sp. RH-5 producing antioxidative activity have been isolated and identified from coast sea in Pusan. Bacillus sp. RH-5 produced at highest level of antioxidative activity in the medium of 1.0% glucose, 0.25% polypepton, 0.25% yeast extract, 0.01% $FeSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ and 50% sea water. The optimal medium pH, cultural temperature and shaking time for the highest production as the antioxidant were 7.0, $30^{\circ}C$ and 48 hr, respectively. The culture broth inhibited the copper catalyzed oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) at the concentration of 500 and $1,000\;\mu\textrm{g}/ml$ ethylacetate extracts in the presence of $5\;\mu\textrm{M}\;CuSo_4$. The electrophoretic mobility of the LDL oxidized in the presense of $5\;\mu\textrm{M}\;CuSo_4$ was higher than that of native LDL.

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Concentration-dependent in vitro Anti-osteoarthritis Effects of Mixed Formula - Pomegranate Concentrate Powder: Eucommiae Cortex: Achyranthis Radix 5:4:1 (g/g) on the Primary Cultured Rat Articular Chondrocytes

  • Choi, Beom Rak;Ku, Sae Kwang;Kang, Su Jin;Park, Hye Rim;Sung, Mi Sun;Lee, Young Joon;Park, Ki Moon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.131-140
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    • 2019
  • The objective of present study is to evaluate concentration-dependent in vitro anti-osteoarthritic (OA) effects of synergic mixed formula consisted of dried pomegranate juice concentrate powder, Eucommiae Cortex aqueous extract and Achyranthis Radix aqueous extract 5:4:1 (g/g) mixture on the primary cultured rat articular chondrocytes. First, any cytotoxic effect of mixture was observed using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide) assay. Next, cyto-protective effect of test substances was evaluated by using the recombinant human interleukin $(rhIL)-1{\alpha}$ induced chondrocytes. In addition, anti-inflammatory effects were also observed on the lipopolysaccaride (LPS) treated chondrocytes through prostaglandin $E_2(PGE_2)$ productions and 5-lipoxygenase (LPO) activities, and inhibitory effects on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities were observed on $rhIL-1{\alpha}$ treated chondrocytes with their extracellular matrix (ECM) related mRNA expressions. No obvious cytotoxic effects of mixture were demonstrated. Inflammatory damages of chondrocytes and related ECM degradations induced by treatment of LPS or $rhIL-1{\alpha}$ were significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited by pretreatment of mixture from a concentration level of 0.001 mg/ml to 1 mg/ml. In addition, mixture showed $IC_{50}$ for $rhIL-1{\alpha}-induced$ MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as 44.01 and $162.47{\mu}g/ml$, and also showed $EC_{50}$ for $rhIL-1{\alpha}-induced$ inhibition of collagen type II, SOX9 and aggrecan mRNA expression as 8.61, 10.79 and $4.47{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. It is observed that mixture showed concentration-dependent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective ECM preserved effects on the primary cultured rat articular chondrocytes without cytotoxicity.

Discovery of Antioxidant on Human Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) by Bacillus sp. RH-5 Isolated from Marine Origin (해양에서 분리한 Bacillus sp. RH-5에 의한 사람 Low Density Lipoprotein(LDL) 산화에 대한 항산화제의 개발)

  • 류병호;박종옥;김동석
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.99-105
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    • 1999
  • The aims of this studies were carried out to investigate the antioxidant activity on low density lipoprotein(LDL) using substances extracted from Bacillus sp. RH-5. The antioxidative substances produced extracellular in the culture broth by Bacillius sp. RH-S was obtained by elution of chloroform : methanol from silicagel column (80cm x100cm) chromatography. Band 4 eluted from fraction 3 by TLC was appeared at highest level of antioxidative activity using thiocyanate methed. Band 4 at a concentration of 100 or 200$\mu$g/$m\ell$ inhibited oxidation of LDL induced by the mouse transformed macrophage. According to IR. NMR or GC/MASS, the antioxidant substance was identified as 5-hydroxyindole.

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Production of Red Ginseng Specific Ginsenosides $(Rg_2, Rg_3, Rh_1 and Rh_2)$ from Agrobacterium-transformed hairy Roots of Panax ginseng by Heat Treatment

  • Yang, Deok-Chun;Yang, Kye-Jin;Park, Yong-Eui
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.19-22
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    • 2001
  • It was reported that Red ginseng contains specific ginsenoside-Rg$_2$,-Rg$_3$,-Rh$_1$and -Rh$_2$, which show various pharmacological effects. However, production of these specific ginsenosides from Red ginseng is not commercially applicable because of high cost of the raw material, roots. This work was carried out to examine the production of Red ginseng specific ginsenosides from Agrobacterium-transformed hairy roots. Hairy roots were induced from 3 year-old root segment of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) after infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. Among many lines of hairybroots, KGHR-8A was selected. Steam heat treatment of hairy roots was resulted in the changes of ginsenoside composition. Eleven ginsenosides were detected in heat-treated hairy roots but eight in freeze dried hairy roots. In heat treated hairy root, content of ginsenoside-Rb$_1$,Rb$_2$,Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, and Rg$_1$were decreased compared to those of freeze dried hairy roots. However, heat treatment strongly enhanced the amount of Red ginseng specific ginsenogides (ginsenoside-Rg$_2$,-Rg$_3$,-Rh$_1$and -Rh$_2$). Amounts of ginsenoside-Rg$_3$,-Rh$_1$and -Rh$_2$ in heat-treated hairy roots were 2.58, 3.62 and 1.08 mg/g dry wt, respectively, but these were detected as trace amount in hairy roots without heat treatment. Optimum condition of heat treatment for the production of Red ginseng specific ginsenoside was 2 h at 105$^{\circ}C$. This result represents that Red ginseng specific ginsenoside can be producted from hairy roots by steam heat treatment.

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Characteristic of Oxidants Production and Dye Degradation with Operation Parameters of Electrochemical Process (전기화학적 공정의 운전인자에 따른 산화제 생성과 염료 분해 특성)

  • Kim, Dong-Seog;Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1235-1245
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate electro-generation of free Cl, $ClO_2$, $H_2O_2$ and $O_3$ and degradation of Rhodamine B in solution using Ru-Sn-Sb electrode. Electrolysis was performed in one-compartment reactor using a dimensionally stable anode(DSA) of Ru-Sn-Sb/Ti as the working electrode. The effect of applied current (0.5-3 A), electrolyte type (NaCl, KCl, HCl, $Na_2SO_4$ and $H_2SO_4$) and concentration (0.5-2.5 g/L), air flow rate (0-3 L/min) and solution pH (3-11) was evaluated. Experimental results showed that concentration of 4 oxidants was increased with increase of applied current, however optimum current for RhB degradation was 2 A. The generated oxidant concentration and RhB degradation of the of Cl type-electrolyte was higher than that of the sulfate type. The oxidant concentration was increased with increase of NaCl concentration and optimum NaCl dosage for RhB degradation was 1.75 g/L. Optimum air flow rate for the oxidants generation and RhB degradation was 2 L/min. $ClO_2$ and $H_2O_2$ generation was decreased with the increase of pH, whereas free Cl and $O_3$ was not affected by pH. RhB degradation was increase with the pH decrease.

Excess of leptin inhibits hypothalamic KiSS-1 expression in pubertal mice

  • Ahn, Sung-Yeon;Yang, Sei-Won;Lee, Hee-Jae;Byun, Jong-Seon;Om, Ji-Yeon;Shin, Choong-Ho
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.55 no.9
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    • pp.337-343
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: Leptin has been considered a link between metabolic state and reproductive activity. Defective reproductive function can occur in leptin-deficient and leptin-excessive conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of centrally injected leptin on the hypothalamic KiSS-1 system in relation to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) action in the initial stage of puberty. Methods: Leptin (1 ${\mu}g$) was injected directly into the ventricle of pubertal female mice. The resultant gene expressions of hypothalamic GnRH and KiSS-1 and pituitary LH, 2 and 4 hours after injection, were compared with those of saline-injected control mice. The changes in the gene expressions after blocking the GnRH action were also analyzed. Results: The basal expression levels of KiSS-1, GnRH, and LH were significantly higher in the pubertal mice than in the prepubertal mice. The 1-${\mu}g$ leptin dose significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of KiSS-1, GnRH, and LH in the pubertal mice. A GnRH antagonist significantly increased the KiSS-1 and GnRH mRNA expression levels, and the additional leptin injection decreased the gene expression levels compared with those in the control group. Conclusion: The excess leptin might have suppressed the central reproductive axis in the pubertal mice by inhibiting the KiSS-1 expression, and this mechanism is independent of the GnRH-LH-estradiol feedback loop.

Lack of Effects of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Angiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Induced in the Syrian hamster Cheek Pouch

  • Zaid, Khaled Waleed;Nhar, Bander Mossa;Alanazi, Salman Mohammed Ghadeer;Murad, Rashad;Domani, Ahmad;Alhaf, Awadh Jamman
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3527-3531
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    • 2016
  • Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 ), a member of the TGF-${\beta}$ family, has been used widely in recent years to regenerate defects of the maxillary and mandible bones. Such defects are sometimes caused by resection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) yet the biologic effects of rhBMP-2 on these carcinomas are not fully clear. The objective of this study was to determine histologically whether rhBMP-2 produces adverse effects on angiogenesis during induction of OSCC, a biologic process critical for tumor formation in an experimental model in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters. Buccal cavities were exposed to painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks, then biopsies were taken. Division was into 2 groups: a study group of 10 hamsters receiving $0.25{\mu}g/ml$ of rhBMP-2 in the $3^{rd}$ and $6^{th}$ weeks; and a control group of 10 hamsters which did not receive any additional treatment. VEGF expression and microvessel density were measured but no differences were noted between the two groups. According to this study, rh-BMP-2 does not stimulate angiogenesis during induction of OCSSs.

Electrochemical Decolorization of a Rhodamine B using Dimensionally Stable Anode (불용성 전극을 이용한 Rhodamine B의 전기화학적 탈색)

  • Kim, Dong Seog;Park, Young Seek
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.377-384
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    • 2007
  • This study has carried out a performance of dimensionally stable anode for the purpose of decolorization of Rhodamine B (RhB) in water. Seven kinds of 1, 2 and 3 component electrodes were prepared by plating and thermal deposition, which were coated by the oxides of Pt, Ru, Ir, Sn-Sb, Ir-Sn-Sb, Ru-Sn-Sb and Ru-Sn-Ti on Ti metal surface, respectively. Performance for RhB decolorization of the seven electrodes lay in: Ru-Sn-Ti/Ti ${\fallingdotseq}$ Ru-Sn-Sb/Ti > Ir-Sn-Sb/Ti > Sn-Sb/Ti > Ru/Ti > Ir/Ti > Pt/Ti. The effects of electrode area and distance, electrolyte type and concentration, current density and pH were investigated on the decolorization of RhB using Ru-Sn-Ti/Ti electrode. Decolorization of RhB was not influenced by electrode area and distance largely, however wattage was influenced by them. NaCl was superior to the decolorization of RhB than $Na_2SO_4$. Optimum NaCl dosage and current density were 0.5 g/L and $0.183A/cm^2$, respectively. The pH effect of decolorization of RhB was not significant within the range of 3-7.

Expression of human lactoferrin N-lobe in Pichia pastoris and its antibacterial activity (Pichia pastoris에서 사람 락토페린 N-lobe의 발현과 항균활성)

  • Won, Su-Jin;Jo, Jae-Hyung;Kim, Seung-Hwan;Kwon, Hyuk-Jin;Lee, Hyune-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.271-279
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    • 2015
  • Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in physiological secretions of mammals. LF shows antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. In the present study, a gene encoding the N-terminal lobe of human lactoferrin (hLF) was isolated, cloned and expressed in methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. The recombinant hLF-N (rhLF-N) protein was secreted into the culture medium at the level of $458{\mu}g/ml$ in 3 L fermentor. The size of purified hLF-N was estimated as 35 kDa when analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The rhLF-N was further confirmed by immunodiffusion using the anti-hLF polyclonal antibody. The expression profile analysis by qRT-PCR showed that the relative mRNA expression of rhLF-N was maximal after 2-3 days of methanol induction and reduced gradually at 4 days. The purified rhLF-N showed broad antibacterial activities against the pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, and Salmonella typhimurium. However, rhLF-N showed relatively lower activity when compared to peptides derived from LF. In spite of this weak activity, the rhLF-N expressed in P. pastoris might be more advantageous for the industrial application, because rhLF-N is secreted into the culture medium and the production can also be increased by optimization of culture conditions.