• Title, Summary, Keyword: G-Rh2

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Effects of Ginsenosides $Rg_3$ and $Rh_2$ OH the Proliferation of Prostate Cancer Cells

  • Kim Hyun-Sook;Lee Eun-Hee;Ko Sung-Ryong;Choi Kang-Ju;Park Jong-Hee;Im Dong-Soon
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.429-435
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    • 2004
  • Ginseng has an anti-cancer effect in several cancer models. This study was to characterize active constituents of ginseng and their effects on proliferation of prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC3. Cell proliferation was measured by $[^3H]$thymidine incorporation, the intracellular calcium concentration by a dual-wavelength spectrophotometer system, effects on mite-gen-activated protein (MAP) kinases by Western blotting, and cell attachment and morphologic changes were observed under a microscope. Among 11 ginsenosides tested, ginsenosides $Rg_3\;and\;Rh_2$ inhibited the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. $EC_{50}s\;of\;Rg_3\;and\;Rh_2$ on PC3 cells were $8.4{\mu}M\;and\;5.5{\mu}M$, respectively, and $14.1{\mu}M\;and\;4.4{\mu}M$ on LNCaP cells, respectively. Both ginsenosides induced cell detachment and modulated three modules of MAP kinases activities differently in LNCaP and PC3 cells. These results suggest that ginsenosides $Rg_3\;and\;Rh_2$-induced cell detachment and inhibition of the proliferation of prostate cancer cells may be associated with modulation of three modules of MAP kinases.

Effect of Relative Humidity on Calcium Uptake of Tomato Plant (상대(相對) 습도(濕度)가 토마토의 Ca흡수(吸收)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Cho, Ill-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.178-183
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    • 1997
  • The effect of different relative humidity(RH) of atmosphere on the uptake of calcium by tomato plant was investigated through an experiment in the protected cultivation system. The RH regime was imposed by humidifiying by humidifier in one plot, and by mulching the ridge to cut down the evaporation of water to lower the RH, in another plot. During the course of plant growth, RH in the humidified plot, at noon, was about 70%, while in non-humidufied plot, RH was about 50%. The humidification also resulted in the lowering of temperature significantly(by about, $3.1^{\circ}C$). This higher RH of atmosphere under humidifying treatment, resulted in the increase in the water efflux rate of root significantly(greater by 0.24g/g dry root/h than that under mulching treatment). Relatively severe occurrence of blossom end rot(23%) was observed in the humidifying treatment, while no such symptom occurred in mulching plot. The efflux rates of Ca, K and Mg were found to be higher in the humidifying plot. It was also observed that the concentrations of Ca, Mg and K in the xylem solution was 2-4 times higher than that of gydroponic solution. This suggested that the occurrence of blossom end rot, under high RH of atmosphere, would not be due to the decrease in the uptake of Ca per se, by tomato plant, but due to anomalies in the distribution of it within the plant.

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Influence of Physical Property of Soft Film and Packaging Method on the Storage Stability of Individually Packaged Fresh Ginseng (연포장재 필름의 물성 및 포장방법이 개별포장한 수삼의 저장성에 미치는 영향)

  • 손현주;김은희;노길봉;정광식;김정한
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2001
  • The storage stability of fresh ginseng packaged individually in a soft film bag was more enhanced as the soft film with lower oxygen permeability was used, while the optimum water vapor permeability for enhancing the storage stability of fresh ginseng was estimated 3.5 g/m$^2$$.$day$.$90% RH when using the soft film with low oxygen permeability of 3.6∼5.4 cc/m$^2$$.$day$.$atm. The storage stability of the individually packaged fresh ginseng was also enhanced when the soft film bag was filled with carbon dioxide-oxygen-nitrogen (25:5:70) miked gas but the vacuum packaging exhibited little effect for the enhancement of storage stability of the fresh ginseng.

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Effect of GnRH or Estradiol on Emergence of a New Follicular Wave, Follicular Development and Pregnancy Rate in a CIDR-Based Timed Al Protocol in Holstein Cows

  • Kim, Ui-Hyung;Nam, Hyun-Wok;Kang, Hyun-Gu;Kim, Ill-Hwa
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Developmental Biology Conference
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    • pp.125-125
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    • 2003
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of GnRH or estradiol in a CIDR-based timed Al (TAI) protocol on follicular turnover, synchronized ovulation and pregnancy rates in Holstein cows. Cows were treated at random stages of the estrus cycle with an insertion of an intravigal progesterone (1.9 g) device (CIDR, Day 0) and either no other treatment (control group; n=10), injection of 100 ug fertirelin acetate (GnRH group; n=10) or 4 mg estradiol benzoate (estradiol group; n=10). Seven days later devices were removed and an injection of 25 mg $PGF_{2$\alpha$}$ was administered. On Day 9, 100 ug GnRH was administered. Cows received a fixed-time insemination 16 h after injection of the GnRH. (중략)

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Fabrication and Characterization of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Rhodamine Dyes (로다민 기반 염료감응형 태양전지의 제조 및 특성 분석)

  • Choi, Kang-Hoon;Jung, Hye-In;An, Byeong-Kwan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.731-736
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    • 2015
  • Rhodamine B (RhB) was utilized as a dye sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and its photovoltaic property was examined under the illumination of AM 1.5 G, $100mWcm^{-2}$. DSSCs based on RhB exhibited typical photovoltaic properties with an open-circuit voltage ($V_{OC}$) of 0.34 V, a short-circuit current ($J_{SC}$) of $1.55mA{\cdot}cm^{-2}$, a fill factor (FF) of 50%, and a conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.26%. In order to further improve the photovoltaic properties of RhB-based DSSCs, the effect of (i) incorporating a strong electron-donating NCS unit into the RhB molecular backbone, (ii) combining a bis-negatively charged zinc complex anion ($Zn-dmit_2$, dmit=di-mercapto-dithiol-thione) with the amine cation of RhB, (iii) co-adsorbing RhB dyes with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) molecules onto porous $TiO_2$ electrodes, was investigated and discussed.

Antioxidative Activity Against Oxidation of Human Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) by Bacillus sp. RH -5 Isolated from Marine Origin (해양에서 분리한 bacillus sp. RH-5에 의한 사람 Low Density Lipoprotein(LDL) 산화에 대한 항산화 활성)

  • 류병호;정진웅;김동석;박종옥
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.6-13
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidative activity on oxidaton of human low density lipoprotein from marine microorganisms. Bacillus sp. RH-5 producing antioxidative activity have been isolated and identified from coast sea in Pusan. Bacillus sp. RH-5 produced at highest level of antioxidative activity in the medium of 1.0% glucose, 0.25% polypepton, 0.25% yeast extract, 0.01% $FeSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ and 50% sea water. The optimal medium pH, cultural temperature and shaking time for the highest production as the antioxidant were 7.0, $30^{\circ}C$ and 48 hr, respectively. The culture broth inhibited the copper catalyzed oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) at the concentration of 500 and $1,000\;\mu\textrm{g}/ml$ ethylacetate extracts in the presence of $5\;\mu\textrm{M}\;CuSo_4$. The electrophoretic mobility of the LDL oxidized in the presense of $5\;\mu\textrm{M}\;CuSo_4$ was higher than that of native LDL.

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Direct Action of Genistein on the Hypothalamic Neuronal Circuits in Female Rats

  • Lee, Woo-Cheol;Lee, Sung-Ho
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2010
  • Mammalian reproduction is regulated by a feedback circuit of the key reproductive hormones such as GnRH, gonadotropin and sex steroids on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In particular, the onset of female puberty is triggered by gain of a pulsatile pattern and increment of GnRH secretion from hypothalamus. Previous studies including our own clearly demonstrated that genistein (GS), a phytoestrogenic isoflavone, altered the timing of puberty onset in female rats. However, the brain-specific actions of GS in female rats has not been explored yet. The present study was performed to examine the changes in the activities of GnRH neurons and their neural circuits by GS in female rats. Concerning the drug delivery route, intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection technique was employed to eliminate the unwanted actions on the extrabrain tissues which can be occurred if the testing drug is systemically administered. Adult female rats (PND 100, 210-230 g BW) were anaesthetized, treated with single dose of GS ($3.4{\mu}g$/animal), and sacrificed at 3 hrs post-injection. To determine the transcriptional changes of reproductive hormone-related genes in hypothalamus, total RNAs were extracted and applied to the semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ICV infusion of GS significantly raised the transcriptional activities of enhanced at puberty1 (EAP-1, p<0.05), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67, p<0.01) which are known to modulate GnRH secretion in the hypothalamus. However, GS infusion could not change the mRNA level of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2). GS administration significantly increased the mRNA levels of KiSS-1 (p<0.001), GPR54 (p<0.001), and GnRH (p<0.01) in the hypothalami, but decreased the mRNA levels of LH-$\beta$ (p<0.01) and FSH-$\beta$ (p<0.05) in the pituitaries. Taken together, the present study indicated that the acute exposure to GS could directly activate the hypothalamic GnRH modulating system, suggesting the GS's disrupting effects such as the early onset of puberty in immature female rats might be derived from premature activation of key reproduction related genes in hypothalamus-pituitary neuroendocrine circuit.

Concentration-dependent in vitro Anti-osteoarthritis Effects of Mixed Formula - Pomegranate Concentrate Powder: Eucommiae Cortex: Achyranthis Radix 5:4:1 (g/g) on the Primary Cultured Rat Articular Chondrocytes

  • Choi, Beom Rak;Ku, Sae Kwang;Kang, Su Jin;Park, Hye Rim;Sung, Mi Sun;Lee, Young Joon;Park, Ki Moon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.131-140
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    • 2019
  • The objective of present study is to evaluate concentration-dependent in vitro anti-osteoarthritic (OA) effects of synergic mixed formula consisted of dried pomegranate juice concentrate powder, Eucommiae Cortex aqueous extract and Achyranthis Radix aqueous extract 5:4:1 (g/g) mixture on the primary cultured rat articular chondrocytes. First, any cytotoxic effect of mixture was observed using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide) assay. Next, cyto-protective effect of test substances was evaluated by using the recombinant human interleukin $(rhIL)-1{\alpha}$ induced chondrocytes. In addition, anti-inflammatory effects were also observed on the lipopolysaccaride (LPS) treated chondrocytes through prostaglandin $E_2(PGE_2)$ productions and 5-lipoxygenase (LPO) activities, and inhibitory effects on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities were observed on $rhIL-1{\alpha}$ treated chondrocytes with their extracellular matrix (ECM) related mRNA expressions. No obvious cytotoxic effects of mixture were demonstrated. Inflammatory damages of chondrocytes and related ECM degradations induced by treatment of LPS or $rhIL-1{\alpha}$ were significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited by pretreatment of mixture from a concentration level of 0.001 mg/ml to 1 mg/ml. In addition, mixture showed $IC_{50}$ for $rhIL-1{\alpha}-induced$ MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as 44.01 and $162.47{\mu}g/ml$, and also showed $EC_{50}$ for $rhIL-1{\alpha}-induced$ inhibition of collagen type II, SOX9 and aggrecan mRNA expression as 8.61, 10.79 and $4.47{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. It is observed that mixture showed concentration-dependent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective ECM preserved effects on the primary cultured rat articular chondrocytes without cytotoxicity.

광전기촉매 공정과 전기/UV 공정을 이용한 염료의 색 제거

  • Park, Yeong-Sik;Kim, Dong-Seok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference
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    • pp.452-457
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    • 2008
  • 분말 TiO$_2$를 코팅한 전극은 전기저항으로 인해 0.5 A 이상의 전류를 인가할 수 없었으며, 1 A를 적용하였을 때 60분의 반응시간 후 최종 RhB 농도를 측정한 결과 Ru/Ti 전극의 RhB 농도 감소 가장 큰 것으로 나타났고, Ru/Ti > Ti > SG-TiO$_2$ > Th-TiO$_2$로 나타났다. 전기분해 공정만 적용한 경우 RhB 농도 감소의 순서는 Ru/Ti = Ti > SG-TiO$_2$ > Th-TiO$_2$ 전극의 순서로 나타났다. UV만 적용한 경우 RhB 제거는 작았으며, Ti와 Ru/Ti 전극은 UV만 적용한 경우와 RhB 제거농도가 비슷하였는데 이는 전극 표면에서 광촉매 반응이 일어나지 않는다는 것을 의미한다. 반면 TiO$_2$를 전극 표면에 형성하거나 코팅한 전극은 UV만 적용한 경우보다 RhB 농도가 낮게 나타났고, TiO$_2$가 형성되거나 코팅된 전극은 P-TiO$_2$ > Th-TiO$_2$ > SG-TiO$_2$의 순서로 나타났으나 차이는 크지 않았다. 광전기촉매 공정에서 시너지 효과가 거의 없는 것은 전극 표면에 코팅되거나 형성된 TiO$_2$의 양이 적고 광촉매 반응에 의한 분해 정도가 낮아 전자-정공의 재결합 감소효과가 적기 때문인 것으로 사료되었다. Th-TiO$_2$와 SG-TiO$_2$ 전극의 경우 전해질로 Na$_2$SO$_4$를 사용한 경우의 RhB 농도가 NaCl을 사용한 경우보다 RhB 낮게 나타났으나, Ti와 Ru/Ti 전극의 경우는 반대 현상이 나타났다. 이와 같은 결과는 광촉매 반응이 높은 Th-TiO$_2$와 SG-TiO$_2$ 전극에서의 Cl$^-$의 광촉매 반응 저해현상이 높게 나타났기 때문이라고 사료되었다. 반면 DSA 전극인 Ti와 Ru/Ti 전극의 경우 광촉매 반응이 거의 나타나지 않기 때문에 주반응인 전기분해 반응에서의 촉진 반응이 지배적이기 때문에 Th-TiO$_2$와 SG-TiO$_2$ 전극과는 정 반대의 현상이 나타났다고 사료되었다. 전기/UV 공정에서는 최적 전류는 0.75 A, NaCl 투입량은 0.5 g/L로 나타났으며, 최적 UV램프 전력은 16 W인 것으로 나타났다.

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General Pharmacology of G(7-rhEPO\ulcorner a New Recombinant Ruman Erythropoietin (유전자 재조합 사람 erythropoietin, GC-rhEPO의 일반약리작용)

  • 한성규;김선돈;정원휘;이호성;김성남;백대현;허재욱;성연희;류판동
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.184-193
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    • 2000
  • To evaluate GC-rhEPO, human erythropoietin produced by recombinant DNA technique, its general pharmacological properties were investigated in experimental animals administering intravenously and in vitro test system. GC-rhEPO at doses of 70,700 and 7,000 IU/kg body weight had no influence on general behavior, spontaneous motor activity, thiopental-inducted sleeping time, writhing syndrome induced by acetic acid, strychnine-induced convulsions, charchoal meal propulsion in mice, and body temperature, gastric juice secretion, urine and electrolyte excretion in rats. In anesthetized rabbits, GC-rhEPO (70, 700 and 7,000 lU/kg, i.v.) did not alter respiratory rate, blood pressure, heat rate. In in vitro experiments, GC-rhEPO did not affect the contractions of the isolated ileum of guinea pigs and the muscle twitchs of isolated neuromuscular junction of the rats. In addition, GC-rhEPO did not affect the blood coagulation time and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in plasma of rabbits. Taken together, these results indicate that GC-rhEPO does not induce any adverse effects in the experimental animals.

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