• Title, Summary, Keyword: G-Rh2

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Disinfection of Penicillium-infected Wheat Seed by Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide

  • Jeon, Young-ah;Lee, Ho-sun;Lee, Young-yi;Lee, Sokyoung;Sung, Jung-sook
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.45-49
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    • 2015
  • Seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Olgeurumil) were infected with Penicillium sp. at mean infection rate of 83%. Penicillium sp. was detected in endosperm with bran but not in embryo. Gaseous chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$) effectively inhibited growth of Penicillium sp. at concentration of 5 to $20{\mu}g/ml$. As treatment duration was extended from 1 to 3 h, growth of Penicillium sp. was completely suppressed even at $10{\mu}g/ml$. There was no significant reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. at 30% relative humidity (RH). However, the incidence of Penicillium sp. was 27.7% at 50% RH, further those were 3.5% and 0.2% at 70% and 80% RH, respectively. Seed germination was not affected by $ClO_2$ treatment at all the RH conditions. Water-soaked seeds (30% seed moisture content) showed a drastic reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. when treated at more than $10{\mu}g/ml$ of $ClO_2$. The incidences of Penicillium sp. were 3.3, 1.8 and 1.2% at 10, 15 and $20{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. The incidence of Penicillium sp. in dry seeds with 9.7% seed moisture content did not reduce when treated with 5 and $10{\mu}g/ml$ at 50% RH although it tended to decrease as $ClO_2$ concentration increased to $20{\mu}g/ml$. Seed germination was not affected by $ClO_2$ treatment at the tested concentrations. These results indicated that gaseous $ClO_2$ was effective disinfectant to wheat seeds infected with Penicillium sp. and that the effectiveness of $ClO_2$ strongly increased when moisture content around or inside of the seed was increased.

항암화학요법후 골수억제가 수반된 진행암환자에서 rh GM-CSF(LBD-005)의 제1b 상 및 약동태학 연구

  • 라선영;이경희;이혜란;최진혁;정현철;노형근;김범수;노재경;한지숙
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.314-314
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    • 1994
  • 대상환자는 15예로, 14예에서 평가 가능하였으며 남녀비는 8:6, 중앙연령 32세(10-70세) 이었고, 대상질환은 악성골옥종 7예, 악성임파종 2예, 위암 2예, 폐암 2예, 그리고 자궁평활근육종 1예였다. rhGM-CSF 50 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m^2$ 3예, 100 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m^2$ 3예, 150 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m^2$ 3예, 250 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m^2$ 3예, 350 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m^2$ 3예, 500 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m^2$ 6예, 700 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m^2$ 용량 3예에서 시행되었다. 1주기 시행한 환자는 7예, 2주기 5예, 3주기, 4주기 각각 1예씩 있다. 부작용은 50-150 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m^2$에서 WHO grade I의 발열, 전신쇠약, 식용부진등이 관찰되었으나 grade II이상의 부작용은 없었다. 250 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m^2$이상의 용량에서도 grade II의 발열이 관찰되었을 뿐 다른 중증의 부작용은 관찰되지 않았다. 최고용량인 700 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m^2$ 에서도 grade II의 발열외의 중한 부작용은 관찰되지 않았다. 각 용량에 따른 백혈구 증가율(%투여제2일/투여제1일)은 130-500% 이었다. rhGM-CSF는 투여 2-4 시간후 혈중최고치 (0.42-15.4 ng/ml)가 관찰되었으며 투여 12시간까지 0.2-2 ng/ml 의 농도가 지속되었다. 소변내 rh GM-CSF 배설량은 총투여량의 1% 미만이었다.

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Formation of Oxidants and Removal of Dye Rhodamine B using PbO2 Electrode (PbO2 전극을 이용한 산화제 생성과 염료 Rhodaime B 제거)

  • Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.194-199
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    • 2011
  • This study has been carried out to evaluate the performance of $PbO_2$ electrode for the purpose of degradation of N,N-Dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (RNO, indicator of OH radical), generation of ozone and decolorization of Rhodamine B (RhB) in water. The effect of the applied current (0.2~1.2 A), electrolyte type (NaCl, KCl and $Na_2SO_4$), electrolyte concentration (0.0~2.5 g/L) and solution pH (3~11) were evaluated. Experimental results showed that RhB and RNO removal were increased with the increase of current, NaCl dosage and decrease of pH. Ozone generation tendencies appeared with the almost similar to the RhB and RNO degradation, except of solution pH (Ozone generation was increased with increase of pH). Optimum current for RhB degradation and consumption of electric power was 1.0 A. The RhB degradation with Cl type electrolyte were higher than that with the sulfate type. Optimum NaCl dosage for RhB degradation was 1.0 g/L.

Removal of Rhodamine B using Electrocoagulation Process (전기응집 공정을 이용한 Rhodamine B의 제거)

  • Kim, Dong-Seog;Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.1081-1088
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    • 2009
  • The performance of a electrocoagulation (EC) process was examined for the removal of Rhodamine B (RhB) using iron electrode. The effects of operational parameters such as electrode material (aluminum and iron), current density, NaCl dosage, intial pH and initial dye concentration on RhB removal efficiency were investigated. The optimum range for each of these operating variables were experimentally determined. The experimental results showed that the iron is superior to aluminum as sacrificial electrode material. The optimum time of electrolysis, current density, NaCl dosage and pH were 10 min, 1630 A/$m^2$, 4 g/L and neutral pH, respectively. Under these conditions, RhB was effectively removed (> 93.4%) and also more than 80% of COD was removed (> 88.9%) when the initial concentration of RhB was 230 mg/L. The electrical energy consumption in the above conditions for the color and COD of RhB removal were 10.3 and 10.8 kWh/kg RhB, respectively. The electrocoagulation process could be a promising technology to treat dye wastewater containing RhB.

Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Apoptosis via Activation of Caspase-1 and -3 and Up-Regulation of Bax in Human Neuroblastoma

  • Kim, Young-Soak;Jin, Sung-Ha
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.834-839
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    • 2004
  • In human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2) cells undergoing apoptotic death induced by ginsenos-ide Rh2, a dammarane glycoside that was isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, caspase-1 and caspase-3 were activated. The expression of Bax was increased in the cells treated with ginsenoside Rh2, whereas Bcl-2 expression was not altered. Treatment with caspase-1 inhibi-tor, Ac-YVAD-CMK, or caspase-3 inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK, partially inhibited ginsenoside Rh2-induced cell death but almost suppressed the cleavage of the 116 kDa PARP into a 85 kDa fragment. When the levels of p53 were examined in this process, p53 accumulated rapidly in the cells treated early with ginsenoside Rh2. These results suggest that activation of caspase-1 and -3 and the up-regulation of Bax are required in order for apoptotic death of SK-N-BE(2) cells to be induced by ginsenoside Rh2, and p53 plays an important role in the pathways to promote apoptosis.

Fertility and Reproductive & Developmental Toxicity Study on Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor (rhEGF, DWP401) in Rats (재조합 인간상피세포 성장인자(rhEGF, DWP401)가 랫드의 수태능, 태자와 신생자 발달 및 모체기능에 미치는 영향)

  • 박귀례;한순영;신재호;이유미;김판기
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.190-204
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate for its effects on reproductive and developmental toxicity of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were administered rhEGF at doses of 1, 10, 100, and 1000$\mu$g/kg/day, respective1y, by subcutaneous injection from 63 days before and throughout to mating period until the day before sacrifice. Female rats were administered rhEGF at the same doses from 14 days before mating to day 20 of gestation or to day 21 of lactation. We examined the male and female fertility indices and maternal toxicity of F0 parental animals. Also, we examined the external, visceral, or skeletal malformation of fetuses, growth and development, behavior, and/or reproductive performance of F1 animals. At the highest dose (1,000 $\mu$g/kg), the mean body weights of F0 animals were significantly increased in males and females at 3 or 2 weeks after treatment, respective1y. No clinical signs and food intakes were observed at any time during the experimental period by rhEGF treatment. In autopsy examination, the relative and absolute liver weights significantly increased in both sexes of 1,000 $\mu$g/kg. At the highest dose (1,000 $\mu$g/kg), there was a statistically significant increase of pregnancy period and the number of dead fetuses. Moreover, significant increase of mean fetal body weight and decrease of number of live fetuses, which related to the difficult dilivery were observed in highest dose group. In Fl examination, no adverse effects on external, visceral, and skeletal malformation, physical and functional development, behavior or reproductive ability of Fl animals were observed in any group. Also, there was no significant difference between control and treated groups in copulation or fertility indices of Fl animals. These results indicate that rhEGF had no adverse effect on fertility and reproductive ability of Sprague-Dawley rats.

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Cellular Response of Anodized Titanium Surface by Poly(Lactide-co-Glycolide)/Bone Morphogenic Protein-2

  • Lee, Su-Young;Koak, Jai-Young;Kim, Seong-Kyun;Heo, Seong-Joo
    • Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.591-599
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to examine physical characteristics of and initial biological properties to anodized titanium treated with poly($\text\tiny{D,L}$-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) mixed with recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). METHODS: Titanium specimens were prepared in groups of four as follows: group NC was anodized under 300 V as control; group PC was anodized then dropped and dried with solution 0.02 ml PLG; group D was anodized then dropped and dried with solution 0.02 ml PLG/rhBMP-2 ($3.75{\mu}g$ per disc); and group E was anodized then coated with 0.02 ml PLG/rhBMP-2 ($3.75{\mu}g$ per disc) by electrospray. Human osteoblastic-like sarcoma cells were cultured. Cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity test were carried out. Runx-2 gene was investigated by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Immunofluorescence outcome of osteogenic proteins was observed. RESULTS: After 3 days, there were significantly higher proliferations compared rhBMP-2 loaded titanium discs with rhBMP-2 unloaded discs. The ALPase activity on rhBMP-2 loaded titanium discs was significantly higher than in rhBMP-2 unloaded discs. The expression level of Runx2 mRNA presented the highest on the PLG/rhBMP-2-coated surface. CONCLUSION: PLG polymers mixed with rhBMP-2 might improve proliferation, differentiation and osteogenic protein formation of cells on the anodized titanium.

Mutagenicity Study of DA-3030, A New Recombinant Human G-CSF(rhG-CSF) (새로운 재조합 인 과립구 콜로니 자극인자 DA-3030의 변이원성연구)

  • 강경구;최성학;김옥진;안병옥;백남기;김계원;김원배;양중익
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.286-291
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    • 1994
  • The mutagenicity of DA-3030(rhG-CSF)was studied by reverse mutation test, chromosome aberration test and micronucleus test. The reverse mutatuon test in bacteria was performed using salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, TA98, TA1535 and TA1537 with rhG-CSF in any of the concentrations(150, 75, 37.5, 18.75, 9.375 and 4,6875 $\mu\textrm{g}$/plate), no increase in the number of revertant colonies in each strain was observed, irrespective of treatment with the metabolic activation system(S-9 mix) The chromosome aberration test was carried out using CHL cells, cell line from chinese hamster lung. With 4 doses(75, 37.5, 18.75 and 9.375 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml) of rhG-/CSF the cells were treated for 24 or 48 hours in the direct method or for 6 hours followed by 18 hour-expression time in the metabolic activation method. Results of the study showed, by the direct method or metabolic activation method, no trend toward increase in the number of aberrant metaphase. The micronucleus test was carried out using ICR mice at the age of 8 weeks. Three doses(862.5, 1725 and 3450 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg) of DA-3030 were admintstered intraperitoneally with single shot and bone marrow cells were sampled at 24 hours after administration. Neither the number of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei nor the ratio of normochromatic erythrocytes to polychromatic erythrocytes increased singinficantly in each dose, compared with a vehicle control. These results indicate that rhG-CSF has not mutagenic potential under the condiions.

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Effects of human growth hormone on gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in mice

  • Bhattarai, Janardhan P.;Kim, Shin-Hye;Han, Seong-Kyu;Park, Mi-Jung
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.9
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    • pp.845-851
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been widely used to treat short stature. However, there are some concerns that growth hormone treatment may induce skeletal maturation and early onset of puberty. In this study, we investigated whether rhGH can directly affect the neuronal activities of of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Methods: We performed brain slice gramicidin-perforated current clamp recording to examine the direct membrane effects of rhGH on GnRH neurons, and a whole-cell voltage-clamp recording to examine the effects of rhGH on spontaneous postsynaptic events and holding currents in immature (postnatal days 13-21) and adult (postnatal days 42-73) mice. Results: In immature mice, all 5 GnRH neurons recorded in gramicidin-perforated current clamp mode showed no membrane potential changes on application of rhGH (0.4, $1{\mu}g/mL$). In adult GnRH neurons, 7 (78%) of 9 neurons tested showed no response to rhGH ($0.2-1{\mu}g/mL$) and 2 neurons showed slight depolarization. In 9 (90%) of 10 immature neurons tested, rhGH did not induce any membrane holding current changes or spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs). There was no change in sPSCs and holding current in 4 of 5 adult GnRH neurons. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that rhGH does not directly affect the GnRH neuronal activities in our experimental model.

Distribution Characteristics of Platinum Group Elements in Roadside Dust from Daejeon, Korea (대전 도로변 먼지내 Platinum Group Elements의 분포 특성)

  • Lim, Jong-Myoung;Jeong, Jin-Hee;Lee, Jin-Hong
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.405-416
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    • 2018
  • In this research, the distribution of Platinum Group Elements (PGEs) at roadside dust in Daejeon, Korea was examined using an ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) technique. For the quality assurance of the determination, method validation based on its accuracy and precision was conducted using SRM (Standard Reference Material). It was found that the relative errors of Pt, Pd, and Rh against each SRM value were -0.7%, -10.0%, and -20.4%, respectively, while relative standard deviations for three elements were less than 10%. The concentrations of Pt, Pd and Rh in roadside dust averaged as $17.4{\pm}9.2{\mu}g/kg$, $283.6{\pm}20.5{\mu}g/kg$, and $7.3{\pm}2.8{\mu}g/kg$, respectively. The concentrations of Pt and Rh have significantly higher distribution patterns in the dust at roadside and underground parking lot than those in soil of the background or other urban area. The correlation analysis between concentrations of PGEs in roadside dust indicates that the distribution of Pt and Rh concentration were strongly affected by automobile sources.