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Review of Anti-Leukemia Effects from Medicinal Plants (항 백혈병작용에 관련된 천연물의 자료조사)

  • Pae Hyun Ock;Lim Chang Kyung;Jang Seon Il;Han Dong Min;An Won Gun;Yoon Yoo Sik;Chon Byung Hun;Kim Won Sin;Yun Young Gab
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.605-610
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    • 2003
  • According to the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, leukemia is a malignant disease (cancer) that originates in a cell in the marrow. It is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of developing marrow cells. There are two major classifications of leukemia: myelogenous or lymphocytic, which can each be acute or chronic. The terms myelogenous or lymphocytic denote the cell type involved. Thus, four major types of leukemia are: acute or chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute or chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma are considered to be related cancers because they involve the uncontrolled growth of cells with similar functions and origins. The diseases result from an acquired (not inherited) genetic injury to the DNA of a single cell, which becomes abnormal (malignant) and multiplies continuously. In the United States, about 2,000 children and 27,000 adults are diagnosed each year with leukemia. Treatment for cancer may include one or more of the following: chemotherapy, radiation therapy, biological therapy, surgery and bone marrow transplantation. The most effective treatment for leukemia is chemotherapy, which may involve one or a combination of anticancer drugs that destroy cancer cells. Specific types of leukemia are sometimes treated with radiation therapy or biological therapy. Common side effects of most chemotherapy drugs include hair loss, nausea and vomiting, decreased blood counts and infections. Each type of leukemia is sensitive to different combinations of chemotherapy. Medications and length of treatment vary from person to person. Treatment time is usually from one to two years. During this time, your care is managed on an outpatient basis at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center or through your local doctor. Once your protocol is determined, you will receive more specific information about the drug(s) that Will be used to treat your leukemia. There are many factors that will determine the course of treatment, including age, general health, the specific type of leukemia, and also whether there has been previous treatment. there is considerable interest among basic and clinical researchers in novel drugs with activity against leukemia. the vast history of experience of traditional oriental medicine with medicinal plants may facilitate the identification of novel anti leukemic compounds. In the present investigation, we studied 31 kinds of anti leukemic medicinal plants, which its pharmacological action was already reported through many experimental articles and oriental medical book: 『pharmacological action and application of anticancer traditional chinese medicine』 In summary: Used leukemia cellline are HL60, HL-60, Jurkat, Molt-4 of human, and P388, L-1210, L615, L-210, EL-4 of mouse. 31 kinds of anti leukemic medicinal plants are Panax ginseng C.A Mey; Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc; Daphne genkwa Sieb. et Zucc; Aloe ferox Mill; Phorboc diester; Tripterygium wilfordii Hook .f.; Lycoris radiata (L Her)Herb; Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz; Lilium brownii F.E. Brown Var; Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.; Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels; Asparagus cochinensis (Lour. )Merr; Isatis tinctoria L.; Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet; Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.; Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim; Dioscorea opposita Thumb; Schisandra chinensis (Rurcz. )Baill.; Auium Sativum L; Isatis tinctoria, L; Ligustisum Chvanxiong Hort; Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch; Euphorbia Kansui Liou; Polygala tenuifolia Willd; Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth; Chelidonium majus L; Rumax madaeo Mak; Sophora Subprostmousea Chunet T.ehen; Strychnos mux-vomical; Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr.et Maxim.)Harms; Rubia cordifolia L. Anti leukemic compounds, which were isolated from medicinal plants are ginsenoside Ro, ginsenoside Rh2, Emodin, Yuanhuacine, Aleemodin, phorbocdiester, Triptolide, Homolycorine, Atractylol, Colchicnamile, Paeonol, Aspargus polysaccharide A.B.C.D, Indirubin, Leonunrine, Acinosohic acid, Trichosanthin, Ge 132, Schizandrin, allicin, Indirubin, cmdiumlactone chuanxiongol, 18A glycyrrhetic acid, Kansuiphorin A 13 oxyingenol Kansuiphorin B. These investigation suggest that it may be very useful for developing more effective anti leukemic new dregs from medicinal plants.

Superovulatory Response to 200 mg FSH Level and Production In Vivo Embryos in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo) (200 mg FSH 투여에 의한 한우의 과배란 유도 및 체내 수정란 생산)

  • Park, Joung-Jun;Yoo, Han-Jun;Kim, Ki-Won;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Park, Choon-Keun;Hong, Seong-Koo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to investigate the FSH levels for superovulation procedure in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo). The effectiveness of 200 mg and 400 mg of FSH to initiate superovulation was examined in Hanwoo. Donors, at random stages of the estrous cycle, received a CIDR 7 days later, 200 mg FSH group was treated with 40, 30, 20, 10 mg FSH levels in declining doses twice daily by intramuscular injection fur 4 days. Also, 400 mg FSH group was treated with 80, 60, 40, 20 mg FSH levels. On the 3rd day administration of FSH, 25 mg $PGF_2$ ${\alpha}$ was administered and CIDR was withdrawn. Donors were artificially inseminated twice at 12 hr intervals. The donor cattle received 250 ${\mu}g$ GnRH at time of 1st insemination and embryos were recovered 8 days after the 1st insemination. As a results, average number of CL treated with FSH 200 mg was higher as $20.9{\pm}1.20$ than $15.8{\pm}0.63$ for donors treated with FSH 400 mg, respectively(p<0.05). Treated group of 200 mg FSH level increased (p<0.05) the number of embryos recovered per procedure compared to 400 mg FSH level ($18.2{\pm}1.18$ vs. $12.38{\pm}0.52$, respectively). When treatment of 200 mg FSH was performed, average transferable embryos/ova increased (p<0.05) to $14.1{\pm}1.12$ from $6.8{\pm}0.33$ of treated of 400 mg FSH. Group of 200 mg FSH increased (p<0.05) to $8.3{\pm}0.76$ from $2.0{\pm}0.26$ in morula stage compare to 400 mg FSH group. Mean of total early blastocyst and expanded blastocyst stage embryos was similar (p<0.05) between the 200 mg and 400 mg FSH levels group ($4.7{\pm}1.19$ vs. $2.9{\pm}0.18$ and $1.2{\pm}0.40$ vs. $1.9{\pm}0.17$). These results suggest that 200 mg FSH level-based superovulation protocol with CIDR may be effectively used fur production of superior embryos in Hanwoo. In other words, the less level of FSH may be effectively applied for Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle), because Hanwoo was smaller body size than beef or daily cow.

Relationship between Superovulation Treatment and Blood Urea Nitrogen(BUN) Concentration in Hanwoo Donors (한우 공란우 과배란 처리와 혈액 내 요소태 질소 수준과의 관계)

  • Son, Jun-Kyu;Choe, Chang-Yong;Cho, Sang-Rae;Yeon, Seong-Heum;Choi, Sun-Ho;Kim, Nam-Tae;Jung, Jin-Woo;Kim, Sung-Jae;Jung, Yeon-Sub;Bok, Nan-Hee;You, Yong-Hee;Son, Dong-Soo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was investigate the superovulation treatment and to relate concentrations of blood urea nitrogen(BUN) in Hanwoo donors. Thirty six, at random stages of the estrous cycle, received a CIDR. Four days later, the animals were superovulated with a total of 28AU FSH (Antorin, 2AU=1 ml) administered twice daily in constant doses over 4 days. On the 3th administration of FSH, CIDR was withdrawn and 25 mg $PGF_2a$ was administered. Cows were artificially inseminated twice after estrous detection at 12 hr intervals. The cows received $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH at the time of 1st insemination. Embryos were recovered 7 or 8 days after the 1st insemination. Cows with BUN <10, 11~18 and ${\geq}$19 mg/dl had return of estrus of 34.6, 30.5 and 30.4 days respectively. Return of estrus after superovulation treatment was not significantly lower for cows with blood urea nitrogen (BUN) above 10 mg/dl than for cows with BUN below 10 mg/dl. Cows with BUN <10, 11~18 and ${\geq}$19 mg/dl had number of transferable embryos of $3.2{\pm}1.2$, $5.4{\pm}1.9$ and $4.1{\pm}2.1$ respectively.

Relationship between Transferable Embryos and Blood Urea Nitrogen, Glucose and Total Cholesterol Concentration in Hanwoo Donors (한우 공란우 이식기능 수정란수와 혈액내 요소태질소, 포도당 및 총콜레스테롤 수준과의 관계)

  • Son, Jun-Kyu;Choe, Chang-Yong;Cho, Sang-Rae;Lim, Hyun-Joo;Park, Seong-Jai;Baek, Kwang-Soo;Kim, Sang-Bum;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Jung, Yeon-Sub;Bok, Nan-Hee;Son, Dong-Soo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.335-339
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between concentration of urea nitrogen, glucose, cholesterol and number of transferable embryos for the purpose of improving reproductive performance in blood of Hanwoo donors. Fifty five, at random stages of the estrous cycle, received a CIDR. Four days later the animals were superovulated with a total of 28AU FSH (Antorin, 2AU=1 ml) administered twice daily in constant doses over 4 days. On the 3th administration of FSH, CIDR was withdrawn and 25 mg $PGF_2$ ${\alpha}$ was administered. Cows were artificially inseminated twice after estrous detection at 12 hr intervals. The cows received 100 ${\mu}g$ GnRH at the time of 1nd insemination. Embryos were recovered 7 or 8 days after the 1st insemination. Cows with BUN < 10, 11~18 and ${\geq}$19 mg/dl had number of transferable embryos of $4.32{\pm}1.3$, $5.8{\pm}1.8$ and $4.7{\pm}2.1$ respectively. The mean numbers of total ova from < 10 and 10${\leq}$ of corpora lutea(CL) was 8.9 and 14.3, respectively. The number of transferable embryos differed between < 10${\leq}$ CL was 4.8 and 5.6, respectively.

Resumption of Ovarian Cyclicity after Superovulation Treatment to Donor Cow in Hanwoo (한우 공란우 과배란 처리 후 난소 주기 재개에 관한 연구)

  • Son, Jun-Kyu;Choe, Chang-Yong;Cho, Sang-Rae;Yeon, Seong-Heum;Choi, Sun-Ho;Kim, Nam-Tae;Jung, Jin-Woo;Kim, Sung-Jae;Jung, Yeon-Sub;Bok, Nan-Hee;You, Yong-Hee;Son, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.149-154
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of abnormal ovarian cycles after superovulation treatment of Hanwoo donors. Thirty six, at random stages of the estrous cycle, received a CIDR. Four days later, the animals were superovulated with a total of 28AU FSH (Antorin, 2AU=1 ml) administered twice daily in constant doses over 4 days. On the 3th administration of FSH, CIDR was withdrawn and 25 mg $PGF_2{\alpha}$ was administered. Cows were artificially inseminated twice after estrous detection at 12 hr intervals. The cows received $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH at the time of Ind insemination. Embryos were recovered 7 or 8 days after the 1st insemination. The cows were considered to have resumed ovarian cyclicity on the day of ovulation if followed by regular ovarian cycles. 50.0 percentage of the cows (18/36) had normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity (resumption within 40 days after superovulation), and 50.0% (18/36) had delayed resumption(resumption did not occur until>40 days after superovulation). Delayed resumption Type II (first ovulation did not occur until $\geq$ 40 days after superovulation, i.e. delayed first ovulation 33.3%) were the most common types of delayed resumptions. The mean numbers of total ova from < 10 and 10$\leq$ of corpora lutea (CL) was 7.3 and 13.9, respectively. The number of transferable embryos differed between < 10 and 10$\leq$ CL was 4.2 and 5.1, respectively. 11.1 percentage of the cows (4/36) did not resumption their ovarian cyclicity until 60 days after superovulation treatment.

Effects of Fructus Amomi Amari, Eucommiae Cortex, Bombyx Batryticatus Extract on Improving Symptoms of Late-onset Hypogonadism (익지인(益智仁), 두충(杜沖), 백강잠(白殭蠶) 혼합추출물이 남성갱년기 증상 개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Sun Young;Ahn, Sang Hyun;Kim, Ho Hyun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.89-101
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    • 2019
  • In recent times, the number of men with late-onset hypogonadism has increased, and interest on this topic has also increased. This study was conducted to investigate effects of the mixture extract of Fructus amomi Amari, Eucommiae cortex, Bombyx batryticatus on improve late-onset hypogonadism. The experimental subjects consisted of three groups: a control group consisting of 8-week-old male ICR mice that had undergone no treatment, an aging-elicited group (AE group) consisting of 50-week-old ICR male mice that had undergone no treatment, and a Mixed herbal extract treatment group (MT group) consisting of 50-week-old ICR male mice that had undergone the mixture extract of Fructus amomi Amari, Eucommiae cortex, Bombyx batryticatus treatment (0.1 g/kg/day) for 6 months. After the experiment, the mice from all the experimental groups were dissected, and they were analyzed through histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The mixture extract of Fructus amomi Amari, Eucommiae cortex, Bombyx batryticatus reduces aging-induced cell damage and oxidative stress and increases the secretion of serotonin and B-endorphin in aged mice, and promotes spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubules and reduces apoptosis and oxidative stress, and increases androgen receptor, $17{\beta}-HSD$ and GnRH, increases the ratio of smooth muscle to collagen fibers in the corpus cavernosum, increases eNOS, decreases PDE-5 and oxidative stress in aged mice, so it improves depression, reproductive, sexual problems caused by Late-onset hypogonadism. the mixture extract of Fructus amomi Amari, Eucommiae cortex, Bombyx batryticatus inhibits the induction of osteoporosis by increasing decreased bone matrix distribution due to aging, increasing the activities of OPC and OPN, which are produced in osteoblasts, and decreasing RANKL, MMP-3 activity, increasing OPG activity. It also reduces muscle damage, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis of muscle tissue, and increases Myo-D in the sartorius muscle of aged mice for improving muscle atrophy caused by by Late-onset hypogonadism.

Effects of Seed Size and Several Factors on Ultra-drying and Germination of Ultra-dried Seeds in Soybean

  • Lee, Yeong-Ho;Chang, Ching-huan
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.305-309
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    • 2000
  • Ultra-drying [<5.0% seed moisture content (SMC)] storage technique is a cost-effective storage method for oily seeds. To decide proper ultra-drying condition for soybean seeds, drying rate was compared three silica gel to seed ratios, two seed sizes with varietal difference, two kinds of container, and three seed amounts per container under :t 23$\pm$1$^{\circ}C$. When the relative humidity (RH) was reduced at the rate of less than 0.1 % a day, silica gel was replaced with dry one by 47 days. Higher silica gel to seed ratios (3:1 and 2:1) dried faster than lower ratio (1:1) until 28 days, but not after 43 days of drying. Also, large seeded variety was dried faster than small seeded variety. Kinds of container and seed amounts per container didn't show differences in drying of soybean seeds. After completion of ultra-drying, percentage germination by standard germination test (SGT) was not different among silica gel to seed ratios, kinds of container, and seed amounts per container, except among seed sizes (varieties). Before SGT, soybean seeds were premoistened using saturated ${CaCl}_2$ for 48 hours and ${NH}_4$Cl for 24 hours in desiccators. To compare germinability between ordinary-dried seeds and ultra-dried seeds, the seeds of seven soybean varieties, which were varying in size from 8.1 to 34.9 g per 100 seeds, were dried using same amount of silica gel under 23$\pm$1$^{\circ}C$. After completion of 76 days of drying, SMCs were reduced to 3.13-3.45% from 7.86-8.82%. SMC after completion of drying was not correlated with 100-seed weight (r=0.556). Before germination tests, soybean seeds were premoistened using saturated salt solutions. Percentage germination was higher with ultra-dried seeds than ordinary-dried seeds in SGT and higher with ordinary-dried seeds than ultra-dried seeds in AAT at the beginning of storage and after 6 months storage, but general trend of percentage germination was not observed among varieties classified by 100-seed weight. From these results, we concluded that further studies are needed to improve ultra-drying storage method for soybean seeds.

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Quality Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Ginseng Stored for Long Periods (장기저장 홍삼의 품질안정성과 항산화효과)

  • Choi K.J.;Lee K.S.;Ko S.R.;Jang J.G.;Park J.D.;Kim M.W;Sung H.S
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.99-107
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    • 1988
  • Samples of red ginseng. which had been manufactured and packaged by the Korea Monopoly Corporation. were stored at ambient temperatures $(12-28^{\circ}C)$ and humidities $(55-68\%)$ for one to nine years to examine their overall quality stability and. in particular. antioxidant activity. The approximate compositions. contents of various solvent extracts. and TLC and HPLC patterns of ginsenosides in the samples which are otherwise susceptible to oxidation. were stable as judged by the changes of the TLC and GLC patterns of the lipids and fatty acids. It was also found that polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic (C18: 2) and linolenic acid (C18: 3) present in the samples had been very stable during the long storage periods. The intensity of the brown color of the red ginseng samples increased significantly with storage time. The pH of the aqueous extracts of the samples also increased slightly during storage. The coloration changes seem to indicate that extensive browning reactions had occurred during storage. The reducing powers of aqueous and ethanol extracts and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extracts also increased with storage time. The increase in reducing powers and antioxidant activity appeared to be directly attributable to the increased amounts of non-enzymatic browning reaction products formed progressively during the long storage periods. Therefore. it seems that those antioxidative compounds. which will be progressively formed in red ginseng through non-enzymatic browning reactions during the manufacturing process and long-term storage. will not only contribute to their overall quality stability but also have some significant relationship with their antiaging pharmacological effects.

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Manufacture of Spent Layer Chicken Meat Products by Natural Freeze-Drying during Winter (겨울철 자연 동결 건조에 의한 노계 육제품의 제조)

  • Lee, Sung-Ki;Kang, Sun-Moon;Lee, Ik-Sun;Seo, Dong-Kwan;Kwon, Il-Kyung;Pan, Jo-No;Kim, Hee-Ju;Ga, Cheon-Heung;Pak, Jae-In
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.277-285
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to manufacture spent layer chicken meat products by natural freeze-drying. The spent layers of chickens that were slaughtered at 80 wk were obtained from a local slaughter house and separated into two halves of carcasses. The samples were divided into the following groups: 1) control (non-curing), 2) curing, and 3) curing with 2% trehalose before drying. The cured meats were placed at $2^{\circ}C$ for 7 d and then transferred to a natural drying spot located in Injae City, Gangwondo, Korea. The experiment was conducted from January to March in 2008. The average temperature, RH, and wind speed were $-1.5^{\circ}C$, 63%, and 1.8 m/sec, respectively. The cured treatments showed higher pH, lower Aw and lower shear force value compared with the control. Based on the results of TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) level and volatile basic nitrogen value, lipid oxidation and protein deterioration were inhibited in curing treatments during drying. Trehalose acted as a humectant because it maintained a lower water activity despite the relatively higher moisture content during drying. The polyunsaturated fatty acids content and sensory attributes were higher in cured treatments than in the control during drying. Most of the bacterial counts in the treated groups were lower by 2 Log CFU/g after 1 mon of drying, and Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were not found in any treatment. There was also no microbial safety problem associated with dried meat products. Based on the results of this experiment, dried meat products could be manufactured from precured spent layer chickens by natural freeze-drying during winter.

Growth and Morphological Characteristics of Introduced Sorghum Germplasm (도입 수수 유전자원의 생육 및 형태적 특성)

  • 강정훈;이호진
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to obtain fundamental information on forage sorghum breeding in forage crop field of Livestock Experiment Station at Suwon from 1986 to 1991. The charcterization of sorghum germplasm was performed through 1986 to 1987, and after parental lines were selected from diverse sorghum germplasm on the basis of flowering date, plant height and several morphological characters for forage sorghum Fl hybrids. The range of variation of 50% flowering date and plant height were greater in order of forage sorghum sudangrass and male sterile line of grain sorghum. The average flowering date was earlier in sudangrass and male sterile line of grain sorghum than forage sorghum lines from the tested sorghum germplasms. And the average plant height was tall in order of forage sorghum, sudangrass and male sterile lines of grain sorghum. There were remarkable morphological variations between sudangrass lines and male sterile lines of grain sorghum such as plant color, leaf midrib color, glume color, seed coat color, head compactness and shape, awns, grain covering and 100 seed weight.

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