• 제목, 요약, 키워드: G-Rh2

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Differential Expression of Protein Kinase C Subtypes during Ginsenoside Rh2-Induced Apoptosis in SK-N-BE(2) and C6Bu-1 Cells

  • Kim, Young-Sook;Jin, Sung-Ha;Lee, You-Hiu;Park, Jong-Dae;Kim, Shin-Il
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.518-524
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    • 2000
  • We examined the modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) subtypes during apoptosis induced by ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2) in human neuroblastoma SK-N-Bl(2) and rat glioma C6Bu-1 cells. Apoptosis induced by C-Rh2 in both cell lines was confirmed, as indicated by DNA fragmentation and in situ strand breaks, and characteristic morphological changes. During apoptosis induced by G-Rh2 in SK-N-BE(2) cells, PKC subtypes $\alpha$, $\beta$ and $\gamma$ were progressively increased with prolonged treatment, whereas PKC $\delta$ increased transiently at 3 and 6 h and PKC $\varepsilon$ was gradually down-regulated after 6 h following the treatment. On the other hand, PKC subtype $\beta$ markedly increased at 24 h when maximal apoptosis was achieved. In C6Bu-l cells, no significant changes in PKC subtypes $\alpha$, $\gamma$, $\delta$, $\varepsilon$ and $\beta$ were observed during apoptosis induced by G-Rh2. These results suggest the evidence for a possible role of PKC subtype in apoptosis induced by G-Rh2 in SK-N-BE(2) cells but not in C6Bu-1 cells, and raise the possibility that G-Rh2 may induce apoptosis via different pathways interacting with or without PKC in different cell types.

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Regulatory Effect of Ginsenosides Rh1 on Monocytic U937 Cell Adhesion (홍삼유래 ginsenosides Rh1의 단핵구 U937 세포 유착조절 효과)

  • Kim, Byung-Hun;Cho, Jae-Youl
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.324-329
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    • 2009
  • Cell-cell adhesion managed by various adhesion molecules is known to be one of pathophysiological phenomena found in numerous immunological diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and allergic diseases. In this study, we examined the regulatory role of ginsenosides (G)- Rh1, reported to display anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects, on CD29-mediated cell adhesion. G-Rh1 significantly suppressed U937 cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD29 but not CD43. It also blocked U937 cell-fibronectin adhesion, mediated by activated CD29, up to 30%. In agreement, this compound also significantly decreased the surface level of CD29 but not CD43 as well as other costimulatory molecules such as CD69, CD80, and CD86. Therefore, these results suggest that G-Rh1 may have inhibitory function on CD29-mediated cell adhesion events, probably contributing to its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities.

Ginsenoside Rh2 differentially Mediates microRNA Expression to Prevent Chemoresistance of Breast Cancer

  • Wen, Xu;Zhang, He-Da;Zhao, Li;Yao, Yu-Feng;Zhao, Jian-Hua;Tang, Jin-Hai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.1105-1109
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    • 2015
  • Chemoresistance is the most common cause of chemotherapy failure during breast cancer (BCA) treatment. It is generally known that the mechanisms of chemoresistance in tumors involve multiple genes and multiple signaling pathways,; if appropriate drugs are used to regulate the mechanisms at the gene level, it should be possible to effectively reverse chemoresistance in BCA cells. It has been confirmed that chemoresistance in BCA cells could be reversed by ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2). Preliminary studies of our group identified some drugresistance specific miRNA. Accordingly, we proposed that G-Rh2 could mediate drug-resistance specific miRNA and corresponding target genes through the gene regulatory network; this could cut off the drug-resistance process in tumors and enhance treatment effects. G-Rh2 and breast cancer cells were used in our study. Through pharmaceutical interventions, we could explore how G-Rh2 could inhibit chemotherapy resistance in BCA, and analyze its impact on related miRNA and target genes. Finally, we will reveal the anti-resistance molecular mechanisms of G-Rh2 from a different angle in miRNA-mediated chemoresistance signals among cells.

Preparation of Ag2Se-Graphene-TiO2 Nanocomposite and its Photocatalytic Degradation (Rh B)

  • Ali, Asghar;Oh, Won-Chun
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.388-394
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    • 2017
  • Here, utilizing rhodamine B (RhB) as standard color dye, we examined the photo degradation proficiency of $Ag_2Se-Graphene-TiO_2$ nanocomposites under visible light irradiation; samples were prepared by ultrasonication techniques and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopic investigation and UV-Vis absorbance spectra examination. Our outcomes demonstrate that the $Ag_2Se-G-TiO_2$ nanocomposite showed significant photodegradation efficiency as compared with those of $TiO_2-G$ and $Ag_2Se-G$, with around 85.2% of Rhodamine B (RhB) degraded after 180 min. It is concluded that the $Ag_2Se-G-TiO_2$ nanocomposite is a competent candidate for dye pollutants.

Caspase-3 Specifically Cleaves $p21^{WAF1/CIP1}$ in the Earlier Stage of Apoptosis in SK-HEP-1 Human Hepatoma Cells

  • Park, Jeong-Ae;Kim, Kyu-Won;Kim, Shin-Il;Lee, Seung-Ki
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.231-243
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    • 1998
  • In the present study, we provide evidence that ginsenoside $Rh_2$ (G-$Rh_2$) as well as staurosporine induces apoptosis of human hepatoma SK-HEP-1 cells by caspase 3-mediated processing of $p21^{WAFI/CIPI}$ in the early stage of apoptosls. Immunoblottings showed that G-$Rh_2$ as well as statrosporine induced the processing of caspase-3 to an active form, pl7. In stable Bcl-2 transfectants however, G-$Rh_2$ induced DNA fragmentation, while staurosporine did not. In the early stage of apoptosis, $p21^{WAFI/CIPI}$ was detected to undergo proteolytic processing specifically conducted by caspase-3. $p21^{WAFI/CIPI}$ translated in vitro was cleaved into a p14 fragment, when incubated with cell extracts obtained from either G-$Rh_2$- or staurosporine-treated cells. Cleavage was equally inhibited in both cases by adding Ac-DEVD-cho, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, but not by Ac-YVkD-cho, a specific caspase-l inhibitor. Similarly, $p21^{WAFI/CIPI}$ was efficiently leaved by recombinant caspase-3 overexpressed in E. coli. Moreover, the endogenous $p21^{WAFI/CIPI}$ of untreated-cell extracts was also cleaved by recombinant caspase-3. Mutation analysis allowed identification of two caspase-3 cleavage sites, $DHVD^{112}$/L and $SMTD^{149}$/F, which are located within, or near the interaction domains for cyclins, Cdks, and PCNA. Taken together, these results show that G-$Rh_2$ as well as staurosporine increases caspase-3 activity, which in turn directly cleaves $p21^{WAFI/CIPI}$ resulting in elevation of Cdk kinase activity in the early stages of apoptosis. We propose that proteolytic cleavage of $p21^{WAFI/CIPI}$ is a functionally relevant event that allows unleashing the cyclin/Cdk activity from the inhibitor seen in the earlier stage of apoptosis, the event of which may be associated with the triggering mechanism for the execution of apoptosis.

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Pharmacokinetics of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (rhG-CSF) Following Intravenous, Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Administration of HM10411 and Filgrastim to Rats and Mice (인과립구 콜로니 자극인자 제제인 HM10411와 필그라스팀의 정맥, 근육 및 피하 주사시 흰쥐와 마우스에서의 약물 동태)

  • Kim, In-Wha;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Young-Min;Jung, Sung-Youb;Kwon, Se-Chang;Lee, Gwan-Sun;Chung, Suk-Jae;Shim, Chang-Koo
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 2001
  • The pharmacokinetics of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) following intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of HM1041l-lyo and HM10411-liq (lyophilized and liquid formulations of rhG-CSF, recently under development by Hanmi Pharmaceutical Company) were studied in rats, and compared with that of Filgrastim (conventional formulation of rhG-CSF on market). The plasma concentration of rhG-CSF was quantified using a specific ELISA. The pharmacokinetic parameters of rhG-CSF, after i.v., i.m. and s.c. administration of Filgrastim, HM1041l-lyo and HM1041l-liq to rats at a rhG-CSF dose of $10\;{\mu}g/kg$, were almost identical among the three formulations. No dose-dependency was observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters of rhG-CSF following i.v. administration in the dose range of $5{\sim}100\;{\mu}g/kg$. rhG-CSF, after i.v. administration of the three preparations at a dose of $10\;{\mu}g/kg$ to rats, was detected at low levels in all of the body tissues with highest tissue/plasma ratio of $0.46{\sim}0.51$ for the kidney at 30 min after the administration. The pharmacokinetics of rhG-CSF, after i.v. administration to mice at a dose of $10\;{\mu}g/kg$, were comparable among the three formulations. In conclusion, HM10411-lyo and HM10411-liq exhibited similar pharmacokinetics for rhG-CSF with Filgrastim regandless of animal species. Considering the fact that HM10411 series, contrary to Filgrastim, are proteins lacking a methionine residue, the methionine moiety in rhG-CSF molecule does not appear to influence the pharmacokinetics of the protein significantly.

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Production of Soluble Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor in E. coli by Control of Growth Rate. (대장균에서 증식속도 조절에 의한 수용성 재조합 인간 과립구 콜로니 촉진인자의 생산)

  • 박세철;고인영;강희일
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 2004
  • Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is a hematopoiesis agent that principally affects the differentiation of neutrophils in the bone marrow. At present, recombinant hG-CSF is used successfully in the treatment of chemotheraphy-induced neutropenia and its indication has been expanded to bone marrow transplantation and aplastic anemia. In this study, we have constructed rhG-CSF secretion plasmid pYRC1 in which OmpA signal sequence/hG-CSF gene was expressed under the control of the T7 promoter. rhG-CSF produced in E. coli BL21 (pYRC1) grown at $37{\circ}C$ was found in aggregates. However, 15% of the periplasmic protein was soluble rhG-CSF when the E. coli BL21 (pYRC1) was cultured at $25^{\circ}C$ for 7 h in the modified MBL medium containing 10 g/$\ell$ glucose with 10 $\mu$M IPTG induction. The production of soluble rhG-CSF in E. coli BL21 (pYRC1) using fed batch culture was also studied. In the fed batch culture system, the final yield of rhG-CSF produced from E. coli BL21 (pYRC1) was increased from 4.4 mg/$\ell$to 24 mg/$\ell$by controlling the specific growth rate from $0.43 h^{-1}$ to $0.14 h^{-1}$, and optimizing the time of induction.

Effect of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Administration in Repeat-breeder Hanwoo (저수태 한우에 대한 성선자극 호르몬 방출호르몬 투여 효과)

  • 임석기;우재석;윤상보;전기준
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.117-122
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    • 1997
  • The objective of this study was to enhance the pregnancy rate of repeat-breeder Hanwoo with gonadotropin-releasing hormone(Gn-RH) at the time, dose and site of administration.The results obtained were summaried as fallows:1.Ovulation time and pregnancy rate following GnRH administration time was 46.0, 27.4, 42.0 and 43.2hr and 33.3, 57.1, 37.5 and 40.0% at non-treatment, estus, 1st A' and 2nd Al treatment, respectively.2. Ovulation in repeat-breeder was induced 100% within 24hr with GnRH administration at the time of estrus.3. Ovulation time and pregnancy rate following GnRH adminstration dose and site was 25.2, 32.6, 17.6 and 27.6hr, and 28.6, 42.9, 75.0 and 66.7% at 50$\mu$g+IU, 50$\mu$g+IM, 100$\mu$g+IU and 100$\mu$g+IM treatments, respectively. It is concluded that GnRH administration for repeat-breeder was enhanced the pregnancy rate when treated with 100$\mu$g intrauterine at the time of estrus.

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Efficient Use of Lactose for Production of the Soluble Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor in Escherichia coli. (대장균에서 lactose를 이용한 수용성 재조합 인간 상피 세포 성장 인자의 생산)

  • 박세철;권태종;고인영;유광현
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 1998
  • Recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) was produced by E. coli BL2l (DE3) harboring a plasmid pYHB101. The production of rhEGF was 44.5 mg/L when the E. coli BL2l (pYHB101) was cultured at 27$^{\circ}C$ for 48 hr in the modified MBL medium containing 10 $\mu\textrm{g}$/L glucose with 10 $\mu\textrm{m}$ IPTG/lactose induction at 2 hr after inoculation. It was shown that lactose is able to induce the rhEGF expression of E. coli BL2l (pYHB101) with the same efficiency as IPTG. In the batch culture system, when induced with 10 $\mu\textrm{m}$ lactose, E. coli BL2l (pYHB101) produced maximum 45 mg/L of the rhEGF at 28 hr culture in the modified MBL medium containing 10 g/L glucose. In the semi-fed batch culture system, the volumetric yield was 160 mg/L when the culture was added with 0.5% (w/v) lactose and 0.25% (w/v) yeast extract in the late logarithmic phase and 94.3% of rhEGF was secreted as soluble form. However, when the culture was added with them in the early logarithmic phase, the volumetric yield was 120 mg/L and 20.9% of rhEGF was found in cytoplasmic insoluble aggregates. It was found that the addition time of lactose was important for production of soluble rhEGF from E. coli BL21 (pYHB101).

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Ultrasonic Synthesis of CoSe2-Graphene-TiO2 Ternary Composites for High Photocatalytic Degradation Performance

  • Ali, Asghar;Oh, Won-Chun
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.205-210
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we examined the photo-degradation efficiency of $CoSe_2$-Graphene-$TiO_2$ ($CoSe_2-G-TiO_2$) nanocomposites under visible light irradiation using rhodamine B (RhB) as standard dye. $CoSe_2-G-TiO_2$ nanocomposites were synthesized by ultrasonication and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopic analysis and UV-Vis absorbance spectra analysis. Our results show that the $CoSe_2-G-TiO_2$ nanocomposite exhibited significant photo degradation efficiency compared to pure $TiO_2$ and $CoSe_2-G$, approximately 85.2% of the rhodamine (Rh B) degraded after 2.5 h. It is concluded that the $CoSe_2-G-TiO_2$ nanocomposite is a promising candidate for use in dye pollutants.