• Title/Summary/Keyword: G-Rh2

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The interaction of serum albumin with ginsenoside Rh2 resulted in the downregulation of ginsenoside Rh2 cytotoxicity

  • Lin, Yingjia;Li, Yang;Song, Zhi-Guang;Zhu, Hongyan;Jin, Ying-Hua
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.330-338
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    • 2017
  • Background: Ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2) is a ginseng saponin that is widely investigated because of its remarkable antitumor activity. However, the molecular mechanism by which (20S) G-Rh2 triggers its functions and how target animals avoid its cytotoxic action remains largely unknown. Methods: Phage display was used to screen the human targets of (20S) G-Rh2. Fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy were used to confirm the interaction of candidate target proteins and (20S) G-Rh2. Molecular docking was utilized to calculate the estimated free energy of binding and to structurally visualize their interactions. MTT assay and immunoblotting were used to assess whether human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and bovine serum can reduce the cytotoxic activity of (20S) G-Rh2 in HepG2 cells. Results: In phage display, (20S) G-Rh2-beads and (20R) G-Rh2-beads were combined with numerous kinds of phages, and a total of 111 different human complementary DNAs (cDNA) were identified, including HSA which had the highest rate. The binding constant and number of binding site in the interaction between (20S)-Rh2 and HSA were $3.5{\times}10^5M^{-1}$ and 1, and those in the interaction between (20S) G-Rh2 and BSA were $1.4{\times}10^5M^{-1}$ and 1. The quenching mechanism is static quenching. HSA, BSA and bovine serum significantly reduced the proapoptotic effect of (20S) G-Rh2. Conclusion: HSA and BSA interact with (20S) G-Rh2. Serum inhibited the activity of (20S) G-Rh2 mainly due to the interaction between (20S) G-Rh2 and serum albumin (SA). This study proposes that HSA may enhance (20S) G-Rh2 water solubility, and thus might be used as nanoparticles in the (20S) G-Rh2 delivery process.

Ginsenoside Rh2 differentially Mediates microRNA Expression to Prevent Chemoresistance of Breast Cancer

  • Wen, Xu;Zhang, He-Da;Zhao, Li;Yao, Yu-Feng;Zhao, Jian-Hua;Tang, Jin-Hai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.1105-1109
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    • 2015
  • Chemoresistance is the most common cause of chemotherapy failure during breast cancer (BCA) treatment. It is generally known that the mechanisms of chemoresistance in tumors involve multiple genes and multiple signaling pathways,; if appropriate drugs are used to regulate the mechanisms at the gene level, it should be possible to effectively reverse chemoresistance in BCA cells. It has been confirmed that chemoresistance in BCA cells could be reversed by ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2). Preliminary studies of our group identified some drugresistance specific miRNA. Accordingly, we proposed that G-Rh2 could mediate drug-resistance specific miRNA and corresponding target genes through the gene regulatory network; this could cut off the drug-resistance process in tumors and enhance treatment effects. G-Rh2 and breast cancer cells were used in our study. Through pharmaceutical interventions, we could explore how G-Rh2 could inhibit chemotherapy resistance in BCA, and analyze its impact on related miRNA and target genes. Finally, we will reveal the anti-resistance molecular mechanisms of G-Rh2 from a different angle in miRNA-mediated chemoresistance signals among cells.

Differential Role of protein Kinase C in Ginsenoside $Rh_2$ - induced Apoptosis in SK-N-BE(2) and C6Bu-1 Cells

  • Young Sook Kim;Sun
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.244-252
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    • 1998
  • Ginsenoside Rh, (G-Rh,) from Panax ginseng induced morphological features of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation as a biochemical marker of apoptosis confirmed by TUNEL reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis in human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2) and rat glioma C6Bu-1 cells During apoptosis by G-Rh2, protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms were analysed by immunoblotting. In SK-N-BE(2) cells, the levels of a, p and ${\gamma}$ subtypes were increased by undergoing apoptosis, while PKC e isoform increased early in treatment (3 h and 6 h). In addition, PKC s isoform gradually decreased during apoptosis by G-Rh2 and PKC $\theta$ isoform was detected in neither untreated- nor G-Rh1-treated SK-N-BE(2) cells (data not shown). However, no significant changes in the level of S and s isoforms were observed in C6Bu-1 cells undergoing apoptosis by G-Rh2. These results suggest that PKC subtypes may play differential roles in apoptotic signal pathways and their roles can be cell type-specific in apoptosis induced by G-Rh2.

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Differential Expression of Protein Kinase C Subtypes during Ginsenoside Rh2-Induced Apoptosis in SK-N-BE(2) and C6Bu-1 Cells

  • Kim, Young-Sook;Jin, Sung-Ha;Lee, You-Hiu;Park, Jong-Dae;Kim, Shin-Il
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.518-524
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    • 2000
  • We examined the modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) subtypes during apoptosis induced by ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2) in human neuroblastoma SK-N-Bl(2) and rat glioma C6Bu-1 cells. Apoptosis induced by C-Rh2 in both cell lines was confirmed, as indicated by DNA fragmentation and in situ strand breaks, and characteristic morphological changes. During apoptosis induced by G-Rh2 in SK-N-BE(2) cells, PKC subtypes $\alpha$, $\beta$ and $\gamma$ were progressively increased with prolonged treatment, whereas PKC $\delta$ increased transiently at 3 and 6 h and PKC $\varepsilon$ was gradually down-regulated after 6 h following the treatment. On the other hand, PKC subtype $\beta$ markedly increased at 24 h when maximal apoptosis was achieved. In C6Bu-l cells, no significant changes in PKC subtypes $\alpha$, $\gamma$, $\delta$, $\varepsilon$ and $\beta$ were observed during apoptosis induced by G-Rh2. These results suggest the evidence for a possible role of PKC subtype in apoptosis induced by G-Rh2 in SK-N-BE(2) cells but not in C6Bu-1 cells, and raise the possibility that G-Rh2 may induce apoptosis via different pathways interacting with or without PKC in different cell types.

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Role of ginsenosides, the main active components of Panax ginseng, in inflammatory responses and diseases

  • Kim, Ji Hye;Yi, Young-Su;Kim, Mi-Yeon;Cho, Jae Youl
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.435-443
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    • 2017
  • Panax ginseng is one of the most universally used herbal medicines in Asian and Western countries. Most of the biological activities of ginseng are derived from its main constituents, ginsenosides. Interestingly, a number of studies have reported that ginsenosides and their metabolites/derivatives-including ginsenoside (G)-Rb1, compound K, G-Rb2, G-Rd, G-Re, G-Rg1, G-Rg3, G-Rg5, G-Rh1, G-Rh2, and G-Rp1-exert anti-inflammatory activities in inflammatory responses by suppressing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and regulating the activities of inflammatory signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ and activator protein-1. This review discusses recent studies regarding molecular mechanisms by which ginsenosides play critical roles in inflammatory responses and diseases, and provides evidence showing their potential to prevent and treat inflammatory diseases.

Preparation of $Ginsenoside-Rh_2$ from Dammarane Saponins of Panax ginseng Leaves (인삼잎의 Dammarane계 사포닌으로부터 $Ginsenoside-Rh_2$의 제조)

  • Cha, Bae-Cheon;Lee, Sang-Guk
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.425-429
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    • 1994
  • The genuine aglycone, 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, obtained from the leaves of Panax ginseng as a result of direct alkaline treatment was isolated and characterized by spectroscopic evidences. The study on the yield of genuine aglycone which is produced from the treatment of some kinds of alkali was carried out. $Ginsenoside-Rh_2$ was synthesized by conjugation of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-${\alpha}$-D-glucopyranosyl bromide to 20(S)-protopanaxadiol in the presence of silver carbonate and cadmium cabonate. The preparation of $ginsenoside-Rh_2$ by this method is a new one which the yield of this saponin can be improved in the mild condition.

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Transformation Techniques for the Large Scale Production of Ginsenoside Rg3 (Ginsenoside Rg3의 함량증가를 위한 변환 기술)

  • Nam, Ki Yeul;Choi, Jae Eul;Park, Jong Dae
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.401-414
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    • 2013
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 (G-Rg3) contained only in red ginseng has been found to show various pharmacological effects such as an anticancer, antiangiogenetic, antimetastastic, liver protective, neuroprotective immunomodulating, vasorelaxative, antidiabetic, insulin secretion promoting and antioxidant activities. It is well known that G-Rg3 could be divided into 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3 according to the hydroxyl group attached to C-20 of aglycone, whose structural characteristics show different pharmacological activities. It has been reported that G-Rg3 is metabolized to G-Rh2 and protopanaxadiol by the conditions of the gastric acid or intestinal bacteria, thereby these metabolites could be absorbed, suggesting its absolute bioavailability (2.63%) to be very low. Therefore, we reviewed the chemical, physical and biological transformation methods for the production on a large scale of G-Rg3 with various pharmacological effects. We also examined the influence of acid and heat treatment-induced potentials on for the preparation method of higher G-Rg3 content in ginseng and ginseng products. Futhermore, the microbial and enzymatic bio-conversion technologies could be more efficient in terms of high selectivity, efficiency and productivity. The present review discusses the available technologies for G-Rg3 production on a large scale using chemical and biological transformation.