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Relationship between Transferable Embryos and Blood Urea Nitrogen, Glucose and Total Cholesterol Concentration in Hanwoo Donors (한우 공란우 이식기능 수정란수와 혈액내 요소태질소, 포도당 및 총콜레스테롤 수준과의 관계)

  • Son, Jun-Kyu;Choe, Chang-Yong;Cho, Sang-Rae;Lim, Hyun-Joo;Park, Seong-Jai;Baek, Kwang-Soo;Kim, Sang-Bum;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Jung, Yeon-Sub;Bok, Nan-Hee;Son, Dong-Soo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.335-339
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between concentration of urea nitrogen, glucose, cholesterol and number of transferable embryos for the purpose of improving reproductive performance in blood of Hanwoo donors. Fifty five, at random stages of the estrous cycle, received a CIDR. Four days later the animals were superovulated with a total of 28AU FSH (Antorin, 2AU=1 ml) administered twice daily in constant doses over 4 days. On the 3th administration of FSH, CIDR was withdrawn and 25 mg $PGF_2$ ${\alpha}$ was administered. Cows were artificially inseminated twice after estrous detection at 12 hr intervals. The cows received 100 ${\mu}g$ GnRH at the time of 1nd insemination. Embryos were recovered 7 or 8 days after the 1st insemination. Cows with BUN < 10, 11~18 and ${\geq}$19 mg/dl had number of transferable embryos of $4.32{\pm}1.3$, $5.8{\pm}1.8$ and $4.7{\pm}2.1$ respectively. The mean numbers of total ova from < 10 and 10${\leq}$ of corpora lutea(CL) was 8.9 and 14.3, respectively. The number of transferable embryos differed between < 10${\leq}$ CL was 4.8 and 5.6, respectively.

Resumption of Ovarian Cyclicity after Superovulation Treatment to Donor Cow in Hanwoo (한우 공란우 과배란 처리 후 난소 주기 재개에 관한 연구)

  • Son, Jun-Kyu;Choe, Chang-Yong;Cho, Sang-Rae;Yeon, Seong-Heum;Choi, Sun-Ho;Kim, Nam-Tae;Jung, Jin-Woo;Kim, Sung-Jae;Jung, Yeon-Sub;Bok, Nan-Hee;You, Yong-Hee;Son, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.149-154
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of abnormal ovarian cycles after superovulation treatment of Hanwoo donors. Thirty six, at random stages of the estrous cycle, received a CIDR. Four days later, the animals were superovulated with a total of 28AU FSH (Antorin, 2AU=1 ml) administered twice daily in constant doses over 4 days. On the 3th administration of FSH, CIDR was withdrawn and 25 mg $PGF_2{\alpha}$ was administered. Cows were artificially inseminated twice after estrous detection at 12 hr intervals. The cows received $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH at the time of Ind insemination. Embryos were recovered 7 or 8 days after the 1st insemination. The cows were considered to have resumed ovarian cyclicity on the day of ovulation if followed by regular ovarian cycles. 50.0 percentage of the cows (18/36) had normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity (resumption within 40 days after superovulation), and 50.0% (18/36) had delayed resumption(resumption did not occur until>40 days after superovulation). Delayed resumption Type II (first ovulation did not occur until $\geq$ 40 days after superovulation, i.e. delayed first ovulation 33.3%) were the most common types of delayed resumptions. The mean numbers of total ova from < 10 and 10$\leq$ of corpora lutea (CL) was 7.3 and 13.9, respectively. The number of transferable embryos differed between < 10 and 10$\leq$ CL was 4.2 and 5.1, respectively. 11.1 percentage of the cows (4/36) did not resumption their ovarian cyclicity until 60 days after superovulation treatment.

Effects of Seed Size and Several Factors on Ultra-drying and Germination of Ultra-dried Seeds in Soybean

  • Lee, Yeong-Ho;Chang, Ching-huan
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.305-309
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    • 2000
  • Ultra-drying [<5.0% seed moisture content (SMC)] storage technique is a cost-effective storage method for oily seeds. To decide proper ultra-drying condition for soybean seeds, drying rate was compared three silica gel to seed ratios, two seed sizes with varietal difference, two kinds of container, and three seed amounts per container under :t 23$\pm$1$^{\circ}C$. When the relative humidity (RH) was reduced at the rate of less than 0.1 % a day, silica gel was replaced with dry one by 47 days. Higher silica gel to seed ratios (3:1 and 2:1) dried faster than lower ratio (1:1) until 28 days, but not after 43 days of drying. Also, large seeded variety was dried faster than small seeded variety. Kinds of container and seed amounts per container didn't show differences in drying of soybean seeds. After completion of ultra-drying, percentage germination by standard germination test (SGT) was not different among silica gel to seed ratios, kinds of container, and seed amounts per container, except among seed sizes (varieties). Before SGT, soybean seeds were premoistened using saturated ${CaCl}_2$ for 48 hours and ${NH}_4$Cl for 24 hours in desiccators. To compare germinability between ordinary-dried seeds and ultra-dried seeds, the seeds of seven soybean varieties, which were varying in size from 8.1 to 34.9 g per 100 seeds, were dried using same amount of silica gel under 23$\pm$1$^{\circ}C$. After completion of 76 days of drying, SMCs were reduced to 3.13-3.45% from 7.86-8.82%. SMC after completion of drying was not correlated with 100-seed weight (r=0.556). Before germination tests, soybean seeds were premoistened using saturated salt solutions. Percentage germination was higher with ultra-dried seeds than ordinary-dried seeds in SGT and higher with ordinary-dried seeds than ultra-dried seeds in AAT at the beginning of storage and after 6 months storage, but general trend of percentage germination was not observed among varieties classified by 100-seed weight. From these results, we concluded that further studies are needed to improve ultra-drying storage method for soybean seeds.

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Quality Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Ginseng Stored for Long Periods (장기저장 홍삼의 품질안정성과 항산화효과)

  • Choi K.J.;Lee K.S.;Ko S.R.;Jang J.G.;Park J.D.;Kim M.W;Sung H.S
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.99-107
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    • 1988
  • Samples of red ginseng. which had been manufactured and packaged by the Korea Monopoly Corporation. were stored at ambient temperatures $(12-28^{\circ}C)$ and humidities $(55-68\%)$ for one to nine years to examine their overall quality stability and. in particular. antioxidant activity. The approximate compositions. contents of various solvent extracts. and TLC and HPLC patterns of ginsenosides in the samples which are otherwise susceptible to oxidation. were stable as judged by the changes of the TLC and GLC patterns of the lipids and fatty acids. It was also found that polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic (C18: 2) and linolenic acid (C18: 3) present in the samples had been very stable during the long storage periods. The intensity of the brown color of the red ginseng samples increased significantly with storage time. The pH of the aqueous extracts of the samples also increased slightly during storage. The coloration changes seem to indicate that extensive browning reactions had occurred during storage. The reducing powers of aqueous and ethanol extracts and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extracts also increased with storage time. The increase in reducing powers and antioxidant activity appeared to be directly attributable to the increased amounts of non-enzymatic browning reaction products formed progressively during the long storage periods. Therefore. it seems that those antioxidative compounds. which will be progressively formed in red ginseng through non-enzymatic browning reactions during the manufacturing process and long-term storage. will not only contribute to their overall quality stability but also have some significant relationship with their antiaging pharmacological effects.

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Effects of Fructus Amomi Amari, Eucommiae Cortex, Bombyx Batryticatus Extract on Improving Symptoms of Late-onset Hypogonadism (익지인(益智仁), 두충(杜沖), 백강잠(白殭蠶) 혼합추출물이 남성갱년기 증상 개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Sun Young;Ahn, Sang Hyun;Kim, Ho Hyun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.89-101
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    • 2019
  • In recent times, the number of men with late-onset hypogonadism has increased, and interest on this topic has also increased. This study was conducted to investigate effects of the mixture extract of Fructus amomi Amari, Eucommiae cortex, Bombyx batryticatus on improve late-onset hypogonadism. The experimental subjects consisted of three groups: a control group consisting of 8-week-old male ICR mice that had undergone no treatment, an aging-elicited group (AE group) consisting of 50-week-old ICR male mice that had undergone no treatment, and a Mixed herbal extract treatment group (MT group) consisting of 50-week-old ICR male mice that had undergone the mixture extract of Fructus amomi Amari, Eucommiae cortex, Bombyx batryticatus treatment (0.1 g/kg/day) for 6 months. After the experiment, the mice from all the experimental groups were dissected, and they were analyzed through histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The mixture extract of Fructus amomi Amari, Eucommiae cortex, Bombyx batryticatus reduces aging-induced cell damage and oxidative stress and increases the secretion of serotonin and B-endorphin in aged mice, and promotes spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubules and reduces apoptosis and oxidative stress, and increases androgen receptor, $17{\beta}-HSD$ and GnRH, increases the ratio of smooth muscle to collagen fibers in the corpus cavernosum, increases eNOS, decreases PDE-5 and oxidative stress in aged mice, so it improves depression, reproductive, sexual problems caused by Late-onset hypogonadism. the mixture extract of Fructus amomi Amari, Eucommiae cortex, Bombyx batryticatus inhibits the induction of osteoporosis by increasing decreased bone matrix distribution due to aging, increasing the activities of OPC and OPN, which are produced in osteoblasts, and decreasing RANKL, MMP-3 activity, increasing OPG activity. It also reduces muscle damage, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis of muscle tissue, and increases Myo-D in the sartorius muscle of aged mice for improving muscle atrophy caused by by Late-onset hypogonadism.

Manufacture of Spent Layer Chicken Meat Products by Natural Freeze-Drying during Winter (겨울철 자연 동결 건조에 의한 노계 육제품의 제조)

  • Lee, Sung-Ki;Kang, Sun-Moon;Lee, Ik-Sun;Seo, Dong-Kwan;Kwon, Il-Kyung;Pan, Jo-No;Kim, Hee-Ju;Ga, Cheon-Heung;Pak, Jae-In
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.277-285
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to manufacture spent layer chicken meat products by natural freeze-drying. The spent layers of chickens that were slaughtered at 80 wk were obtained from a local slaughter house and separated into two halves of carcasses. The samples were divided into the following groups: 1) control (non-curing), 2) curing, and 3) curing with 2% trehalose before drying. The cured meats were placed at $2^{\circ}C$ for 7 d and then transferred to a natural drying spot located in Injae City, Gangwondo, Korea. The experiment was conducted from January to March in 2008. The average temperature, RH, and wind speed were $-1.5^{\circ}C$, 63%, and 1.8 m/sec, respectively. The cured treatments showed higher pH, lower Aw and lower shear force value compared with the control. Based on the results of TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) level and volatile basic nitrogen value, lipid oxidation and protein deterioration were inhibited in curing treatments during drying. Trehalose acted as a humectant because it maintained a lower water activity despite the relatively higher moisture content during drying. The polyunsaturated fatty acids content and sensory attributes were higher in cured treatments than in the control during drying. Most of the bacterial counts in the treated groups were lower by 2 Log CFU/g after 1 mon of drying, and Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were not found in any treatment. There was also no microbial safety problem associated with dried meat products. Based on the results of this experiment, dried meat products could be manufactured from precured spent layer chickens by natural freeze-drying during winter.

Growth and Morphological Characteristics of Introduced Sorghum Germplasm (도입 수수 유전자원의 생육 및 형태적 특성)

  • 강정훈;이호진
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to obtain fundamental information on forage sorghum breeding in forage crop field of Livestock Experiment Station at Suwon from 1986 to 1991. The charcterization of sorghum germplasm was performed through 1986 to 1987, and after parental lines were selected from diverse sorghum germplasm on the basis of flowering date, plant height and several morphological characters for forage sorghum Fl hybrids. The range of variation of 50% flowering date and plant height were greater in order of forage sorghum sudangrass and male sterile line of grain sorghum. The average flowering date was earlier in sudangrass and male sterile line of grain sorghum than forage sorghum lines from the tested sorghum germplasms. And the average plant height was tall in order of forage sorghum, sudangrass and male sterile lines of grain sorghum. There were remarkable morphological variations between sudangrass lines and male sterile lines of grain sorghum such as plant color, leaf midrib color, glume color, seed coat color, head compactness and shape, awns, grain covering and 100 seed weight.

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Analysis of Physicochemical Properties of Red Ginseng Powder Based on Particle Size (홍삼분말 입자크기에 따른 이화학적 특성 분석)

  • Choi, Hee Jeong;Lee, Sang Yoon;Lee, Jung Gyu;Park, Dong Hyeon;Bai, Jing Jing;Lee, Byung-Joo;Kim, Yoon-Sun;Cho, Youngjae;Choi, Mi-Jung
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.225-232
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    • 2017
  • Most of the red ginseng (RG) products contain active substances derived from hot water or alcohol extraction. Since active substances of RG are divided into two types - water-soluble and liposoluble - water or alcohol is needed as an extraction solvent and this leads the different extraction yields and components of the active substances. To overcome the limit, whole red ginseng powder can be used and consumed by consumers. In this study, the physicochemical properties and extractable active substance contents of variable-sized RG powder ($158.00{\mu}m$, $8.45{\mu}m$, and $6.33{\mu}m$) were analyzed, and dispersion stability was measured to investigate the suitable size of RG powder for industrial processing. In the results, no significant difference was found from the changes in color intensity and thiobarbutric acid tests at $4^{\circ}C$, $25^{\circ}C$, and $40^{\circ}C$ for 4 weeks. There was no significant difference on the production of antioxidants and ginsenoside among the samples (p>0.05). In dispersion stability, $RG-158.00{\mu}m$ was precipitated immediately, and the dispersion stabilities between $RG-8.45{\mu}m$ and $RG-6.33{\mu}m$ showed no significant difference. It implies that fine RG is suitable for the production process. With further study, it seemed that the physicochemical effects of RG particle sizes can be clearly revealed.

Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Quality of Chitosan and $CaCl_2$ Coated Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) (환경가스조절 포장이 키토산 및 $CaCl_2$로 코팅 처리된 양송이 버섯의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jin-Sil
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.1308-1314
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    • 1999
  • The effects of modified atmosphere(MA) packaging and coating on the quality of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated. Whole mushrooms(100 g) were packed with polyvinyl chloride(PVC) film wrap, PD941 and PD961 film bags and were stored in a chamber at $12^{\circ}C$ and 80% RH for 6 days. Gas composition of packages, respiration rate, weight loss, color and maturity index of MA packaged mushrooms were examined. The wrap packaged mushrooms showed different level of internal $CO_2$ concentrations among water washed, chitosan coated and $CaCl_2$ coated subgroups significantly at 5% level. The maximum $CO_2$ concentration of PD941 and PD961 packages for all coated showed $4.1{\sim}4.7%$ and $10.4{\sim}11.7%$, respectively, for the first day. PD961 package showed the lowest $O_2$ concentration compared to other groups. There were no significant respiration rate differences between wrap packed and PD941 packaged. Respiration rate of water washed. chitosan coated and $CaCl_2$ coated in PD961 packaged was 192 mg, 226 mg and 245 mg, respectively. Maturity index of PD961 packaged were not significantly different among the water washed, chitosan and $CaCl_2$ coated packages. Chitosan coating showed a negative effect on color change of mushrooms. The weight loss of 961 packaged was lower $(7.0{\sim}8.0%)$ that those of wrap packaged and PD941 packaged.

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Preliminary Result of Uncertainty on Variation of Flowering Date of Kiwifruit: Case Study of Kiwifruit Growing Area of Jeonlanam-do (기후변화에 따른 국내 키위 품종 '해금'의 개화시기 변동과 전망에 대한 불확실성: 전남 키위 주산지역을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Kwang-Hyung;Jeong, Yeo Min;Cho, Youn-Sup;Chung, Uran
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.42-54
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    • 2016
  • It is highly anticipated that warming temperature resulting from global climate change will affect the phenological pattern of kiwifruit, which has been commercially grown in Korea since the early 1980s. Here, we present the potential impacts of climate change on the variations of flowering day of a gold kiwifruit cultivar, Haegeum, in the Jeonnam Province, Korea. By running six global climate models (GCM), the results from this study emphasize the uncertainty in climate change scenarios. To predict the flowering day of kiwifruit, we obtained three parameters of the 'Chill-day' model for the simulation of Haegeum: $6.3^{\circ}C$ for the base temperature (Tb), 102.5 for chill requirement (Rc), and 575 for heat requirement (Rh). Two separate validations of the resulting 'Chill-day' model were conducted. First, direct comparisons were made between the observed flowering days collected from 25 kiwifruit orchards for two years (2014-15) and the simulated flowering days from the 'Chill-day' model using weather data from four weather stations near the 25 orchards. The estimation error between the observed and simulated flowering days was 5.2 days. Second, the model was simulated using temperature data extracted, for the 25 orchards, from a high-resolution digital temperature map, resulting in the error of 3.4 days. Using the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 climate change scenarios from six GCMs for the period of 2021-40, the future flowering days were simulated with the 'Chill-day' model. The predicted flowering days of Haegeum in Jeonnam were advanced more than 10 days compared to the present ones from multi-model ensemble, while some individual models resulted in quite different magnitudes of impacts, indicating the multi-model ensemble accounts for uncertainty better than individual climate models. In addition, the current flowering period of Haegeum in Jeonnam Province was predicted to expand northward, reaching over Jeonbuk and Chungnam Provinces. This preliminary result will provide a basis for the local impact assessment of climate change as more phenology models are developed for other fruit trees.