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Optimization of Ingredients Formulation in tow Grades Surimi for Improvement of Gel Strength (저급 수리미의 젤 강도 증강을 위한 첨가물의 최적화)

  • CHOI Young-Joon;LEE Ho-Soo;CHO Young-Je
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.556-562
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    • 1999
  • The increasing price of surimi has affected the economical benefits of surimi based food industry, To maintain gel strength in low grade surimi, the optimum formulation adding functional proteins to low grade surimi is required. The objective of this study was to develop the optimum formulation of ingredients in making gels in low grade surimi on the addition of functional non-muscle proteins to low grade surmi by measuring rheological properties of the gels. The rheological qualities of the cooked gels made with A and RA grade surimi on the effects of adding five kinds of starches (potato, wheat, waxy maize, corn and modified corn) and four kinds of functional proteins (bovine plasma protein, dehydrated egg white, soy protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) to the gels were evaluated, The gel styengths at cooking with A and RA grade surimi were decreased with increasing the added starches. The kind of starches added affected little the gel strengths in Rh grade surimi, while potato and corn starches decreased at the least in gel strengths of the gel made with A grade surimi with increasing the concentration of starches. The bovine plasma protein (BPP) significantly increased the gel strength, especially in RA grade surimi, but BPP decreased the whiteness of the gel. Therefore, the optimum content of BPP was up to $2\%$ because of the whiteness of the gels in RA grade surimi, The optimum formulation for the gel with RA grade surimi to satisfy the gel strength of 1000$\times$g and $78\%$ moisture was $40.9\%$ surimi, $9.1\%$ dehydrated egg white (DEW) and $0.9\%$ starch, while that with A grade surimi under the same condition was $37.9\%$ surimi, $6.6\%$ DEW and $3,4\%$ starch.

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Effects of $TGF-{\beta}1$ on Cellular Activity of Minocycline-Pretreated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells (($TGF-{\beta}$)이 Minocycline을 전처리한 사람 치주인대세포의 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Seung-Oh;You, Hyung-Keun;Shin, Hyung-Shik
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.469-490
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    • 1996
  • The initial events required for periodontal regeneration is the attachment, spreading, and proliferation of appropriated cells at the healing sites. These have been reported that minocycline stimulates the attachment of periodontal ligament cells, and also $TGF-{\beta}1$ enhances the proliferation of periodontal ligament cells. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of $TGF-{\beta}1$ on the cellular activity of minocycline treated human periodontal ligament cells. Periodontal ligament cells were obtained from the explants of healthy periodontal ligaments of extracted 3rd molars or premolar teeth extracted from the patients for orthodontic treatment. The cells were cultured in minimal essential medium(${\alpha}-MEM$) supplemented with 10.000units/ml penicillin, $10,000{\mu}g/ml$ streptomycin and 10% FBS(fetal bovine serum) at $37^{\circ}C$ in a humidified atmosphere of 5% carbon dioxide and the 5th to the 8th passages of the cells were used. To evaluate the effect of minocycline on cell attachment, the cells were seeded at a cell density of $1.5{\times}10^4$ cells/well in 24-well culture plates and treated with $20{\mu}g/ml$ and $100{\mu}g/ml$ of minocycline for 1.5 h. After trypsinization, the cells were counted with hemocytometer and were taken photographs for observation of cellular morphology. To evaluate the effect of $TGF-{\beta}1$ on minocycline-pretreated periodontal ligament cells, the cells were seeded at a cell density of $1{\times}10^4$ cells/ well in 24-well culture plates and treated with $20{\mu}g/ml$ and $100{\mu}g/ml$ of minocycline for 1.5 h. After incubation, 1 and 10ng/ml of $rh-TGF-{\beta}1$ were also added to the each well and incubated for 1 and 2 days, respectively. Then, MTT assay, DNA synthesis($^3H-thymidine\;assay$), and protein and collagen assay(3H-proline assay) were carried out. In the MIT assay, after 200ul MTT solutionlconeentration of 5mg/ml) were added to the each well of the 24-well plates and incubated for 3 hours, and 200 ul DMSO were added so as to dissolve insoluble blue formazan crystals which was formed in incubated period. Then it read plates on a ELISA reader. For mitogenic assay, 1 uCi/ml $^3H-thymidine$ was added to each well for the final 2 hours of the incubation periods. After labeling, the wells were washed 3 times with ice cold PBS and 4 times with 5% TCA to remove unincorporated label and precipitate the cellular DNA. DNA, with the incorporated $^3H-thymidine$, was solubilized with 500 ul of 0.1% NaOH/0.1% SDS. A 250 ul aliquot was removed from each well and placed in a scintillation vial with 4ml of scintillation cocktail. Using an liguid scintillation counter, counts per minute(CPM) were determined for each samples. 3 uCi/ml $^3H-proline$ was added to each well for the final 4 hours of the incubation periods and total protein and percent collagen synthesis were carried out. The results indicate that minocycline treated group with $100{\mu}g/ml$ concentration for 1.5 hours significantly increased than that of control in cell attachment, and cell process is also evident compared with that of control in cell morphology, and the cellular activity and DNA synthesis rate of cells treated minocycline and $TGF-{\beta}1$ significantly increased than that of control values, but were below to values of the $TGF-{\beta}1$ only treated group in MIT assay and $^3H-thymidine\;assay$, and the total protein synthesis of minocycline and $TGF-{\beta}1$ treated group also significantly increased than that of control values, but the percent collagen synthesis of tested group significantly decreased to compared with control. On the above the findings, the tested group of minocycline and $TGF-{\beta}1$ did not increase the effect on the cell activity than $TGF-{\beta}1$ only tested group and the tested group of minocycline inhibited cell activity. This results indicate that minocycline was effective on cell attachment in early stage, but it is harmful to cell activity, that inhibitory effect of minocycline was compensated with stimulatory effect of $TGF-{\beta}1$.

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Changes in Functional Compounds and Antioxidant Activities in Storage Duration with Accelerated Age-Conditioning of Oats (노화가속화 조건에서 저장 기간에 따른 귀리의 기능성 성분 및 항산화 활성 변화)

  • Son, Yu Rim;Lee, Ji Hae;Park, Hyoung-Ho;Lee, Byong Won;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Han, Sang-Ik;Woo, Koan Sik;Lee, Byoung-kyu;Lee, Sang-Chul;Lee, Yu Young
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.63 no.2
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we investigated the changes in physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities, and contents of functional compounds, such as avenanthramides (AVNs), vitamin E, and ${\beta}$-glucan, in oats by accelerated age-conditioning (temperature: $45^{\circ}C$, relative humidity: 20%). No significant differences were observed in crude protein, crude fat, and AVNs contents of three oat cultivars, up to 63 days of storage; however, their antioxidant activities, as well as ${\beta}$-glucan, vitamin E, and fatty acid contents were significantly different (p < 0.05). ${\beta}$-glucan and fatty acid contents and the antioxidant activities of Deayang (DY) cultivar did not change during storage. ${\beta}$-glucan and unsaturated fatty acid contents of Choyang (CY) and Jopung (JP) increased during the storage period, while antioxidant activities did not (DPPH-CY; 48.1 to 26.9 mg TEAC/100 g, JP; 49.4 to 26.7 mg TEAC/100 g. ABTS-CY; 88.4 to 56.3 mg TEAC/100 g, JP; 80.0 to 55.8 mg TEAC/100 g). The total vitamin E content in DY (1.20 to 0.85 mg/100 g) and CY (1.73 to 1.33 mg/100 g) decreased, but it was maintained in JP. This study indicated that the changes in physicochemical properties and functional compounds of oat grains during storage depends on the cultivars. The result showed that DY, which has the highest AVNs content, has more stable functional compounds and antioxidant activities during storage. These results can serve as essential data for post-harvest management and development of functional food materials for extending the use of oats.

Gonadotropin Regulation of Regulator of G Protein Signaling 2 (RGS-2) Expression in the Rat Ovary (백서 난소에서 성선자극호르몬에 의한 RGS-2의 발현 조절)

  • Lee, Yu-Il;Lee, Eun-Suk;Kim, Sun-Ae;Kim, Mi-Young;Cho, Moon-Kyoung;Chun, Sang-Young
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 2008
  • Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the hormonal regulation of RGS-2 in the rat ovary. Methods: Immature rats were injected with 10 IU of PMSG to induce multiple growth of preovulatory follicles and 10 IU of hCG to induce ovulation. Northern blot analysis performed for gene expression and in situ hybridization performed for mRNA localization. Results: Northern blot analysis revealed that pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) treatment did not affect RGS-2 mRNA levels. In contrast, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment of PMSG-primed rats resulted in an increase in RGS-2 expression within $1{\sim}3\;h$. The major cell-types expressing RGS-2 mRNA were oocytes regardless of follicle size. Interestingly, hCG treatment caused the stimulation of RGS-2 gene expression in granulosa cells of preovulatory and growing follicles. In contrast, cell types expressing RGS-2 protein were theca cells regardless of hCG treatment. Like in vivo, treatment of preovulatory granulosa cells with LH in vitro stimulated RGS-2 levels within 1 h. Interestingly, GnRH antagonist II enhanced the stimulatory action of LH. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the LH/hCG induction of RGS-2 in preovulatory granulosa cells and suggests a role of RGS-2 in Gq protein signaling pathway during ovulation.

Bone regenerative effects of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 employed protein transduction domain (Protein transduction domain을 이용한 recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2의 골재생효과)

  • Jung, Sung-Won;Kim, Nam-Hee;Yook, Jong-In;Kim, Chang-Sung;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Cho, Kyoo-Sung
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.497-509
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    • 2007
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins(BMPs) are regarded as members of the transforming growth $factor-{\beta}$ superfamily with characteristic features in their amino acid sequences. A number of studies have demonstrated the biologic activities of BMPs, which include the induction of cartilage and bone formation. Recently there was a attempt to overcome a limitation of mass production, and economical efficieny of rh-BMPs. The method producing PTD by using bacteria have advantages of acquiry a mass of proteins. Hences, a new treatment which deliver protein employed by protein transduction domain(PTD) has been tried. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone regenerative effect of TATBMP-2 and TAT-HA2-BMP-2 employed by PTD from HlV-1 TAT protein for protein translocation in the rat calvarial model. An 8mm calvarial, critical size osteotomy defect was created in each of 32 male Spraque-Dawley rats(weight $250{\sim}300g$). The animals were divided into 4 groups of 32 animals each (4 animals/group/healing interval). The defect was treated with TATBMP-2/ACS(Absorbable collagen sponge) (TATBMP-2 0.1mg/ml), TAT-HA2-BMP-2/ACS(TAT-HA2-BMP-2 0.1mg/ml), ACS alone or left untreated for surgical control(negative control). The rats were sacrificed at 2 or 8 weeks postsurgery, and the results were evaluated histologically. The results were as follows: New bone formation were not significantly greater in the TATBMP-2/ACS group relative to negative, and positive control groups. New bone was evident at the defect sites in TAT-HA2-BMP-2/ACS group relative to negative, positive control and TATBMP-2 groups. There were a little bone regeneration in TATBMP-2 groups. While, enhanced local bone formation were observed in TAT-HA2-BMP-2 group. But, The results was not the same in all rat defects. Therefore, further investigations are required to develop a method. which disperse homogenously, and adhere to target cells.

Relationship between Estrous Expression, Body Condition Score (BCS) and Transferable Embryos Hanwoo Donors (한우 공란우의 발정발현율, 신체 충실 지수(BCS)와 이식가능 수정란과의 관계)

  • Son, Jun-Kyu;Choe, Chang-Yong;Cho, Sang-Rae;Lim, Hyun-Joo;Park, Seong-Jin;Baek, Kwang-Soo;Kim, Sang-Bum;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Jung, Yeon-Sub;Bok, Nan-Hee;Son, Dong-Soo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.349-353
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between estrous expression, body condition score (BCS), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and number of transferable embryos for the purpose of improving reproductive performance in blood of Hanwoo donors. Sixty, at random stages of the estrous cycle, received a CIDR. Four days later, the animals were superovulated with a total of 28AU FSH (Antorin, 2AU=1 ml) administered twice daily in constant doses over 4 days. On the 3th administration of FSH, CIDR was withdrawn and 25 mg PGF2 ${\alpha}$ was administered. Cows were artificially inseminated twice after estrous detection at 12 hr intervals. The cows received 100 ${\mu}g$ GnRH at the time of 1nd insemination. Embryos were recovered 7 or 8 days after the 1st insemination. The estrous inducement rate and estrous expression rate were significantly lower for cows with BCS below 2.25 than for cows with BCS above 2.25. There was 50.0% of rate of mounting in cows with BCS below 2.25 whereas the rate of mounting was markedly increased in cows with BCS above 2.25 (94.1% and 89.5% for BCS 2.25~2.75 and BCS above 2.75 cows, respectively). Cows with BCS <2.25, 2.25~2.75 and ${\geq}$2.75 had number of transferable embryos of $4.5{\pm}0.7$, $5.9{\pm}1.8$ and $5.6{\pm}2.3$ respectively.

Effects of Cortisol on the Steroidogenesis and the Apoptosis of Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells (Cortisol이 사람 과립-황체화 세포의 스테로이드 생성과 세포자연사에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Yang, Hyun-Won
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.329-339
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    • 2009
  • Cortisol is present in high concentration in the ovary and its receptor is expressed in the ovarian cells. Moreover, cortisol is known to have a role in steroid synthesis and cell metabolism in human granulosa and lutein cells. However, little is known of the role of cortisol presenting in high concentration in the follicles after LH surge on the granulosa-lutein cells. Therefore, the this study we evaluated the apoptosis and the production of progesterone $(P_4)$ and estradiol $(E_2)$ in the granulosa-lutein cells that are obtained during oocyte-retrieval after treatment with 5, 50, and $500{\mu}g/m\ell$ cortisol and 1 IU/$m\ell$ FSH. Results of DNA fragment analysis and TUNEL assay demonstrated that DNA fragmentation and the rate of apoptotic cells were increased in a dose-dependent manner showing a significant increase in 50 and $500{\mu}g/m\ell$ cortisol treated cells. We found, however, that FSH did not suppress the apoptosis of the cells induced by cortisol. In the results of chemiluminescence assay for $P_4$ and $E_2$, $P_4$ production was decreased by cortisol treatment, whereas $E_2$ was not changed. We also demonstrated that FSH did not inhibit the suppressive effect of GnRH on $P_4$ production as the result of apoptosis. The present study suggests that cortisol of high concentration could cause the apoptosis of human granulosa-lutein cells by suppressing the production of $P_4$. However, we need more studies to elucidate the mechanism by which cortisol induces apoptosis in human granulosa-lutein cells in view of the fact that our results are inconsistent with previous reported data.

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Analysis of Embryo Recovery Rate by Direct Embryo Collection (DEC) in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo) (한우에서 Direct Embryo Collection(DEC)을 이용한 체내 수정란의 회수율 분석)

  • Yoo, Han-Jun;Park, Joung-Jun;Yoon, Pil-Sang;Kim, Ki-Won;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.159-164
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed in order to determine optimum flushing solution using the direct embryo collection (DEC). Donors, at random stages of the estrous cycle, received a CIDR. 7 days later, 200 mg FSH was treated with 40, 30, 20, 10 mg FSH levels in declining doses twice daily by intramuscular injection for 4 days. On the 3$^{rd}$ day administration of FSH, 25 mg $PGF_2{\alpha}$ was administered and CIDR was withdrawn. After FSH injections were complete, donors were artificially inseminated twice at 12 hr intervals. The donor cattle received 250 ${\mu}g$ GnRH at time of 1$^{st}$ insemination and embryos were recovered 8 days after the 1$^{st}$ insemination. Embryo collection from superovulated donors were performed to flushing by DEC and conventional method. As a results, the average number of recovered embryos were significantly higher as 19.1${\pm}$1.40 with DEC method than 12.0${\pm}$0.44 with conventional embryo collection method, respectively (p<0.05). Also, The average number of transferable embryos were significantly higher (p<0.05) as 15.8${\pm}$1.72 with DEC method than 6.9${\pm}$0.35 from conventional embryo recovery procedures. Meanwhile, number of recovered embryos and number of recovered transferable embryos following the number of flushing times until 6${dr}$ flushing were significantly higher as 8.6${\pm}$0.53 and 8.6${\pm}$0.53 from 2$^{nd}$ flushing time than other groups (p<0.05). No. of Ear. B stage embryos were significantly higher as 3.9${\pm}$0.90 and 3.9${\pm}$0.90 with 2$^{nd}$ flushing time in total collected embryos and transferable embryos (p<0.05). Com M stage embryos were significantly higher as 3.7${\pm}$1.00 in 2$^{nd}$ flushing time and as 2.2${\pm}$0.76 in 3$^{rd}$ flushing time for recovered embryos (p<0.05). In transferable embryos, Com. M stage embryos were significantly higher (p<0.05) as 3.7${\pm}$1.00 in 2$^{nd}$ flushing time and as 2.2${\pm}$0.76 in 34$^{dr}$ flushing time, also. No. of degradation embryos was significantly higher as 2.2${\pm}$0.72 in 5${rd}$ flushing time, On the other hand, degradation embryos was not observed in transferable embryos (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that DEC method should effective methods for production of in vivo embryos using less flushing solution following perform until 4$^{rd}$ flushing time than conventional embryo collecting method. Also, it might be effectively collection of transferable embryos following more less procedure times compared to conventional embryo recovery methods.

Relationship between Nutritional Status and Transferable Embryos in Hanwoo Donors (한우 공란우의 영양 상태와 이식 가능 수정란과의 관계)

  • Jung, Yeon-Sub;Choe, Chang-Yong;Cho, Sang-Rae;Lim, Hyun-Joo;Yoon, Ho-Baek;Baek, Kwang-Soo;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Son, Dong-Soo;Son, Jun-Kyu
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between body weight, body condition score (BCS), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose, cholesterol and number of transferable embryos for the purpose of improving reproductive performance in Hanwoo donors. Seventy five cows, at random stages of the estrous cycle, received a CIDR together with injection of 1mg estradiol benzoate and 50 mg progesterone, and gonadotropin treatment begann. Four days later, the animals were superovulated with a total of 28AU FSH (Antorin, 2AU = 1 ml) administered twice daily in constant doses over 4 days. On the 3rd administration of FSH, CIDR was withdrawn and 25 mg $PGF_2{\alpha}$ was administered. Cows were artificially inseminated twice after estrous detection at 12 hr intervals. The cows received $100{\mu}g$ GnRH at the time of 1st insemination. Embryos were recovered 7 days after the 1st insemination. In conclusion, cows with body weight < 400, 400~450 and > 450kg had number of transferable embryos of $4.2{\pm}1.7$, $6.1{\pm}2.7$ and $4.8{\pm}2.6$, cows with BCS <2.25, 2.25~2.75 and ${\geq}2.75$ had number of transferable embryos of $4.6{\pm}1.6$, $5.7{\pm}2.4$ and $5.1{\pm}2.7$ respectively. These data indicate that a body weight and BCS for superovulation of CIDR-treated Korean native cows does not affect the embryo yield.

Antiinflammatory effect of ursodeoxycholic acid and mixture of natural extracts combined with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA를 함유한 생약추출물혼합제제의 항염효과에 관한 연구)

  • Rhyu, In-Cheol;Kim, Sang-Nyun;Chung, Chong-Pyoung
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.1013-1021
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    • 1996
  • There are many important factors in periodontal inflammation. $IL-1{\beta}$, $PGE_2$ and collagenase are predorminantly key factors. These inflammatory mediators induce gingival tissue and alveolar bone destruction. For the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease, it is necessary to inhibit $IL-1{\beta}$, $PGE_2$ production and collagenase activity. Ursodeoxycholic acid(UDCA) has immunomodulatory properties, and there is evidence that some natural extracts show antiinflammatory activity to some degree. The purpose of this study was to assess the inhibitory effect of UDCA and its mixture with natural extracts on $IL-1{\beta}$, $PGE_2$ production and collagenase activity. Accordingly we assessed the effect of UDCA and its mixture combined with some natural extracts on inhibition of $IL-1{\beta}$, $PGE_2$ production and collagenase activity. For the $IL-l{\beta}$ inhibition study, cultured cells were exposed to $25{\mu}g/ml$ LPS. $IL-1{\beta}$ activity was measured by $IL-1{\beta}$ enzyme immunoassay system. Human gingival fibroblasts were prepared and cells (l05/well) were seeded into culture plates. $rhIL-1{\beta}$ was added to induce $PGE_2$. The amount of $PGE_2$ in sample media was measured using enzyme immunoassay system. Crude collagenase was prepared from Porphyromonas gingivalis and collagenolytic activity was determined using a Collageno kit CLN-100. The test inhibitor was added to the assay mixture consisting of 0.1ml of 50mM Tris buffer(pH 7.5) and 0.2ml of substrate solution. UDCA and UDCA combined with natural extracts generally inhibited $IL-1{\beta}$ production. groups above 0.01% UDCA strongly inhibited $IL-l{\beta}$ synthesis. Both groups inhibited $IL-1{\beta}-induced$ synthesis of $PGE_2$. In low concentration, the degree of inhibition was as same as prednisolone. In high concentration, each group was superior to prednisolone. UDCA group and UDCA mixture group exerted a moderate inhibition of collagenolytic enzyme. The present study suggested that UDCA and its mixture with natural extracts could be further investigated as antiinflammatory drug for periodontal disease.

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