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Rice bran fermentation by lactic acid bacteria to enhance antioxidant activities and increase the ferulic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, and γ-oryzanol content

  • Le, Bao;Anh, Pham Thi Ngoc;Kim, Jung-Eun;Cheng, Jinhua;Yang, Seung Hwan
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.62 no.3
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 2019
  • Rice bran is considered a natural source of antioxidants. In this study, rice bran was fermented with lactic acid bacteria to increase its antioxidant activity. Four strains isolated from fermented food, Lactobacillus plantarum MJM60383, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MJM60392, Lactobacillus fermentum MJM60393, and Lactobacillus paracasei MJM60396, were confirmed as safe through stability tests such as safety assessment for biogenic amine production, hemolytic activity, and mucin degradation, and showed high reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity of rice bran fermentation altered by these strains was evaluated using several methods including measurement of $Fe^{2+}$ chelating activity and scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and nitric oxide assays. In this study, the total phenolic content and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to non-fermented rice bran and a commercial product, rice bran fermented with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MJM60392 showed the highest phenolic content (844.13 mg GAE/g). Moreover, the content of ferulic acids, ${\rho}$-coumaric acid, and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol in rice bran increased after fermentation with L. lactis subsp. lactis MJM60392 and L. fermentum MJM60393 compared to other samples. Indeed, the DPPH radical scavenging activity and NO scavenging activity were also found to be high in these fermented rice brans. These results indicated that fermentation with lactic acid bacteria increases the active compound levels and the potent antioxidant activities of rice bran.

Qualities and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Kyungokgos Sold in Local Markets (국내 시판 경옥고 제품의 품질 특성 및 항염증 활성)

  • Lee, Ka-Soon;Kim, Gwan-Hou;Kim, Hyun-Ho;Seong, Bong-Jae;Kim, Sun-Ick;Han, Seung-Ho;Kang, Eun Ju;Yoo, Yung Choon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.335-341
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    • 2013
  • Kyungokgos purchased in local markets in Korea vary in their combination and mixing ratios during processing. This study was investigated qualities of Kyungokgos manufactured traditionally to evaluating its qualities. The general components of Kyungokgos were moisture (18.62~49.78%), ash (0.198~1.211%), protein (0.89~3.58%), lipid (0.16~1.14%) and carbohydrates (47.95~77.08%). The color values of L, a, and b were 26.49~73.87, 16.51~38.64, and 45.41~88.94, respectively. The viscosity was classified into three non-Newtonian type groups: high, medium, and non-dilatant, according to the increase of loop execution times. Three extracts (KOG-1, -7, and -8, in a 30-fold dilution) showed no cytotoxicity toward RAW 264.7 cells, while the extracts of KOG-2, -4, and -5 showed a low cytotoxic effect. KOG-1 and -2 extracts with low cytotoxicity markedly inhibited the production of the inflammatory mediators-nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-${\alpha}$) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicate that KOG-1 and -2 extracts have anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

고능력한우 유래의 수정란 생산 및 이식에 관한 연구

  • 한만희;최창용;정세환;김상희;신권희;권응기;최선호;손동수;이규승
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Developmental Biology Conference
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    • pp.144-144
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    • 2003
  • 본 연구는 수정란이식기술을 이용하여 혈통과 유전능력이 분석된 고능력한우로부터 수정란을 생산하고 이를 번식기반이 미약한 농가의 수란우에 이식함으로서 우수한우 유전자원을 조기확대 보급하여 농가단위의 개량 및 번식우 사육기반을 구축하기 위해 실시하였다. 공란우는 축산기술연구소 남원지소의 축군에서 유전능력이 평가된 우수암소를 선발하였고, 발정주기 9~11일째부터 Folltropin-V(Vetrepharm, Canada) 50mg씩을 4일간 12시간 간격으로 근육주사하고 투여 6회째에 dineprost (LutalyseTM, Upjohn, USA) 20mg을 근육주사하여 과배란을 유기하였다. 인공수정은 dinoprost 주사후 48시간 전후에 발정을 확인하고 12시간 간격으로 2straw씩의 정액으로 3회 실시하였으며, 2차 인공수정 후 100$\mu\textrm{g}$ GnRH를 근육주사하였다. 수정란 채란은 공란우의 발정확인후 7~8일째에 balloon catheter(FHK, Japan)를 이용하여 비외과적방법으로 수정란을 회수하였다. 수란우는 각기 다른 사육조건의 4개 농가(OB, BD, SH 및 SG농장)에서 양호한 번식성적을 가진 개체를 10두씩 선발하여 CIDR plus(EAZI-Breed, New-Zealand)를 질내 7일간 삽입하고, CIDR plus제거 1일전에 dinoprost 20mg을 근육주사하여 발정동기화를 유도하였다. 수란우의 발정상태가 정상이며 발정주기 7~8일째에 직장검사법으로 황체검사를 실시하여 황체가 존재하는 쪽의 자궁각에 수정란 1 개를 이식하였다. 수정란이식 후 13일째에 혈액을 채취하여 임신진단키트(제네디아프로테 트, 녹십자)를 이용하여 임신여부를 1차적으로 확인하였다. 과배란을 유기한 13두의 공란우중 9두(69.2%)가 과배란 반응을 나타내었으며, 회수된 수정란 51개중 이식가능수정란은 38개(74.5%) 였다. 발정동기화를 유도한 수란우 40두중에서 35두(87.5%)가 발정이 동기화되었으며, 그 중 황체검사를 통하여 30두의 수란우에 수정란을 이식하였다. 수정란이식후 13일(발정주기 21일)에 혈액을 이용한 임신진단에서 농가별 수태율은 각각 37.5%, 70.0%, 60.0% 및 71.4% 로서 평균 60.0%를 나타내었다.

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Evaluation of Farmer's Workload and Thermal Environment During Harvesting Grape in Summer (여름철 포도 수확 작업 농민의 작업 환경 및 노동 부담 평가)

  • 최정화;김명주;이주영
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.40 no.11
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    • pp.193-205
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    • 2002
  • To evaluate farmers' workload during harvesting grapes in summer, this study investigated farmers' physiological, psychological responses, work postures and thermal environment around in the field. This field study was conducted in the Anseong County of Kyonggi Province at the end of August. Five career farmers (1 male, 4 females) volunteered as subjects. Three of them were over their sixties. During harvesting grapes in the field, physiological responses were monitored continuously. 1. Air temperature (T/sub a/), air humidity(H/sub a/), black globe temperature(T/sub g/), air velocity and WBGT around the grape field were 26.9℃, 77.7%RH, 32.8℃, 0.08㎧ and 26.3℃, respectively. Because farmers started the harvesting task in early morning, thermal environments weren't conditions to give farmers severe heat strain. 2. The percentage of the work postures was larger in order of standing, walking, and bending one's back posture. Particularly, the percentage of standing posture with raising both arms above shoulder of two farmers was up to 29% and 61% of the total work duration. 3. Rectal temperature (T/sub re/), mean skin temperature (T/sub sk/), clothing microclimate temperature (T/sub cl/) on the chest and the back, heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) were 37.2℃, 33.1℃, 32.0℃, 32.4℃, 88bpm and 1.3 Kca1/㎡/min respectively. In the point of these physiological results, we evaluated that the harvesting task was a moderate work. 4. All farmers expressed‘hard, hot, humid and slightly uncomfortable’ at the end of works for each subjective questionnaire. The grape harvesting tasks were not evaluated as a very hard work in the point of physiological work standards. But we considered 1) inappropriate work posture (standing posture with raising both arms above shoulder) and 2) farmers' age as burden factors. These findings suggest that adding adequate protective clothing/equipments for farmers may contribute to maintain their body temperature within the normal range, stabilize HR and decrease psychological strain.

Exosomes Secreted by Toxoplasma gondii-Infected L6 Cells: Their Effects on Host Cell Proliferation and Cell Cycle Changes

  • Kim, Min Jae;Jung, Bong-Kwang;Cho, Jaeeun;Song, Hyemi;Pyo, Kyung-Ho;Lee, Ji Min;Kim, Min-Kyung;Chai, Jong-Yil
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 2016
  • Toxoplasma gondii infection induces alteration of the host cell cycle and cell proliferation. These changes are not only seen in directly invaded host cells but also in neighboring cells. We tried to identify whether this alteration can be mediated by exosomes secreted by T. gondii-infected host cells. L6 cells, a rat myoblast cell line, and RH strain of T. gondii were selected for this study. L6 cells were infected with or without T. gondii to isolate exosomes. The cellular growth patterns were identified by cell counting with trypan blue under confocal microscopy, and cell cycle changes were investigated by flow cytometry. L6 cells infected with T. gondii showed decreased proliferation compared to uninfected L6 cells and revealed a tendency to stay at S or G2/M cell phase. The treatment of exosomes isolated from T. gondii-infected cells showed attenuation of cell proliferation and slight enhancement of S phase in L6 cells. The cell cycle alteration was not as obvious as reduction of the cell proliferation by the exosome treatment. These changes were transient and disappeared at 48 hr after the exosome treatment. Microarray analysis and web-based tools indicated that various exosomal miRNAs were crucial for the regulation of target genes related to cell proliferation. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the exosomes originating from T. gondii could change the host cell proliferation and alter the host cell cycle.

Effect of Storage Temperature and Humidity on Water Adsorption and Rancidity of Peanuts (저장 온습도가 땅콩의 흡습 및 산패에 미치는 영향)

  • Koh, Ha-Young;Kwon, Yong-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.216-222
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    • 1989
  • Water adsorption characteristics and lipid rancidity of fresh and roasted Peanuts were investigated at $25{\sim}60^{\circ)C$ and $11{\sim}85%$ relative humidity. peanuts of 50g were reached to the equilibrium water content in 14 days at $40^{\circ}C$, in 30 days at $25^{\circ}C$, respectively, in all of the relative humidity. BET monolayer water contents were $2.19{\sim}2.69%$ in fresh peanuts and $2.47{\sim}2.67%$ in roasted ones as dry basis at $25{\sim}40^{\circ)C$. Zero order reaction rate of peroxide value(POV) were $8{\sim}21times$ lower as $0.032day^{-1}$ and $0.142day^{-1}$in fresh peanuts than those of $0.663day^{-1}$ and $1.120day^{-1}$ in roasted peanuts at water activity of 0.51, but those were showed the relatively smaller differences according to the water activity and temperature. The critical peroxide value(POV) and carbonyl value(CV) were determined as 15.0meq/kg and 4.7meq/kg at $60^{\circ}C$ $0.51a_w$ by the regression analysis between chemical and sensory evaluation.

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Physical Characteristics and Germination of Pelleted Tobacco Seeds Depending on Moulding Materials (성형재료에 따른 담배 펠렛 종자의 물리적 틀성과 발아율)

  • 민태기;박민숙;이석순
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.535-541
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    • 1996
  • A seed pelleting technique was developed for easy handling of small tobacco seeds (variety, NC82) and for direct seeding in temperary planting bed or in field. The mixture of pelleting material, binder and seeds were moulded in cylindrical holes sized 2 mm diameter and 2 mm height in a plastic plate. Bentonite and cellulose powder were good materials to make pellets with CMC as binder, and bentonite formed the hardest pelleted seeds among the materials. The number of the pelleted seeds made with the same weight of the materials was different with materials used and the number of seeds contained in a pelleted seed could be controlled by mixture ratio of materials and seeds. The seedless pellets ranged 6.9 to 16.0% at the ratio of pelleting material and seed for 2~3 seeds in a pellet. The moisture absorption rate at 100% RH and $25^{\circ}C$ was greater in the order of clay < bentonite < cellulose. Germination rates of pelleted seeds with bentonite and cellulose were similar to that of usual seed, but it was significantly lower with clay pelleted seeds.

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Induction of Ovulation with Clomiphene Citrate (Clomiphene Citrate를 이용한 배란유도에 관한 연구)

  • Moon, S.Y.;Yoon, B.K.;Yoon, B.H.;Kim, J.G.;Lee, J.Y.;Chang, Y.S.
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 1985
  • Therapy for anovulation represents one of the more gratifying and successful type of infertility management. Despite the introduction of bromocriptine, human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG), and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), clomiphene citrate remains the mainstay of ovulation induction therapy. There is wide variability in reported rates of ovulation induction (57-91%) and conception (25-43%) following clomiphene therapy. Factors contributing to this variability among different reports are the differences in dosage and duration of therapy, different criteria utilized in selecting patients for clomiphene therapy and different luteal phase parameters of presumptive ovulation. A review of recent experience with clomiphene citrate in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Seoul National University from January, 1983 to May, 1985 yields the following conclusions: 1. Ovulation rate per total patients treated was, 69.0% 2. Pregnancy rate per total patients treated was 31.7%, and that per total patients ovulated was 45.9%. 3. Ovulation rate at the dosage level up to 150 mg/day (50.3-53.8%) was somewhat higher than that at 200 mg/day or more (33.3-34.6%), and pregnancy rate per total patients treated was comparable at each dosage level. 4. Ovulation rate per total patients ovulated at each dosage level, where ovulation and conception occurred, showed a decreasing tendency as the dosage increased, but pregnancy rate per total patients conceived was comparable except at 200 mg/day. 5. Cumulative pregnancy rate per total patients conceived in each ovulatory cycle was 68.9% in 3 cycles, 88.9% in 4 cycles, and 100% in 6 cycles.

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Control of Metal-Oxide Nanostructures for $H_{2}-Alcohol$ Fuel Cells (수소-알코올연료전지를 위한 금속-산화물 나노구조제어)

  • Park, Kyung-Won;Song, You-Jung;han, Sang-Beom;Lee, Jong-Min
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.141-145
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    • 2007
  • Due to their excellent catalytic activity with respect to methanol oxidation on platinum at low temperature, platinum nanosized catalysts have been a topic of great interest for use in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Since pure platinum is readily poisoned by CO, a by-product of methanol electrooxidation, and is extremely expensive, a number of efforts to design and characterize Pt-based alloy nanosized catalysts or Pt nanophase-support composites have been attempted in order to reduce or relieve the CO poisoning effect. In this review paper, we summarize these efforts based upon our recent research results. The Pt-based nanocatalysts were designed by chemical synthesis and thin-film technology, and were characterized by a variety of analyses. According to bifunctional mechanism, it was concluded that good alloy formation with $2^{nd}$ metal (e.g., Ru) as well as the metallic state and optimum portion of Ru element in the anode catalyst contribute to an enhanced catalytic activity for methanol electrooxidation. In addition, we found that the modified electronic properties of platinum in Pt alloy electrodes as well as the surface and bulk structure of Pt alloys with a proper composition could be attributed to a higher catalytic activity for methanol electooxdation. Proton conducting contribution of nanosized electrocatalysts should also be considered to be excellent in methanol electrooxidation (Spillover effect). Finally, we confirmed the ensemble effect, which combined all above effects, in Pt-based nanocatalsyts especially, such as PtRuRhNi and $PtRuWO_{3}$, contribute to an enhanced catalytic activity.

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Ethanol Extracts of Achillea millefolium and Hypericum perforatum Low Anti-Toxoplasma Activity

  • Nozari, Shagayegh;Azadmehr, Abbas;Nassiri-Asl, Marjan;Jahani-hashemi, Hasan;Adine, Mohtaram;Javadi, Farzaneh;Shahnazi, Mojtaba;Saraei, Mehrzad
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.70-73
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: This study was performed to determine the lethal and the inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts of Achillea millefolium (A. millefolium) and Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) on Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) RH strain tachyzoites in vitro. Methods: The tachyzoites were treated with concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 mg/mL of A. millefolium and H. perforatum extracts within 10, 30, and 45 minutes in the wells. The mortality rates of tachyzoites treated with extracts were determined by using alkaline methylene blue staining. Also, the tachyzoites in cell cultures were treated with concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL of these extracts. The cell viability, inhibition concentration ($IC_{50}$), and selectivity were determined from MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays. Results: In the cell-free in vitro study, all of tachyzoites were killed at concentrations of 100 mg/mL of both extracts while at concentration 10 mg/mL, the mortality was 4.53% - 5.31%. In the cell culture study, the values of the effective concentration ($EC_{50}$) were 215 and $153{\mu}g/mL$ and the selectivities were 0.73 and 0.69 for the A. millefolium and the H. perforatum extracts, respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that neither extracts has any significant effect on the tachyzoites of T. gondii in cell cultures.