• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fuel reforming

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Operating Characteristics on Coupling of Fuel-Cell System with Natural Gas Reformer (천연가스 개질기와 연계한 연료전지시스템의 운전특성)

  • Park, Se-Joon;Choi, Young-Sung;Hwang, Jong-Sun;Lee, Kyung-Sup
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers P
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.639-643
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    • 2009
  • A reformer, which produces hydrogen from natural gas, plays a major role for producing quality hydrogen to fuel-cell system. In this paper, fuel processor is designed to deliver hydrogen(75%) from the reformer to 200W fuel-cell system, and the electrical output power of the fuel-cells is examined by being injected different hydrogen concentrations to the system. We verified that the output power characteristics of the fuel-cells with 75% reformed hydrogen was lower about 7% than the case of pure hydrogen supplied. The type of reformer in this experiment takes SMR(Steam methane reforming) process, and the temperature variation characteristics of reforming process by reactions are examined in operation.

Methodology for removing unreacted low-hydrocarbons in diesel reformate for stable operation of solid oxide fuel cells (안정적인 SOFC 운전을 위한 디젤 개질기 내 미반응 저탄화수소 제거법)

  • Yoon, Sang-Ho;Bae, Joong-Myeon;Lee, Sang-Ho
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.773-776
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, new concept of the diesel fuel processing is introduced for the stable operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Heavier hydrocarbons than $CH_4$, such as ethylene, ethane, propane, and etc., induce the carbon deposition on anode of SOFCs. In the reformate of heavy hydrocarbons (diesel, gasoline, kerosene, and JP-8), concentration of ethylene is usually higher than low hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, and butane. So, removal of low hydrocarbons (over C1-hydrocarbons), especially ethylene, at the reformate gases is important for stable operation of SOFCs. New methodology as named "post-reformer" is introduced for removing the low hydrocarbons at the reformate gas stream. Catalyst of the NECS-PR4 is selected for post-reforming catalyst because the catalyst of NECS-PR4 shows the high selectivity for removing low hydrocarbons and achieving the high reforming efficiency. The diesel reformer and post-reformer are continuously operated for about 200 hours as integrated mode. The reforming performance is not degraded and low hydrocarbons in the diesel reformate are completely removed.

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Studies on the Production of Hydrogen by the Steam Reforming of Glycerol Over NI Based Catalysts (NI계 촉매상에서 글리세롤의 수증기 개질반응(Steam Reforming)에 의한 수소제조 연구)

  • Hur, Eun;Moon, Dong-Ju
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.493-499
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    • 2010
  • Steam reforming (SR) of glycerol, a main by-product of manufacturing process of bio-diesel, for the production of hydrogen was investigated over the Ni-based catalysts. The Ni-based catalysts were prepared by an impregnation method, and characterized by $N_2$ physisorption, CO chemisorption, XRD and TEM techniques. It was found that the Ni/${\gamma}-Al_2O_3$ catalyst showed higher conversion and catalytic stability for the carbon formation than the other catalysts in the steam reforming of glycerol under the tested conditions. The results suggest that the steam reforming of glycerol over modified Ni/${\gamma}-Al_2O_3$ catalyst minimized carbon formation can be applied in hydrogen station for fuel-cell powered vehicles and fuel processor for stationary and portable fuel cells.

A Personal Reformer(PR) for your Fuel cell system (연료전지를 위한 개인용 개질기)

  • Kim Hyeon Yeong
    • 한국전기화학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2004
  • The present paper relates to an apparatus in which all carbonaceous material such as coal, oil, plastics and any substance having carbon atoms as part of its constituents are reformed(gasified) into syngas at temperature above $1,200^{\circ}C$(KR patent No.0391121, and PCT/KR2001/01717 and PCT/KR2004/001020). It comprises a single-stage reforming reactor without catalyst and a syngas burner as shown in Fig.2. syngas is combusted with $O_2$ gas in the syngas bunter to produce $M_2O$ and $CO_2$ gas with exothermic heat. Reaction products are introduced into the reforming reactor, reaction heat from syngas burner elevate the temperature of reactor above $1,200^{\circ}C$, and reaction products reduce carbonaceous material down to CO and $H_2$ gases. Reactants and heat necessary for the reaction are provided through the syngas burner only, Neither $O_2$ gas nor steam are injected into the reforming reactor. Reformer is made of ceramic inner lining and sst outer casing. Multiple syngas burners may be connected to the reforming reactor in order to increase the syngas output, and a portion of the product syngas is recycled into syngas burner. The present reformer as shown in Fig.2 is suitable to gasify carbonaceous wastes without secondary pollutants formed from oxidation. Further, it can be miniaturized to accompany a fuel cell system as shown in Fig.3 The output syngas may be used to drive a fuel cell and a portion of electrical power generated in a fuel cell is used to heat a compact reformer up to $1,200^{\circ}C$ so that gas/liquid fossil fuel can efficiently reformed into syngas. The fuel cell serves as syngas burner in Fig.2. The reformation reaction is sustained through recycling a portion of product syngas into a fuel cell and using a portion of electric power generated to heat the reformer for continuous operation. Such reforming reactor may be miniaturized into a size of PC, then you have a Personal Reformer(PR).

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Availability of SOFC systems equipped with a recycled steam reforming fuel processor (재순환수증기 연료개질형 SOFC시스템의 효용성 평가)

  • Oh, Jin-Suk;Jung, Chang-Sik;Park, Sang-Kyun;Kim, Myoung-Hwan
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.569-573
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    • 2016
  • Strengthened regulations for atmospheric emissions from ships have created a need for new and alternative power systems that offer low emissions and high energy efficiency. Recently, new types of propulsion power systems, such as fuel cell systems that use hydrogen as an energy source, have gained serious consideration in applications requiring emission control. The purpose of this work is to certify the availability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems equipped with recycled steam reforming fuel processors, and to compare their performance with that of extra steam reforming systems. The results demonstrate that the recycled steam reforming system has a slightly lower cell voltage and higher energy efficiency than the extra steam reforming system.

Methane carbon dioxide reforming for hydrogen production in a compact reformer - a modeling study

  • Ni, Meng
    • Advances in Energy Research
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.53-78
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    • 2013
  • Methane carbon dioxide reforming (MCDR) is a promising way of utilizing greenhouse gas for hydrogen-rich fuel production. Compared with other types of reactors, Compact Reformers (CRs) are efficient for fuel processing. In a CR, a thin solid plate is placed between two porous catalyst layers to enable efficient heat transfer between the two catalyst layers. In this study, the physical and chemical processes of MCDR in a CR are studied numerically with a 2D numerical model. The model considers the multi-component gas transport and heat transfer in the fuel channel and the porous catalyst layer, and the MCDR reaction kinetics in the catalyst layer. The finite volume method (FVM) is used for discretizing the governing equations. The SIMPLEC algorithm is used to couple the pressure and the velocity. Parametrical simulations are conducted to analyze in detail the effects of various operating/structural parameters on the fuel processing behavior.

NUMERICAL STUDY OF HEAT TRANSFER AND FUEL CONVERSION FOR MCFC'S PRECONVERTER (MCFC 프리컨버터 촉매의 열전도특성과 연료전환율 해석)

  • Byun, D.H.;Sohn, C.H.
    • 한국전산유체공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.112-116
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, a preconverter of MCFC for an emergence electric power supplier is numerically simulated to increase the hydrogen production from natural gas (methane). Commercial code is used to simulated the porous catalyst with user subroutine to model three dominant chemical reactions which are Stream Reforming(SR), Water-Gas Shift(WGS), and Direct Stram Reforming(DSR). To get 10% fuel conversion rate in preconverter. the required external heat flux is supplied from outer wall of preconverter. The calculated results show that very nonuniform temperature distribution and chemical reaction happen near the wall of preconverter. These phenomena can be explained by the low heat conductivity of porous catalyst and the endothermic reforming reaction.

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Novel reforming of pyrolized fuel oil by electron beam radiation for pitch production

  • Jung, Jin-Young;Park, Mi-Seon;Kim, Min Il;Lee, Young-Seak
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.262-267
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    • 2014
  • Pyrolized fuel oil (PFO) was reformed by novel electron beam (E-beam) radiation, and the elemental composition, chemical bonds, average molecular weight, solubility, softening point, yields, and density of the modified patches were characterized. These properties of modified pitch were dependent on the reforming method (heat or E-beam radiation treatment) and absorbed dose. Aromaticity ($F_a$), average molecular weight, solubility, softening point, and density increased in proportion to the absorbed dose of E-beam radiation, with the exception of the highest absorbed dose, due to modification by free radical polymerization and the powerful energy intensity of E-beam treatment. The H/C ratio and yield exhibited the opposite trend for the same reason. These results indicate that novel E-beam radiation reforming is suitable for the preparation of aromatic pitch with a high ${\beta}$-resin content.

Start-up Strategy of Multi-Stage Burner for Methanol Fuel Reforming Plant (메탄올 연료 개질 플랜트의 다단연소기 시동 전략)

  • JI, HYUNJIN;BAIK, KYUNGDON;YANG, SUNGHO;JUNG, SEUNGKYO
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.201-208
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    • 2019
  • Recently, a fuel reforming plant for supplying high purity hydrogen is being applied to submarines. Since steam reforming is an endothermic reaction, it is necessary to continuously supply heat to the reactor. A fuel reforming plant for a submarine needs a multi-stage burner (MSB) to acquire heat and convert the combustion gas to $CO_2+H_2O$. The MSB has problems that the combustion imbalance occurs during start-up due to the temperature restriction of the combustion gas. This problems can be solved by burning $H_2O$ together with fuel and $O_2$. In this study, the simulation results of MSB were analyzed to determine the optimum flow rate of $H_2O$ supplied to the 6-stage burner. When the flow rate of $H_2O$ was low, combustion was concentrated on the burner#6 in comparison with the burner#1-#5. This combustion concentration improved as the supply amount of $H_2O$ increased. As a results, it was necessary to supply at least 4.9 kmol/h of $H_2O$ (per 1 kmol/h of fuel) to burner#1 in order to maintain the combustion gas temperature of each stage at $750^{\circ}C$ and to convert the final stage burner gas composition to $CO_2+H_2O$.

The Effect of Methane in Hydrogen on the Performance of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (수소연료 중의 메탄에 의한 고분자전해질 연료전지 성능변화 연구)

  • Seo, Jung-Geun;Kwon, Jun-Taek;Kim, Jun-Bum;Chung, Jong-Tae;Kim, Woo-Sik
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.432-438
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    • 2007
  • The reforming process for hydrogen production generates some impurities. Impurities in hydrogen such as $CO_2$, CO, $H_2S$, $NH_3$ affect fuel cell performance. It is well known that CO generated by the reforming process may negatively affect performance of cell, cause damage on catalysts resulting performance degradation. Hydrogen produced by reforming process includes about 2% methane. The presence of methane up to 10% is reported negligible degradation in cell performance. However, methane more than 10% in hydrogen stream had not been researched. The concentration of impurity supplied to the fuel cell was verified by gas chromatography(GC). In this study, the influence of $CH_4$ on performance of PEM fuel cell was investigated by means of current vs. potential experiment, long run(10 hr) test and electrochemical impedance measurement when the concentrations of impurities were 10%, 20% and 30%.