• Title/Summary/Keyword: Free oxalic acid

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Determination of Nutritious Calcium in Some Vegetables

  • Ishii, Yuuko;Takiyama, Kazuyoshi
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.855-858
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    • 1995
  • Vegetables contain more or less calcium. By the traditional method the total calcium in the vegetable was analyzed. A part or calcium in the vegetable is fixed as calcium oxalate and the calcium does not utilize for nutrition. In this investigation the free calcium was determined by extraction in boiling water, the combined calcium with oxalic acid was determined by extraction in 0.1 M hydrochloric aci and the other calcium combined with protein, amino acid etc. was estimated. The amount of calcium obtained from the difference between the total calcium and calcium exmtaining in calcium oxalate was estimated to be nutritious.

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Fluoride and Calcium in Tea Leaves

  • Takiyama, Kazuyoshi;Ishii, Yuuko
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.877-880
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    • 1995
  • The determination of fluoride and the nutritious calcium in infusion of teas are explained. Tea leaves were pulverized and were immersed in boiling water. The solution was filtered and fluoride, calcium and oxalic acid were determined by the ion chromatography. The quantities of fluoride, calcium and oxalate ions extracted from 100 g of tea leaves were calculated. Tea leaves were also immersed in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid and extracted oxalate and calcium ions were analyzed. The free oxalic acid and calcium were extracted in boiling water and the total ones were extracted in hydrochloric acid. The quantity of calcium oxalate was calculated from the total and the free oxalic acids. The free calcium was estimated to be nutritious.

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Structures and functions of microbial extracellular or wall polysaccharides in the physiology of producer organisms (미생물 다당류의 구조와 세포생리학적 기능)

  • 박용일
    • The Microorganisms and Industry
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.18-30
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    • 2000
  • Three kinds of organic matter such as glucose, oxalic acid, and ethanol were added to the media(N-free or NO$\_$3/-riched) and their effects on the nitrogen fixation of Nostoc pruniforme were measured by manometric technique through the experiments in vivo. 1) The organic matters used in this experiments showed effective results as a role of substrate for the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. 2) In the nitrogen-free medium treated with the both of flucose nad ethanol, the highest nitrogen uptakes were detected in the treated of low concentrations (glucose ; 0.1%, 0.5%, ethanol : 0.1%, 0.5%). On the contrary, the highest nitrogen uptakes in NO$\_$3/-riched medium were measured at the treated of high concentrations (glucose ; 2%, 1%, ethanol ; 1.5%, 1.0%). 3) The highest nitrogen uptakes in N-free medium treated with oxalic acid were measured at the concentration of 2% and 1%, respectively. In the medium of NO$\_$3/-riched, the nitrogen uptakes were in the opposite directions.

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Studies on the Components of Vegetables - 2. The free amino acid and organic acid contents in A. altissima leaves - (야채류(野菜類)의 성분(成分)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) - 2. A. altissima엽(葉)의 free amino acid및 organic acid함량(含量) -)

  • Kim, Seuk-Hwan;Cho, Soo-Yeul;Kim, Duck-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.17-20
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    • 1977
  • Contents of free amino acids and organic acids in the leaves of Ailanthus altissima were surveyed through the course of this study. The results were as follows; 1. Lysine, histidine, arginine, tryptophan, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, threonine, serine, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were presented in the leaves of A. altissima, and glutamic acid showed the highest amount and was more than about 48% of total free amino acids. 2. Fumaric acid was the major organic acid in the leaves of A. altissima, and also formic acid, acetic acid, maleic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid and sorbic acid were determined, and two unknown were found.

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Studies on the Nutritional Components of Dandelion(Taraxacum officinale) (민들레의 영양성분에 관한 연구)

  • 신승렬
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.495-499
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    • 1999
  • The free sugars in leaf and root of dandelion were composed of sucrose, glucose and fructose. The contents of total free sugars was higher in root than those in leaf. The oxalic acid, citric acid and malic acid contents of leaf was 45.4, 3.6, 2.7mg/100g-f.w., respectively. And the oxalic acid, citric acid and malic acid contents of root was 34.6, 2.1, 1.6mg/100g-f.w., respectively. Total free organic acid content of leaf was higher than that of root. The major free amino acids of dandelion were aspartic acid, serine, asparagine, glutamic acid, glycine, valine, isoleucine and content of glutamic acid was highest in free amino acids. The contents of vitamin A in leaf and root of dandelion was 135.4 and 34.1$\mu\textrm{g}$/100g-f.w., respectively. The contents of vitamin C in leaf and root of dandelion was 67.4 and 4.6 mg/100g-f.w., respectively.

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Studies on the Components of Vegetables (야채류(野菜類)의 성분(成分)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Cho, Soo-Yeul;Kim, Seuk-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.61-64
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    • 1976
  • A survey of the free amino acids and organic acids in the shoot of Phyllostachys edulis was made by means of amino acid autoanalyzer and gas chromatograph. The results of the survey are summerized as follows. 1. Eighteen amino acids found in bamboo shoot were lysine, histidine, arginine, tryptophan, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, threonine, serine, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, tyrosine and phenylalanine, and an unknown was found. Serine showed the highest amount and more than about 44% of total free amino acids. 2. Oxalic acid was the major organic acid, and formic acid, acetic acid, maleic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, citric acid, tartaric acid and sorbic acid were determined, and two unknown were found.

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Free sugar, Organic acid, Hesperidin, Naringin and Inorganic elements Changes of Cheju Citrus Fruits According to Harvest Date (제주산 감귤류의 숙기에 따른 유리당, 유기산, 헤스페리딘, 나린진, 무기물 함량의 변화)

  • Song, Eun-Young;Choi, Young-Hun;Kang, Kyung-Hee;Koh, Jeong-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.306-312
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    • 1998
  • Free sugar, organic acid, naringin, hesperidin and inorganic elements change of six varities of Cheju citrus fruits; Citrus natsudaidai, C. grandis, C. platymamma., C. sudachi, C. aurantiun and C. unshiu Marc. var. miyagawa by harvest date were investigated. Changes in free sugar of citrus fruits on the different harvesting stages and varieties showed a little differencies. The content of sucrose, glucose and maltose in citrus juice were $44.9{\sim}66.0%,\;15.7{\sim}25.7%\;and\;17.5{\sim}30.1%$, respectively. As the fruits were matured, free sugar was increased, but organic acid was decreased gradually. The major organic acids from the fruit juice were citric acid, malic acid and oxalic acid. Citric acid content exceeded 90%, oxalic acid ranged less than 3.58% and malic acid ranged $0.98{\sim}9.45%$ in total organic acids. Both naringin and hesperidin content showed markedly high in immature fruits, and in rind compare to fruit juice. Naringin and hesperidin content decreased as peel coloration progressed. It was estimated that fully matured fruits would be useful for making processed products, which lead to less turbity and less bitterness.

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New Bleaching Method for KP with Permanganate(III) -Evaluation of Role of Oxalic Acid as a Acid Catalyst and a Reductant on the Permanganate Oxidation with Phenolic Model Compounds- (과망간산칼륨을 이용한 KP의 새로운 표백법(제3보) -모델화합물 실험에서 Oxalic acid 첨가의 평가-)

  • Yasuo Kojima
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2001
  • Stricter environmental demands have increased the need to replace conventional C/D bleaching sequence by chlorine-free sequence. Permanganate is well known as a powerful oxidant and have been used industrially in variable fields. However, it has considered to be difficult to use permanganate as a bleaching reagent because of its strong oxidative effect decreasing the viscosity of pulps extremely. We have tried to use permanganate as a bleaching reagent for KP under the mild condition and it was clear that pernanganate oxidized lignin remained in pulps selectively and increased pulp brightness decreasing K number of pulps with small degradation of cellulose. We have employed the neutral condition in the permanganate bleaching process in this study. In this case, permanganate was converted to manganese dioxide after bleaching reaction. The manganese dioxide is remained in the treated pulp fibers because of its insolublity in water. So it was required to reduction the manganese oxide to manganese ion by using reductants with acid. In this paper, we proposed to use oxalic acid as a reducing reagent converting manganese oxide to manganese ion after bleaching reaction. Oxalic acid plays the role as a reductant and a acid, so post-treatment after bleaching became to be easy by using oxalic acid. On the study using lignin model compounds, it was clear that permaganate react with phenols firstly, after that oxalic acid reduce the manganese oxide to manganese ion in the mixture of permanganate, phenols and oxalic acid. Several lignin model compounds ($\textit{p}$-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin, syringaldehyde, veratraldehyde) are selected to elucidate the effect of substituents on reaction rate and its mechanism with permanganate including oxalic acid in this study. Except for veratraldehyde, the rate of oxidative degradation of phenolic compounds by permanganate with oxalic acid are higher than neutral condition. Especially, the degradation rate of $\textit{p}$-hydroxybenzaldehyde are strongly dependent on pH of reaction mixture. On the other hand, the degradation rate of veratraldehyde are decreased with decreasing pH and main degradation product is veratric acid. This result indicate that pH of bleaching liquor should be kept over 2 to degrade of non-phenolic lignin in the pulps effectively in permanganate bleaching.

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Nitrogen Fixation of Blue Green Algae (Nostoc pruniforme) (남조류(Nostic pruniforme)의 질소고정능에 관한 연구)

  • 홍순우;최영길
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 1973
  • Three kinds of organic matter such as glucose, oxalic acid, and ethanol were added to the media(N-free or $NO_{3}$-riched) and their effects on the nitrogen fixation of Nostoc pruniforme were measured by manometric technique through the experiments in vivo. 1) The organic matters used in this experiments showed effective results as a role of substrate for the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. 2) In the nitrogen-free medium treated with the both of flucose nad ethanol, the highest nitrogen uptakes were detected in the treated of low concentrations (glucose ; 0.1%, 0.5%, ethanol : 0.1%, 0.5%). On the contrary, the highest nitrogen uptakes in $NO_{3}$-riched medium were measured at the treated of high concentrations (glucose ; 2%, 1%, ethanol ; 1.5%, 1.0%). 3) The highest nitrogen uptakes in N-free medium treated with oxalic acid were measured at the concentration of 2% and 1%, respectively. In the medium of $NO_{3}$-riched, the nitrogen uptakes were in the opposite directions.

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Effect of Temperature on the Production of Free Organic Acids during Kimchi Fermentation

  • Park, Young-Sik;Ko, Chang-Young;Ha, Duk-Mo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.266-269
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    • 1993
  • The production of free non-volatile and volatile organic acids in Kimchi during fermentations at 30, 20 and $5^{\circ}C$, were determined by gas chromatography. The order in the amount of non-volatile organic acid, soon after preparation, was malic, citric, tartaric, pyroglutamic, oxalic, lactic, succinic and ${\alpha}-ketoglutaric$ acids. The major non-volatile acids at the optimum ripening time were malic, tartaric, citric and lactic acids, and as the temperature was lowered, the amount of lactic, succinic, oxalic, pyroglutamic and fumaric acids increased, while that of malic and tartaric acids decreased. The order in the amount of volatile acids at the beginning was acetic, butyric, propionic and formic acids. Among these acids, acetic acid was significantly increased in its amount during fermentation and the Kimchi fermented at low temperature produced more acetic acid than that fermented at high temperature.

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