• Title/Summary/Keyword: Forage

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Evaluation of Methods for Determination of Bulk Density of Eight Kinds of Forage under Air-dry and Wet Conditions

  • Sekine, J.;Kamel, Hossam E.M.;El-Seed, Abdel Nasir M.A. Fadel;Hishinuma, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.1126-1130
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    • 2003
  • The conditions of measurement for the determination of bulk density were evaluated to assess the bulkiness of 8 kinds of forage. The bulkiness of the forages was determined with 4 different sizes of forage samples with 7 different pressure application under air-dry and wet conditions. The dry bulk density (DBD) curvilinearly regressed with the pressure applied. The particle size of the samples and kinds of forage used in the present study did not affect changes in values of DBD determined under pressures over $20g/cm^2$ up to $200g/cm^2$. The values of the wet bulk density (WBD) increased as an increment of particle size, but were not always regressed on the particle size of the 8 kinds of forage. The DBD determined on 8 mm particles showed a higher correlation coefficient with neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents. The DBD may be a useful tool for the assessment of NDF in forage, when it is determined under condition of a pressure of $100g/cm^2$ or over with a particle size of 8 mm. The WBD may not be utilized for the direct measurement of the physical characteristics of forage, but may be required a thorough consideration on water solubility of forages. Further studies are needed to clarify the DBD contribution to the prediction of forage intake by ruminants.

Lactobacillus plantarum Improves the Nutritional Quality of Italian Ryegrass with Alfalfa Mediated Silage

  • Ilavenil, Soundarrajan;Arasu, Mariadhas Valan;Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan;Jung, Min-Woong;Park, Hyung Soo;Lim, Young Cheol;Choi, Ki Choon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.174-178
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    • 2014
  • The present study was planned to analyze the nutritional quality, microbial counts and fermentative acids in Italian ryegrass (IRG) 80% and alfalfa 20% (IRG-HV) mediated silage inoculated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a probiotic strain for 3 months. Crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and In-vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeast and fungi counts and fermentation metabolites such as lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acids were analyzed. The result shows that the nutritional quality and metabolite profiles of silage were significantly improved with LAB. For microbial counts, LAB showed dominant followed by yeast as compared with control silage. The pH of the silage also reduced significantly when silage inoculated with LAB. The result confirmed that silage preparation using different crops with L. plantarum inoculation is most beneficial for the farmers.

Effect of Mixed Sowing Ratios Between Whole Crop Barley with Hooded Type and Forage Pea on the Forage Yield and Quality (삼차망 청보리와 사료용 완두의 혼파재배가 수량 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Ju, Jung-Il;Park, Jong-Min;Lee, Jung-Jun;Kim, Chang-Ho;Koo, Han-Mo;Oh, Tae-Seok;Lee, Hyo-Won
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 2009
  • The study was conducted to clarify the mixed seeding rate of whole crop barley with hood type and forage pea for using of forage crops and to compare the forage yield and quality. At a mixed seeding rate between the whole crop barley (WCB) and forage pea, The heading date and plant height of WCB were not a difference according to mixed seeding rate of forage pea. The tillers of the WCB were a decrease and plant of the forage pea were a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea. The lodging index of the WCB was a appearance with distribution of $0{\sim}3$, The lodging index of WCB with a 20kg/10a seeding rate of a only WCB without seeding of the forage pea was 3. The overwintering rate of forage pea was a appearance more than 90% at all treatment. The plant height of forage pea was a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea at 14 kg/10a and 20 kg/10a plots of WCB. At a mixed seeding between the WCB and forage pea, The fresh weight was a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea and was a appearance more than 3,000 kg at all treatment plot. But the dry matter weight was decrease according to increased seeding rates of forage pea. The dry matter weight of 20 kg/10a seeding rate of a only WCB without seeding of the forage pea showed the most amount with 1,266 kg. The crude protein (CP) content was a tendency to increase according to increased seeding rates of forage pea. But, the relative feed value (RFV) was a tendency to decrease according to increased seeding rate of forage pea. The highest RFV was 183.8 at 14 kg/10a seeding rate of a only WCB without seeding of the forage pea. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea at 14 kg/10a and 20 kg/10a plots of WCB. The highest content of ADF and NDF were 23.9% and 46.3% at mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 10 kg/10a of forage pea, respectively. The highest sum of standardized score by fresh weight, dry matter weight, CP, ADF, NDF and RFV was 2.309 at mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 7.5 kg/10a of forage pea. The optimum mixed seeding rate was a considered judgment in the order of mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 7.5 kg/10a of forage pea, mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 5.0 kg/10a of forage pea.

Evaluaton of the Government Recommended Forage Cultivars in Korea I. Forage performance and quality of oat cultivars (목초 및 사료작물 정부장려품종의 지역적응성 평가 I. 연맥품종의 사초수량 및 사료가치)

  • 김동암;전우복;신정남;권찬호;한건준;금종성;임상훈
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 1997
  • Nine oat(Avena sativa L.) cultivars have been recommended as the govemment recommended forage cultivars since 1984, however, their forage performance and quality have mostly been tested at two locations, such as Suweon in the Middle Northwestem Coast Region and Sunghwan in the Middle Southwestern Coast Region. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to retest the forage performance and quality of six government recommended oat cultivars at five scattered locations, such as Icheon, Suweon, Sunghwan, Keongsan and Kwangju fom 1992 to 1994 with the intention of improving recommendations to dairy farmers. Among the oat cultivars tested, "West" was the highest yielding cultivar at all locations in 1992-94, but the lowest yielding cultivars varied by location and year. At both Icheon and Suweon, "Cayuse", "Magnum" and "Foothill", at Sunghwan, "Cayuse" , "Ensiler" and "Foothill", at Keongsan, "Magnum", "Cayuse" and "Swan", and at Kwangju, "Cayuse", "Magnum" and "Cayuse", were the lowest yielding cultivars in 1993, 1994 and 1995, respectively. At all locations in 1992-94, "West" and "Swan" were the most advanced in growth stage, but "Cayuse", "Foothill", "Magnum" and "Ensiler" were the latest developing cultivars among the oats. Differences among the oat cultivars for the three-year mean NDF, ADF and IVDMD were small and inconsistent, but forage quality of the oats was generally lowest in the early developing cultivars and highest in the late developing cultivars. The govemment recommended oat cultivars tested were generally well adapted across the country, however, in forage production situations in the fall where high yield is more important, early maturing oat cultivars might be preferable to late cultivars because they have higher forage yield earlier in the fall.ction situations in the fall where high yield is more important, early maturing oat cultivars might be preferable to late cultivars because they have higher forage yield earlier in the fall.

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Comparison of Forage Production and Nutritional Value of Italian ryegrass, Rye and Whole Crop Barley as Winter Forage Crops in Southern Region of Korea

  • So, Min Jeong;Kim, Hyeon Shup;Kim, Ji Hye;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Lee, Ki-Won;Jung, Jeong Sung;Sung, Kyung-Il;Peng, Jing lun;Park, Hyung Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.245-250
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted from October 2014 to May 2015 to explore forage production and feed values of Italian ryegrass, Rye and whole crop barley as winter forage crops in the Southern region of Korea. The experimental location was over 10 points for each species and each sampling point area was $1m^2$ (Width: 1 m ${\times}$ Length: 1 m). Air mean temperature and rainfall in the Southern region of Korea during the experimental period was $6.95{\pm}5.75^{\circ}C$ and $70.45{\pm}54.68mm$, respectively. Fresh forage yield of Italian ryegrass, the most cultivated forage in the Southern region of Korea, was $44.4{\pm}7.0ton/ha$. The percentage of dry matter for whole crop barley was $28.9{\pm}7.0%$. Crude protein (CP) was higher in Italian ryegrass ($10.7{\pm}5.3%$) while total digestible nutrient (TDN) had the highest value in whole crop barley. Crude protein was not significantly different by location. However, the neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and total digestible nutrient value of forage from Jeonbuk province were higher than in forage from Gyeongnam province.

Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: Grazeable Forage Options

  • Islam, M.R.;Garcia, S.C.;Clark, C.E.F.;Kerrisk, K.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.703-715
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    • 2015
  • One of the challenges to increase milk production in a large pasture-based herd with an automatic milking system (AMS) is to grow forages within a 1- km radius, as increases in walking distance increases milking interval and reduces yield. The main objective of this study was to explore sustainable forage option technologies that can supply high amount of grazeable forages for AMS herds using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model. Three different basic simulation scenarios (with irrigation) were carried out using forage crops (namely maize, soybean and sorghum) for the spring-summer period. Subsequent crops in the three scenarios were forage rape over-sown with ryegrass. Each individual simulation was run using actual climatic records for the period from 1900 to 2010. Simulated highest forage yields in maize, soybean and sorghum- (each followed by forage rape-ryegrass) based rotations were 28.2, 22.9, and 19.3 t dry matter/ha, respectively. The simulations suggested that the irrigation requirement could increase by up to 18%, 16%, and 17% respectively in those rotations in El-Nino years compared to neutral years. On the other hand, irrigation requirement could increase by up to 25%, 23%, and 32% in maize, soybean and sorghum based rotations in El-Nino years compared to La-Nina years. However, irrigation requirement could decrease by up to 8%, 7%, and 13% in maize, soybean and sorghum based rotations in La-Nina years compared to neutral years. The major implication of this study is that APSIM models have potentials in devising preferred forage options to maximise grazeable forage yield which may create the opportunity to grow more forage in small areas around the AMS which in turn will minimise walking distance and milking interval and thus increase milk production. Our analyses also suggest that simulation analysis may provide decision support during climatic uncertainty.

A Comparative Study on the Nutritive Value of Festulolium braunii ( Fstuca pratensis Huds. $\times$ Lolium multiflorum Lam. ) (Festulolium braunii ( Fstuca pratensis Huds. $\times$ Lolium multiflorum Lam. ) 의 사료가치 비교 연구)

  • 이인덕;이형석
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.151-156
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the forage yield and quality of Fesrulolium bmunii(Festuca prafensis Huds. x Lolium multiflomm Lam.) as a forage sources. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications from Sep. 1995 to May 1998 at Chungnam University. Treatments consisted of two forage species, Festulolium bmunii(Pau1ita) and Dactylis glomerc;d4Potomac). The dry matter yields, nutritive value, N and energy balance were observed. The yields of DM, CPDM and DDM per area(ha) were higher for Potomac (P< 0.01) than for Paulita. The content of CP showed no difference between Potomac and Paulita, but NDF, ADF and lignin contents of Paulita were absolutly lower than those of Potomac (P<0.05). The retained N and energy were also high for Paulita compare to for Potomac. It could be suggested that Paulita has higher potential for improvement of the forage quality than Potomac and it have a potential to provide as a forage sources.

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Relationship Between the Number of Livestock and the Area of Forage Crop of Saemangeum Crop-livestock Complex (새만금 경축순환농업단지의 적정 가축 사육두수와 조사료 재배면적의 관계 분석)

  • Lee, Jae-Hwang;Lee, Seung-Heon;Choi, Eun-Hee;Kim, Byeong-Ki
    • KCID journal
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.18-24
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    • 2011
  • The suitable area of forage crop field was calculated under the assumption that all of the liquied manure would be used to nutrient of crops at the Saemangeum crop-livestock complex. At first, Korean cattle and dairy cattle were selected and swine was excluded becausr of high pollution availability. When forage crop was calculated from nutrient amounts of manure of livestocks and standard applicable fertilizer quantity to the selected forage crops, 232ha (278ha including infrastructure part) was determined to be appropriate in case of 2500 heads of Korean cattle and 300 heads of dairy cattle were raised. From the result by that calculated ares (232ha) to forage crop feeding could be possible to the Korean cattle and dairy cattle feeding using TDN index, more than 217ha of forage crop fields would be satisfied nutritionally.

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Effects of Alum Sludge Application on Root Growth of Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor$\times$ S. bicolor) Cultivated in Mountainous Kumsan District

  • Kim, Sangdeog A.;Chang, Ki-Woon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.85-90
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    • 2000
  • Forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor) was cultivated for knowing the effect of alum sludge application on its root growth in a mountainous site, Kumsan. And the results obtained are as follows: The available P205 content in the soil seemed to decrease with the advance of level of alum sludge application. And plant P content decreased with the advance of sludge application without phosphate fertilizer. With phosphate fertilizer, root number of the forage was greater than that without the fertilizer. The root growth of forage sorghum was the highest with NPK and the least in control and alum application, and it is not recommended to apply NPK and alum together for the growth of the forage root. (Key words : Root, Sorghum, Mineral, Sludge, Kumsan)

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