The response and effect on main upland crops to potassium were discussed and summarized as follows. 1. Adequate average amounts of potash per 10a were 32kg for forage crop; 22.5kg for vegetable crops; 17.3kg for fruit trees; 13.3kg for potatoes; and 6.5kg for cereal crops. Demand of potassium fertilizer in the future will be increased by expanding the acreage of forage crops, vegetable crops and fruit trees. 2. On the average, optimum potash rates on barley, wheat, soybean, corn, white potato and sweet potato were 6.5, 6.9, 4.5, 8.1, 8.9, and 17.7kg per 10a respectively. Yield increaments per 1kg of potash per 10a were 4-5kgs on the average for cereal crops, 68kg for white potato, and 24kg for sweet potato. 3. According to the soil testing data, the exchangeable potassium in the coastal area was higher than that in the inland area and medium in the mountainous area. The exchangeable potassium per province in decreasing order is Jeju>Jeonnam>Kangweon>Kyongnam. Barley : 4. The response of barley to an adequate rate of potassium seemed to be affected more by differences in climatic conditions than to the nature of the soil. 5. The response and the adequate rate of potassium in the southern area, where the temperature is higher, were low because of more release of potassium from the soil. However, the adequate rate of phosphorus was increased due to the fixation of applied phosphorus into the soil in high temperature regions. The more nitrogen application would be required in the southern area due to its high precipitation. 6. The average response of barley to potassium was lower in the southern provinces than northern provinces. Kyongsangpukdo, a southern province, showed a relatively higher response because of the low exchangeable potassium content in the soil and the low-temperature environment in most of cultivation area. 7. Large annual variations in the response to and adequate rates of potassium on barley were noticed. In a cold year, the response of barley to potassium was 2 to 3 times higher than in a normal year. And in the year affected by moisture and drought damage, the responses to potassium was low but adequate rates was higher than cold year. 8. The content of exchangeable potassium in the soil parent materials, in increasing order was Crystalline Schist, Granite, Sedimentary and Basalt. The response of barley to potash occurred in the opposite order with the smallest response being in Crystalline Schist soil. There was a negative correlation between the response and exchangeable potassium contents but there was nearly no difference in the adequate rates of potassium. 9. Exchangeable potassium according to the mode of soil deposition was Alluvium>Residium>Old alluvium>Valley alluvium. The highest response to potash was obtained in Valley alluvium while the other s showed only small differences in responses. 10. Response and adequate rates of potassium seemed to be affected greatly by differences in soil texture. The response to potassium was higher in Sandy loam and Loam soils but the optimum rate of potassium was higher in Clay and Clay loam. Especially when excess amount of potassium was applied in Sandy loam and Loam soils the yield was decreased. 11. The application of potassium retarded the heading date by 1.7 days and increased the length of culm. the number of spikelet per plant, the 1,000 grain weight and the ratio of grain weight to straw. Soybean : 12. Average response of soybean to potassium was the lowest among other cereal crops but 28kg of grain yield was incrased by applying potash at 8kg/10a in newly reclaimed soils. 13. The response in the parent materials soil was in the order of Basalt (Jeju)>Sedimentay>Granite>Lime stone but this response has very wide variations year to year. Corn : 14. The response of corn to potassium decreased in soils where the exchangeable potassium content was high. However, the optimum rate of applied potassium was increased as the soil potassium content was increased because corn production is proportional to the content of soil potassium. 15. An interaction between the response to potassium and the level of phosphorus was noted. A higher response to potassium and higher rates of applied potassium was observed in soils contained optimum level of phosphorus. Potatoes : 16. White potato had a higher requirement for nitrogen than for potassium, which may imply that potato seems to have a higher capability of soil potassium uptake. 17. The yield of white potato was higher in Sandy loam than in Clay loam soil. Potato yields were also higher in soils where the exchangeable potassium content was high even in the same soil texture. However, the response to applied potassium was higher in Clay loam soils than in Sandy loam soils and in paddy soil than in upland soil. 18. The requirement for nitrogen and phosphorus by sweet potato was relatively low. The sweet potato yield is relatively high even under unfavorable soil conditions. A characteristics of sweet potatoes is to require higher level of potassium and to show significant responses to potassium. 19. The response of sweet potato to potassium varied according to soil texture. Higher yields were obtained in Sandy soil, which has a low exchangeable potassium content, by applying sufficient potassium. 20. When the optimum rate of potassium was applied, the yields of sweet potato in newly reclaimed soil were comparable to that in older upland soils.
In order to establish an optimal double cropping system to obtain the maximum annual quantity, we investigated the annual productivity of whole-crop silage (WCS) rice, Jowoo (Jw), Yeongwoo (Yw), and Mogwoo (Mw), and winter feed crops (WFC), Italian ryegrass (IRG), Greenfarm (GF), rye Gogu (GU), and triticale Joseong (JS), in paddy fields of the central plains of Korea. From 2016 to 2019, each crop was subjected to two standard cultivation methods: WCS rice and WFC optimal. Using the WCS optimal mode, the average dry matter yield (DMY) of WCS rice, early flowering Jw, was 15.8 tons/ha and 21.0 for the mid-late heading Yw; there was no significant difference compared to the 19.2 tons/ha late-flowering Mw (p<0.01). The WFC were not significantly different between GF (3.2 tons/ha) and GU (4.5) sown on September 23rd, while JS was the highest at 12.6 tons/ha (p<0.001). There was a significant difference in the order of JS (16.6 tons/ha) > GF (10.5) > GU (4.7)(p<0.001) sown on October 11th. For JS sown on October 31st, the DMY was 11.8 tons/ha, which was significantly higher than that of the other two crops (p<0.05). Except for rye GU, DMY was the highest when sown on October 11th. For WFC optimal mode, the average DMY of JS was the highest at 18.3 tons/ha, which was significantly different from that of GF (10.9) and GU (9.6) (p<0.001). The DMY of WCS rice transplanted on May 10th was the highest at 23.0 tons/ha in Mw, which was not significantly different from that of Yw (21.4) but significantly different from that of Jw (15.9) (p<0.05). On transplanting on May 25th, the DMY of Mw was the highest at 24.2 tons/ha; this was not significantly different from that of Yw (20.7), but it was significantly different from that of Jw (18.6) (p<0.05). When transplanted on June 11th, the DMY was 21.3 tons/ha in Yw, which was significantly higher than the DMY of other two cultivars, Jw and Mw (p<0.05). For the WCS rice-WFC double cropping, the total annual DMY was 33.6 tons/ha with the combination of the WCS rice, Yw, and the triticale JS for WCS optimal mode. Meanwhile, the total annual DMY was 39.6 tons/ha with the combination of the triticale JS and the WCS rice, Yw, for WFC optimal mode. In conclusion, the strategies for obtaining the maximum yield of high-quality forage for WCS rice-WFC, WFC-WCS rice double cropping are as follows: 1) cultivation centered on the optimal mode of WFC, and 2) sowing the WFC, triticale JS in mid-October, harvesting the crops around the end of May and transplanting the WCS rice, Yw, in early June to obtain the maximum DMY of 39.6 tons/ha.
The physiological and biochemical role of potassium for upland crops according to recent research reports and the nutritional status of potassium in Korea were reviewed. Since physical and chemical characteristics of potassium ion are different from those of sodium, potassium can not completely be replaced by sodium and replacement must be limited to minimum possible functional area. Specific roles of potassium seem to keep fine structure of biological membranes such as thylacoid membrane of chloroplast in the most efficient form and to be allosteric effector and conformation controller of various enzymes principally in carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Potassium is essential to improve the efficiency of phoro- and oxidative- phosphorylation and involve deeply in all energy required metabolisms especially synthesis of organic matter and their translocation. Potassium has many important, physiological functions such as maintenance of osmotic pressure and optimum hydration of cell colloids, consequently uptake and translocation of water resulting in higher water use efficiency and of better subcellular environment for various physiological and biochemical activities. Potassium affects uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients and quality of products. potassium itself in products may become a quality criteria due to potassium essentiality for human beings. Potassium uptake is greatly decreased by low temperature and controlled by unknown feed back mechanism of potassium in plants. Thus the luxury absorption should be reconsidered. Total potassium content of upland soil in Korea is about 3% but the exchangeable one is about 0.3 me/100g soil. All upland crops require much potassium probably due to freezing and cold weather and also due to wet damage and drought caused by uneven rainfall pattern. In barley, potassium should be high at just before freezing and just after thawing and move into grain from heading for higher yield. Use efficiency of potassium was 27% for barley and 58% in old uplands, 46% in newly opened hilly lands for soybean. Soybean plant showed potassium deficiency symptom in various fields especially in newly opened hilly lands. Potassium criteria for normal growth appear 2% $K_2O$ and 1.0 K/(Ca+Mg) (content ratio) at flower bud initiation stage for soybean. Potassium requirement in plant was high in carrot, egg plant, chinese cabbage, red pepper, raddish and tomato. Potassium content in leaves was significantly correlated with yield in chinese cabbage. Sweet potato. greatly absorbed potassium subsequently affected potassium nutrition of the following crop. In the case of potassium deficiency, root showed the greatest difference in potassium content from that of normal indicating that deficiency damages root first. Potatoes and corn showed much higher potassium content in comparison with calcium and magnesium. Forage crops from ranges showed relatively high potassium content which was significantly and positively correlated with nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium content. Percentage of orchards (apple, pear, peach, grape, and orange) insufficient in potassium ranged from 16 to 25. The leaves and soils from the good apple and pear orchards showed higher potassium content than those from the poor ones. Critical ratio of $K_2O/(CaO+MgO)$ in mulberry leaves to escape from winter death of branch tip was 0.95. In the multiple croping system, exchangeable potassium in soils after one crop was affected by the previous crops and potassium uptake seemed to be related with soil organic matter providing soil moisture and aeration. Thus, the long term and quantitative investigation of various forms of potassium including total one are needed in relation to soil, weather and croping system. Potassium uptake and efficiency may be increased by topdressing, deep placement, slow-releasing or granular fertilizer application with the consideration of rainfall pattern. In all researches for nutritional explanation including potassium of crop yield reasonable and practicable nutritional indices will most easily be obtained through multifactor analysis.
This study aimed at contributing to the improvement of cropping systems after finding out the effects of excrements and components of crop root influence on other crops as well as themselves. The following forage crops suitable for our country were selected for the present study. Aqueous extracts of fresh roots, aqueous extracts of rotting roots and aqueous solutions of excrements of red clover, orchard grass and brome grass were studied for the effects influencing the germination and growth of seedlings of red clover, ladino clover, lespedeza, soybean, orchard grass, Italian ryegrass, brome grass, barley, wheat, sorghum, corn and Hog-millet. In view of the possibility that the organic acid might be closely related to the excrements and components of crop root connected with soil sickness, the acid components of three species of roots were analysed by paper chromatography and gas chromatography method. The following results were obtained: 1. Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Fresh Roots : Aqueous extracts of red clover: The extracts inhibited the growth of seedlings of the ladino clover and lespedeza and also inhibited the development of most crops except that of sorghum among the Graminaceae. Aqueous extracts of orchard grass: The extracts promoted the seedlings growth of red clover and soybean, while it inhibited the germination and growth of orchard grass. There were no noticeable effects influencing other crops while it inhibited the growth of barley and Hog-millet. Aqueous extracts of brome grass: There was no effect on Italian ryegrass but there was an inhibiting effect on the other crops. 2. Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Rotting Roots : Aqueous extracts of red clover: The extracts promoted the seedling growth of red clover. But it reflected the inhibiting effects on other crops except sorghum. Aqueous extracts of orchard grass: The extracts promoted the growth of red clover, ladino clover, soybean and sorghun, while it inhibited the germination and rooting of barley and Hog-millet. Aqueous extracts of brome grass: The extracts gave the promotive effects to the growth of red clover, soybean and sorghum, but caused inhibiting effects on orchard grass, brome grass, barley and Hog-millet. 3. Effects of Aqueous Solutions of Excrements : The aqueous solution of excrements of red clover reflected the inhibition effects to the growth of Graminaceae, while the aqueous solutions of excrements of orchard grass and Italian ryegrass caused the promotive effects on the growth of red clover. 4. Results of Organic Acid Analysis : The oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, malonic acid, malic acid and succinic acid were included in the roots of red clover as unvolatile organic acid, and in the orchard grass and brome grass there were included the oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid and malic acid. And formic acid was confirmed in the red clover, orchard grass and brome grass as volatile organic acid. In consideration of the results mentioned in above the effects of excrements and components of roots found in this studies may be summarized as follows. 1) The red clover generally gave a disadvantageous effect on the Graminaceae. Such trend was considered chiefly caused by the presence of many organic acids, namely oxalic, citric, tartaric, malonic, malic, succinic and formic acid. 2) The orchard grass generally gave an advantageous effect on the Leguminosae. This may be due to a few kinds of organic acid contained in the root, namely oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic and formic acid. Furthermore a certain of promotive materials for growth was noted. 3) As long as the root of brome grass are not rotten, it gave a disadvantageous effect on the Leguminosae and Graminaceae. This may be due to the fact that several unidentified volatile organic acid were also included besides the confirmed organic acid, namely oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic and formic acid. 5. Effects of Components in Roots to the Soil Sickness : 1) It was considered that the cause of alleged red clover's soil sickness did not result from the toxic components of the roots. 2) It was recognized that the toxic components of roots might be the cause of soil sickness in case the orchard grass and brome grass were put into the long-term single cropping. 6. Effects of Rooted Components to the Companion Crops in the Cropping System : a) In case of aqueous extracts of fresh roots and aqueous excrements (Inter cropping and mixed cropping) : 1) Advantageous combinations : Orchard grass->Red clover, Soybean, Italian ryegrass->Red clover, 2) Disadvantageous combinations : Red clover->Ladino clover, Lespedeza, Orchard grass, Italian ryegrass, Fescue Ky-31, Brome grass, Barley, Wheat, Corn and Hog.millet, Orchard grass->Lespedeza, Orchard grass, Barley and Hog-millet, Brome grass->Red clover, Ladino clover, Lespedeza, Soybean, Orchard grass, Brome grass, Barley, Wheat, Sorghum, Corn and Hog-millet, 3) Harmless combinations : Red clover->Red clover, Soybean and Sorghum, Orchard grass->Ladino clover, Italian ryegrass, Brome grass, Wheat, Sorghum and Corn, Brome grass->Italian ryegrass, b) In case of aquecus extracts of rotting roots(After cropping) : 1) Advantageous combinations : Red clover->Red clover and Sorghum, Orchard grass->Red clover, Ladino clover, Soybean, Sorghum, and Corn, Brome grass->Red clover, Soybean and Sorghum, 2) Disadvantageous combinations : Red clover->Lespedeza, Orchard grass, Italian ryegrass, Brome grass, Barley, Wheat, and Hog-millet Orchard grass->Barley and Hog-millet, Brome grass->Orchard grass, Brome grass, Barley and Hog-millet, 3) Harmless combinations : Red clover->Ladino clover, Soybean and Corn, Orchard grass->Lespedeza, Orchard grass, Italian ryegrass, Brome grass and Wheat Brome gass->Ladino clover, Lespedeza, Italian ryegrass and Wheat.
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