• Title/Summary/Keyword: Forage

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Study on the Promising Double Cropping System of Summer and Winter Forage Crop in Paddy Field (논에서 여름 및 겨울 사료작물의 최적 작부체계에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Won Ho;Shin Jae Soon;Lim Young Chul;Seo Sung;Kim Ki-Yong;Lee Jong Kyung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 2005
  • This experiment was conducted from 2002 to 2004 at paddy field of National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon to investigate the select the promising double cropping system on growth, yield and nutritive value of summer forage(silage corn, sorghum$\times$ sudangrass hybrid, japanese millet, jobs tear, rice) and winter forage(rye, barley, Italian ryegass) and also to determine the best double cropping system necessary to maximize the total forage yield of winter forages plus summer forage crops. Among agronomic characteristics, lodging tolerance appeared to be highest in the summer forage crop including silage corn, jobs tear and rice compared to other forage crops. And lodging tolerance appeared to be highest in the winter forage crop including barley compared to rye and Italian ryegrass. The highest dry matter yield of 27,766 kg/ha, 27,296 kg/ha and 25,365 kg/ha obtained from an whole crop barley+sorghum$\times$ sudangrass hybrid, rye+sorghum$\times$ sudangrass hybrid and Italian ryegrass+sorghum$\times$sudangrass hybrid double cropping sequence in combination among the fifteen cropping systems((P<0.05). And dry matter yield of barley+silage corn and rye+silage com were 23,766 and 23,572 kg/ha.

Studies of Organic Forage Production System for Animal Production in Korea (한국의 가축 생산성 향상을 위한 유기조사료 생산체계에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Kim, Jong-Kwan;Kwon, Chan-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.155-166
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    • 2014
  • Organic forage production system is one of the most important aspects in organic livestock production. Animals in the organic farming system are also essential for manure to be used for organic forage production. Both organic forage and animals are essential to maintain the cycle of organic agriculture system. In this paper we introduce the organic forage production system in Korea. Summer and winter crops are getting popular in Korea because of their high forage yield and cultivation in double cropping systems. Common cropping system for forage production in Korea is the double cropping system with legume and grass mixture. Forage sorghum and sudangrass are the most popular ones of annual summer forage corps because of their high production with low cost in the double cropping systems. In the mixture of forage crops, inter cropping is more suitable in the corn and sorghum cropping system because of high lodging resistance and forage yield, and low weed population. Forage sorghum and sudangrass are difficult to preserve as direct-cut silage due to the fact that its high moisture content causes excessive fermentation during ensiling. Corn grain addition to sorghum silage could be recommended as the most effective treatment for increasing quality and reducing production cost. It is recommended that corn grain could be added up to 10% of total amount of silage. And agriculture by-products also can be added at the time of ensiling to minimize losses of effluent and have the additional advantage of increasing quality. Agriculture by-products as silage supplements increased DM content and quality, and decreased the production cost of sorghum silage. Field pre-wilting treatment of forage crops also increased DM content and quality of the silage. Wilting sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid before ensiling was the effective method for reducing effluent and increasing pH and forage quality more than direct cut silage. Optimum prewilting period of sudangrass silage was 1 or 2 days. In organic forage, the most important factor is the enhancement of organic forage sufficiency in relation to the environmental-friendly and organic livestock. Consequently, there are many possibilities for animal production and organic forage production in Korea. No forages no cattle concept should be emphasized in organic farming system.

Prospect of new variety breeding of Italian ryegrass in South Korea

  • Ji, Hee Chung;Hwang, Tae Young;Lee, Ki Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.108-108
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    • 2017
  • The objective of this study was to know prospect and present state of new variety breeding of Forage and Grassland in South Korea. The industry of forage in Korea is going up to expend through utilization of good quality forage, Italian ryegrass, forage corn and oat rather than rice straw. Especially, since 2007, Italian ryegrass(IRG) had been very important major winter forage crop in South Korea and developed 13 varieties including very early maturity variety (three varieties), early maturity variety (three varieties), medium maturity variety (one variety) and late maturity variety (six varieties). But the disadvantage of Italian ryegrass was weak winter hardness and drought but has good advantage of forage nutritive value, high-yielding and high sugar content, and like livestock as like hanwoo, dairy cattle, goat so on. The Ko-variety (Korea developed variety) of Italian ryegrass has high cold-tolerant and adaptability more than any other country developed variety, and expend to cultivation area from southern area (below Daejeon) to middle-northern area (upper Han river). Although the cultivation area of Italian ryegrass of South Korea was 21,700 ha in 2007, right now, that of Italian ryegrass is about 123,600ha due to expend cultivation area and know famer to good forage crop and have a various maturity varieties (very early, early, medium, late) according to local situation (before-crop harvesting stage or double cropping system). The seed market of Italian ryegrass in South Korea becoming extended to around 100 million Korean won and seed export get nearer to foreign country. We are going to develop of new variety for stress tolerant and high yield and quality forage variety, good adaptability to the Korean environmental conditions including reclaimed area, make self-sufficiency system for forage seed (Italian ryegrass), export our seed to foreign countries.

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Comparative Studies of Introduced Oats for Forage Production III. Forage performance of Western Australian oat cultivars (도입연맥의 청예사초로서의 생산성 비교 III. 서호주 연맥품종의 생육특성과 사초수량)

  • 김동암;김종관;권찬호;김원호;한건준;김종림
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.208-214
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    • 1996
  • This trial was conducted at two locations to compare forage yield, plant height, disease reaction, lodging and maturity of oat(Avm sativa L.) cultivars introduced from Western Australia in comparison with the control cultivar of oat 'Cayuse" over a period of 3 yr. At Suweon, Swan and Murray cultivars gave the highest forage yield, followed by Winjardie and Hay cultivars during 3 years of trial, but Cayuse cultivar gave the lowest forage yield. At Sunghwan, Hay and Swan cultivars tended to forage yield more than other cultivars, but Cayuse cultivar was among the lowest yielding. AU the cultivars in the trial were moderately resistant to BYDV and lodging at two locations although differences exist among cultivars. Murray cultivar was early in maturity, while Swan, Hay and Winjardie cultivars showed medium, and Cayuse cultivar was later. Murray and Swan cultivars were tall in height and gave a higher dry matter percentage of 18~20% at harvest. The results of the trial indicated that Swan and Murray cultivars could be recommended as the national recommended forage oat cultivar when forage performance was considered.ered.

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Varietal Differences of Nutrient Quality of Rape in Spring Sowing

  • Kwon, Byung-Sun
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.104-109
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate the possibility that oil seed rape could be used as a forage fodder crop and to select the most suitable variety of forage rape at the southern area of Korea, Two varieties of oil seed rape currently grown for oil production and six introduced varieties of forage rape with relatively high yield and high nutritional value were grown at the same condition and their nutritional value were observed in Spring. Generally, rape was considered as a useful forage fodder crop with high content of crude protein and low contents of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. Differences in mean values of the above characters between two groups of rape were not statistically significant. Velox showed significantly higher content of crude protein and significantly lower contents of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin compared with other varieties of forage rape in spring. Rape was relatively high in IVDMD compared with other forage fodder crops, and forage rape was more or less in IVDMD and DDMW than oil seed rape. Velox was the highest in IVDMD and DDMW among the varieties of forage rape in Spring, in this experiment.

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Economic Effect of Local Feed Utilization in Korea

  • Lee, Byung Oh;Yang, Jeong Hee;Park, Sang Youn;Lee, Byeong Soon
    • International Journal of Advanced Culture Technology
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.214-225
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    • 2018
  • Rice straw is the principal forage for Korean cattle. Limited supply of domestic forage forces Korea to depend on imported forage. Utilizing locally available domestic feed as an alternative would lead to self-sufficiency and stability in cattle farm management. Locally available feed can be utilized as forage. The challenge of collecting local feed has been overcome by machines that have been developed to harvest feed. Local feed can be completely consumed in the production regions, thus reducing transportation costs and increasing price competitiveness. Hitherto, studies have focused on feed technologies and price competitiveness, among other factors, while the substitution of forage has not been examined. This study conducts a quantitative analysis to estimate the extent to which local feed can replace existing forage. We find that local feed is cheaper, and abundantly available, and can thus replace high-quality forage.

Effects of Feeding High- and Low- Forage Diets Containing Different Forage Sources on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Blood Parameters in Non-Pregnant Dry Holstein Cows

  • Peng, Jing Lun;Kim, Byong Wan;Lee, Bae Hun;Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi;Sung, Kyung Il
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2017
  • This research was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding high and low forage diets with different forage sources on rumen fermentation characteristics and blood parameters of Holstein cows during the dry period. Eight Holstein cows were completely randomized assigned to two groups and repeated measurement was utilized in the analysis. Cows in two treatments were fed with diets with high (F:C = 70:30, 70F; forage source: mixed-sowing whole crop barley and Italian ryegrass silage, BIRG) and low (F:C = 55:45, 55F; forage source: tall fescue hay, TF) forage level. Rumen fluid pH was higher in 70F group. Levels of acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid showed a similar pattern: from the lowest value at 07:30 h to the highest at 10:30 h and then decreased in both groups. The ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 55F group at 09:30 and 10:30 h. Rumen fluid $NH_3-N$ concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 70F group at 09:30 and 10:30 h. Blood urea nitrogen was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 70F group. It was concluded that BIRG based diet with a high forage level had no adverse effects on rumen fermentation, some blood chemical parameters, and immune system in dry Holstein cows and could be used as a forage source instead of imported TF.

Effect of Different Forage Source and Nutrient Levels in Diet on in vitro Goat Rumen Fermentation and Methane Production (조사료의 종류와 사료 내 영양소 수준이 흑염소의 반추위 in vitro 발효성상과 메탄생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jinwook;Kim, Kwan-Woo;Ryu, Chaehwa;Lee, Sung-Soo;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Jeon, Dayeon;Roh, Hee-Jong;Choi, Nag-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.529-540
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    • 2019
  • The present study investigated the effect of forage sources and their inclusion levels in diet on the rumen fermentation of Korea traditional goat. Timothy and alfalfa were used as forage sources. Forages were mixed with concentrate diet in different ratios. The ratios of forage to concentrate diets were varied to 1:9, 5:5 and 9:1. The rumen fluid of goat was gathered from slaughter house. Dry matter digestibility was decreased and methane production was increased as forage levels in diet was increased. When forage sources, timothy and alfalfa, were compared, groups with timothy showed greater methane production than the groups of alfalfa. Molar ratio of produced acetate and valerate were increased when forage level in diet was increased. In the case of propionate and butyrate, they were decreased as elevated forage levels in diet. The result of this study provided a basic information for rumen fermentation of Korean traditional goat and these information could be applied in the development of nutritional and feeding strategy.

Differences in Nutrient Quality among Rape Varieties for Oil Seed and Forage

  • Kwon, Byung-Sun;Lim, June-Taeg;Shin, Jeong-Sik;Ahn, Gae-Soo;Park, Hee-Jin
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.372-375
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    • 2003
  • In order to examine the possibility that oil seed rape could be used as a forage fodder crop and to select the most suitable variety of forage rape at the southern area of Korea, two varieties of oil seed rape currently grown for oil production and six introduced varieties of forage rape with relatively high yield and high nutritional value were grown at the same condition and their nutritional value were observed. Generally, rape was considered as a useful forage fodder crop with high content of crude protein and low contents of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. Differences in mean values of the above characters between two groups of rape were not statistically significant. Velox showed significantly higher content of crude protein and significantly lower contents of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin compared with other varieties of forage rape. Rape was relatively high in IVDMD compared with other forage fodder crops, and forage rape was more or less higher in IVDMD and DDMM than oil seed rape. Velox was the highest in IVDMD and DDMM among the varieties of forage rape in this experiment.

Lactic Acid Bacteria Mixture as Inoculants on Low Moisture Italian Ryegrass Silage Fermentation

  • Soundharrajan, Ilavenil;Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam;Park, Hyung Soo;Kim, Ji Hea;Kim, Won Ho;Jung, Jeong Sung;Choi, Ki Choon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.127-131
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    • 2019
  • The effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) mixtures on low moisture Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage fermentation was evaluated in field conditions. The experiment was categorized into two groups: Un-inoculated (Control) and Inoculated with LAB mixture for four storage periods (45, 90, 180, and 365 days, respectively). Silage inoculated with the LAB mixture had the lowest pH with highest lactic acid production than the control from beginning at 45-365 days at all moistures. Higher LAB counts were observed in inoculated silages than the control silages at whole experimental periods. It is a key reason for the rapid acidification and higher lactic acid production in silages during the storage periods. Overall results suggest that an adding of LAB mixture had positive effects on the increasing aerobic stability of silage and preserved its quality for an extended duration.