• Title, Summary, Keyword: Folic acid

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Preconceptional use of folic acid and knowledge about folic acid among low-income pregnant women in Korea

  • Kim, Jihyun;Yon, Miyong;Kim, Cho-il;Lee, Yoonna;Moon, Gui-Im;Hong, Jinhwan;Hyun, Taisun
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.240-246
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Folic acid supplementation before pregnancy is known to significantly reduce the risk of having a baby with neural tube defects (NTDs). Therefore, it is important for women to be aware of the effects of folic acid supplementation before pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the awareness and preconceptional use of folic acid and to assess the current knowledge about folic acid among low-income pregnant women in Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted in 2012. Five hundred pregnant women were selected from the waiting list for the Nutriplus program implemented in public health centers using a multistage clustered probability sampling design. Data from 439 women were analyzed after excluding ones with incomplete answers. RESULTS: Among women who responded to the questionnaire, 65.6% had heard of folic acid before pregnancy, and 26.4% reported on the preconceptional use of folic acid. Women with a university degree or higher education were more likely to be aware of folic acid and to take folic acid in the preconception period. In a multivariate logistic regression, when age, education level, household income, employment status, gravidity, parity, and folic acid awareness were included in the model, folic acid awareness was a strong predictor of preconceptional folic acid use. As of interview, 85.4% and 77.7% of women were aware of the NTD-preventive role of folic acid and the appropriate time to take folic acid, respectively. The main sources of information on folic acid were healthcare professionals (41.2%), friends and family members (31.2%), and the media (26.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that public health strategies are needed to increase the preconceptional use of folic acid among Korean women.

Awareness, knowledge, and use of folic acid among non-pregnant Korean women of childbearing age

  • Kim, Min Ji;Kim, Jihyun;Hwang, Eun Joung;Song, YoonJu;Kim, Heon;Hyun, Taisun
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Folic acid supplementation before pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. The purposes of this study were to investigate the awareness, knowledge, and use of folic acid supplements along with their associated factors among non-pregnant Korean women of childbearing age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: From August 2012 to March 2013, 704 women aged 19-45 years completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding their awareness, knowledge, and use of folic acid as well as questions to identify risk of inadequate folate intake. RESULTS: Approximately 67% of women reported that they had heard of folic acid, and 23.7% had knowledge of both the role of folic acid in preventing birth defects and appropriate time for taking folic acid supplements to prevent birth defects. However, only 9.4% of women took folic acid supplements at the time of the survey. Women aged 19-24 years, unmarried women, and women who had never been pregnant were less likely to be aware and knowledgeable of folic acid or take folic acid supplements. In addition, women at high risk of inadequate folate intake were less likely to take folic acid supplements. In a multivariate analysis, women aged 19-24 years, women with a high school diploma or lower education level, and unmarried women were less likely to be aware and have knowledge of folic acid. The percentage of women taking folic acid supplements was significantly higher among knowledgeable women than among unknowledgeable women. CONCLUSIONS: These results support our hypothesis that women with knowledge of folic acid are more likely to take folic acid supplements. Therefore, educational programs or campaigns to improve knowledge regarding the importance of folic acid and to promote consumption of folic acid supplements as well as folate-rich foods are needed to target young, less educated, and unmarried women.

The Production of Folic Acid by Microorganisms Isolated from Fermenting Corn Meal (옥수수 가루 발효 과정에서 분리한 미생물에 의한 Folic Acid의 생산)

  • Yoa, Fu-Gen;Marion L. Fields;Hee J. Chung
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.352-357
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    • 1988
  • Twenty-five out of 35 strains isolated from fermented corn meal produced folic acid. Bacillus licheniformis strain 6 and Enterobacter cloacae strain 18 produced the largest quantities of 1830$\pm$271 ng and 1350$\pm$161 ng per 100$m\ell$ of the assay broth, respectively. B. licheniformis produced maximum yields when initial pH values were 6,7, or 8 and were incubated at 35$^{\circ}C$ for 5 days. The initial pH (range 4-8) had no effect on folic acid production by E. cloacae; 55 $^{\circ}C$ for 5 days was optimal for this bacterium. Added carbohydrates had no effect on the production of total folic acid in the bacterial cells in pure or mixed cultures. However, in their growth media, carbohydrates enhanced the production of free and total folic acid by E. cloacae and in the mixed cultures. Added carbohydrates had no significant (P < 0.05) effect on the production of free and total folic acid by B. licheniformis.

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Microstructure of Fat Free Plain Set-type Yogurt Containing Folic Acid

  • Kayanush J. Aryana
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.273-276
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the microstructure of folic acid-contained yogurt. Folic acids (25 and 50%) were added to milk preparation prior to pasteurization, then starter culture was added. The microstructure of yogurt containing folic acid was determined by the size of cluster of casein micelle using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The cluster of casein micelle in yogurt containing folic acid were showed larger size than in control (p<0.05). In addition of 50% of folic acid, cluster of casein micelle per unit area was exhibited the highest number among tested yogurts. From these results, folic acid concentration of yogurt may be affected by mouth-feel of yogurt texture as well as the aggregation of casein micelle.

Studies on the Folic Acid and Methionine Requirements for Young Broiler Chicks Including New Analytical Methods for Folic Acid in Poultry Feedstuffs (가금 원료사료의 새로운 엽산 분석방법과 어린 육계의 엽산과 메티오닌의 요구량에 관한 연구)

  • 류경선;박강희;신원집
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 1995
  • In Experiment 1, microbial assays were conducted on 57 feed ingredient samples to determine the content of total folic acid using Lactobacillus casei(ATCC 7469). Folic acid contents of feed samples pretreated with conjugase, ${\alpha}$-amylase, and a mixture of protease(Pronase)were corn, 09${\pm}$1.18($\pi$g${\pm}$SD); fish meal, 23.05${\pm}$1.27; milo, 29.34${\pm}$0.55; bakery meal, 25.80${\pm}$6.93; meat and bone meal, 56.76${\pm}$4.97; wheat middlings, 85.14${\pm}$2.56; and soybean meal, 193.97${\pm}$3.98. Experiments 2 and 3 were conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplemental folic acid and methionine on the performance of starting broiler chicks for 18 days. Four levels of dietary folic acid(0.24. 0.54,1.14 and 2.34mg/kg) and four levels of dietary methionine(0.45, 0.53,0.61, and 0.69%) were fed in a factorial design. The basal diet was based on corn, isolated soybean protein, meat and bone meal, and fish meal. It contained adequate amounts of all nutrients except methionine and folic acid in both experiments. Increased growth rate was observed in chicks fed the basal diet supplemented with either folic acid or methionine. Total dietary folic acid and methionine plus cysteine requirements for optimum growth were estimated to be 1.80 mg/kg and 0.89% in Experiment 2, and 1.47 mg/kg and 0.91% in Experiment 3, respectively. There were interactions between dietary folic acid and methionine on weight gain in both experiments. Chicks fed diets containing 2.34 mg folic acid /kg tended to display slow growth rate in both experiments. There was a significant linear feed conversion response to folic acid in Experiment 2, and a significant quadratic feed conversion resuonse to methionine in Experiment 3. There were both linear and quadratic liver folic acid responses to dietary folic acid in both experiments. There was no indication that dietary methionine had any effect on liver folic acid content. The incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia increased with increasing supplemental methionine, but were no significant differences detected at 5% level.

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Folic acid supplementation prevents high fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by activating the AMPK and LKB1 signaling pathways

  • Kim, Hyewon;Min, Hyesun
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.309-321
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    • 2020
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation in high-fructose-induced hepatic steatosis and clarify the underlying mechanism of folic acid supplementation. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male SD rats were fed control, 64% high-fructose diet, or 64% high-fructose diet with folic acid for eight weeks. Plasma glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, lipid profiles, hepatic lipid content, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) were measured. RESULTS: The HF diet significantly increased hepatic total lipid and triglyceride (TG) and decreased hepatic SAM, SAH, and SAM:SAH ratio. In rats fed a high fructose diet, folic acid supplementation significantly reduced hepatic TG, increased hepatic SAM, and alleviated hepatic steatosis. Moreover, folic acid supplementation in rats fed high fructose enhanced the levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and liver kinase B (LKB1) and inhibited phosphorylation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the protective effect of folic acid supplementation in rats fed high fructose may include the activation of LKB1/AMPK/ACC and increased SAM in the liver, which inhibit hepatic lipogenesis, thus ameliorating hepatic steatosis. The present study may provide evidence for the beneficial effects of folic acid supplementation in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Folate during reproduction: the Canadian experience with folic acid fortification

  • Lindzon, Gillian;O'Connor, Deborah L.
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.163-174
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    • 2007
  • Folate has received international attention regarding its role in the risk-reduction of birth defects, specifically neural tube defects (NTDs). In 1998 health officials in Canada, like the United States, mandated the addition of folic acid to white flour and select grain product's to increase the folate intake of reproductive-aged women. Subsequent to this initiative there has been an increase in blood folate concentrations in Canada and a 50% reduction in NTDs. Many countries, including Korea, have not mandated folic acid fortification of their food supply. Reasons vary but often include concern over the masking of vitamin $B_{12}$ deficiency, a belief that folate intakes among womenare adequate, low priority relative to other domestic issues, and the philosophy that individuals have the right not to consume supplemental folic acid if they so choose. Prior to folic acid fortification of the food supply in Canada, the folate intakes of women were low, and their blood folate concentrations while not sufficiently low to produce overt signs of folate deficiency (eg. anemia) were inconsistent with a level known to reduce the risk of an NTD-affected pregnancy. The purpose of this article is to describe the role of folate during the periconceptional period, pregnancy, and during lactation. The rationale for, and history of recommending folic acid-containing supplements during the periconceptional period and pregnancy is described as is folic acid fortification of the food supply. The impact of folic acid fortification in Canada is discussed, and unresolved issues associated with this policy described. While the incidence of NTDs in Canada pre-folic acid fortification were seemingly higherthan that of Korea today, blood folate levels of Korean women are strikingly similar. We will briefly explore these parallels in an attempt to understand whether folic acid fortification of the food supply in Korean might be worth consideration.

HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE ORAL MUCOSA OF FOLIC ACID-ADMINISTERED ALBINO RATS (엽산이 백서 구강점막에 미치는 영향에 관한 조직화학적 연구)

  • Byun, Suk-Doo
    • The Journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.235-239
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    • 1971
  • The effects of folic acid on the oral mucosa of albino rats were histochemically studied in the twenty four male rats, weighing abut 100gm. Seven groups of 3 each were injected with 0.2ml folic acid (folic acid 0.5mg. was dissolved in physiological saline 0.2ml) subcutaneously, during 1,2,3,5,7,10 and 14 days respectively. Oral mucosa of rats sere removed from upper molar region and fixed in 10% formalin, cold absolute alcohol, Carnoy's solution and acetone. The serial sections were histochemically stained by McManu's PAS reaction, Mowry's metachromasia, alloxan-Schiff reaction, and azo dye method for alkaline phosphatase. The comparative staining method was hematoxylin-eosin stain. The results were as follows: 1) Alkaline phosphatase reaction of stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum tended to increase after 7 and 10 days of folic acid administration. 2) PAS reactions of basement membrane and lamina propria increased after folic acid administration. 3) Metachromasia of stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum were slightly increased after 3,5 and 7days of folic acid administration and returned to the level of Control after 10 days. 4) In the oral mucosa, alloxan-Schiff reaction increased after 7 days of folic acid administration.

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Effects of Folio Acid Supplementation on Plasma Homocysteine and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) Levels and Liver SAM/SAH Ratio in Hyperhomocysteinaemia-induced Pregnant Rats (고호모시스테인혈증 임신 흰쥐에서 엽산보충이 혈장 호모시스테인, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) 수준과 간의 SAM/SAH에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Kyounk-Ju;Hyun, Tai-Sun;Chank, Nam-Soo
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.38 no.7
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    • pp.495-502
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    • 2005
  • This study was performed to investigate effects of dietary folic acid supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance s (TBARS) level s and liver SAM/SAH ratio in hyperhomocysteinaemia-induced pregnant rats. Forty-two female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided three groups (C: control diet, HFD: $0.3\%$ homocystine and 0 mg folic acid diet, HFS: $0.3\%$ homocystine and 8 mg/kg folic acid diet) according to homocystine and folic acid levels in the diet. They were fed experimental diets for 5 weeks prior to the mating and also during the entire period of pregnancy till gestational day 20. Dietary folic acid supplementation caused a significant decrease in plasma homocysteine levels which had been increased by a homocystine-diet, with a concomitant increase in plasma and liver folate levels. Liver TBARS levels in homocysteine-folic acid-deficient group (HFD) were higher than those in control group. Dietary folic acid supplementation increased hepatic SAM/SAM ratio in homocysteine-folic acid- sopplemetantion group (HFS) when compared to the HFD (p < 0.05). These data suggest that folate depletion and elevated plasma homocysteine may promote oxidative stress in rat livers and influence the remethylation cycle of the homocysteine metabolism detrimentally. In conclusion, dietary folic acid supplementation was found to be effective for lowering plasma homocysteine levels, relieving oxidative stress, and improving the methylation status in the body.

The Effect of in vitro Hemolysis on Vitamin $B_{12}$ / Folic Acid Results (용혈이 Vitamin $B_{12}$ / Folic acid 검사 결과에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Mi-Sook;Cho, Youn-Kyo;Im, Do-Hw;Seo, So-Yeon
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.62-65
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Vitamin $B_{12}$ and folic acid are type of water-soluble vitamin and those work as a secondary vital enzyme, but especially those are involved in the nuclear DNA synthesis. Those are mainly measured in order to diagnose megaloblastic anemia and to assess the storage of folic acid during pregnancy. It is generally known that the hemolyzed serum is useless for folic acid and vitamin $B_{12}$, but it is not easy to abide by this information because our lab (Samkwang Medical Laboratories) is reference laboratory. We tested how much the extent of hemolyzed serum had influence on the results. Materials and Method: We performed the tests of vitamin $B_{12}$, folic acid. For the hemolysis effect study, we used 40 cases. According to the level of A, B and C groups, each group had 10 samples which were mechanically hemolyzed serum. Results: Hemolysis did not affect the vitamin $B_{12}$ results. However in case of folic acid, the value increased according to the degree of hemolysis. And severe hemolyzed cases had the highest value (greater than 20 ng/ml). Conclusions: Preventing the hemolysis, it has to be informed that blood-collecting, separation and storage are performed more carefully. As you see from the above results, hemolyzed serum is not proper for folic acid test, and hemolysis does not affect the results of vitamin $B_{12}$. However, for the more accurate results, it is necessary to avoid hemolysis.

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