• Title/Summary/Keyword: Fermentation and Digestion

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Effects of Grass Lipid and Its Fatty Acids on Ruminal Fermentation and Microbial Growth In Vitro

  • Yang, U.M.;Fujita, H.;Chung, T.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.176-181
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    • 2000
  • In order to clarify the inhibitory effects of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) lipids on ruminal fermentation and digestion, two experiments were carried out in vitro. Experiment 1 was carried out using residues of grass hay from which the lipid fraction was removed by ether extraction. To ground grass samples were added 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% lipids and incubated anaerobically at $39^{\circ}C$ for 24 h, with the mixtures of artificial saliva and rumen fluid. Increasing grass lipid levels remarkably reduced DM and NDF disappearances. Volatile fatty acid concentration was significantly reduced at 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% lipid levels. Microbial nitrogen proportion to total nitrogen tended to decrease by the addition of the lipids. These results indicated that grass lipids have a marked inhibitory effect on ruminal fermentation and digestion, especially when to the substrate was added 3% or more grass lipids as ether extracts. Experiment 2 was conducted to study the relationship between changes in the free fatty acids and changes in the fermentation traits. Samples were incubated for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 h as a sole substrate. The polyunsaturated fatty acids steadily decreased during incubation, whereas the saturated fatty acid ($C_{18:0}$) increased. It was suggested that the hydrogenation was extended during the initial stage of incubation. The unsaturated fatty acids ($C_{18:2}$, $C_{18:3}$) produced at the initial stage of incubation were negatively correlated with the amount of microbial N and DM disappearance, indicating that polyunsaturated fatty acids had the possibility to show an inhibiting effect on ruminal fermentation and digestion.

Digestion and Nitrogen Utilization by Sheep Fed Diets Supplemented with Processed Broiler Litter

  • Kwak, W.S.;Fontenot, J.P.;Herbein, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1634-1641
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    • 2003
  • In vivo digestion and metabolism trials were conducted with 10 wethers equipped with ruminal, abomasal, and ileal cannulae to evaluate digestion of ensiled broiler litter (EBL), deepstacked broiler litter (DBL), and composted broiler litter (CBL). Wethers were fed a low protein (6.3% CP) basal diet alone or supplemented to 10.3% CP with EBL, DBL, CBL or soybean meal (SBM). All diets were formulated to be isoenergetic (56% TDN, DM basis). Apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, and ADF were not affected (p<0.05) by diet, but digestibility of CP was improved (p<0.05) by N supplementation. Apparent digestibility of CP was lower (p<0.05) for diets supplemented with CBL and DBL than for diets supplemented with SBM and EBL. Ruminal $NH_3$ concentration was 20 to 24 mg/dl at 2 h after feeding litter-supplemented diets compared with 13 mg/dl for SBM. Abomasal N, $NH_3$ N, and nonammonia N flows were increased (p<0.05) by N supplementation, whereas microbial N flow was not influenced (p<0.05) by diet. Compared with SBM and EBL, undegraded dietary CP flow to the abomasum tended to be greater (p<0.1) when wethers were fed DBL and CBLsupplemented diets. Retention of N (g/d) also was greater (p<0.05) due to greater (p<0.05) N intake and lower (p<0.05) urinary N excretion when wethers were fed diets supplemented with litter (especially EBL) vs. SBM. Overall, characteristics of ruminal fermentation and digestion indicated that broiler litter N was utilized efficiently by wethers, but ensiling may be preferable to deepstacking or composting.

Effects of Rice Straw Particle Size on Chewing Activity, Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Digestion in Goats

  • Zhao, X.G.;Wang, M.;Tan, Z.L.;Tang, S.X.;Sun, Z.H.;Zhou, C.S.;Han, X.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1256-1266
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    • 2009
  • Effects of particle size and physical effective fibre (peNDF) of rice straw in diets on chewing activities, feed intake, flow, site and extent of digestion and rumen fermentation in goats were investigated. A 4${\times}$4 Latin square design was employed using 4 mature Liuyang black goats fitted with permanent ruminal, duodenal, and terminal ileal fistulae. During each of the 4 periods, goats were offered 1 of 4 diets that were similar in nutritional content but varied in particle sizes and peNDF through alteration of the theoretical cut length of rice straw (10, 20, 40, and 80 mm, respectively). Dietary peNDF contents were determined using a sieve for particle separation above 8 mm, and were 17.4, 20.9, 22.5 and 25.4%, respectively. Results showed that increasing the particle size and peNDF significantly (p<0.05) increased the time spent on rumination and chewing activities, duodenal starch digestibility and ruminal pH, and decreased ruminal starch digestibility and $NH_{3}$-N concentration. Intake and total tract digestibility of nutrients (i.e. dry matter, organic matter, and starch) and ruminal fermentation were not affected by the dietary particle size and peNDF. Increased particle size and peNDF did not affect ruminal fibre digestibility, but had a great impact on the intestinal and total tract fibre digestibility. The study suggested that rice straw particle size or dietary peNDF was the important influential factor for chewing activity, intestinal fibre and starch digestibility, and ruminal pH, but had minimal impact on feed intake, duodenal and ileal flow, ruminal and total tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.