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Magnetic Characteristics and Annealing Effects of $NiFe/FeMn/NiFe/CoFe/Al_2O_3/CoFe/NiFe$Spin Tunneling Junctions ($NiFe/FeMn/NiFe/CoFe/Al_2O_3/CoFe/NiFe$ 스핀 터널링 접합의 자기적 특성과 열처리 효과)

  • 최연봉;박승영;강재구;조순철
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.296-300
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    • 1999
  • Cross-shape structures of spin tunneling junctions were fabricated using DC magnetron sputtering and metal masks. The film structures were $substrate/Ta/NiFe/FeMn/NiFe/CoFe/Al_2O_3/CoFe/NiFe$ and $substrate/Ta/NiFe/CoFe/ Al_2O_3/CoFe/NiFe/FeMn/NiFe$. Fabrication conditions of insulating layer ($Al_2O_3$) and thickness and sputtering power of each film layer were varied, and maximum magnetoresistance ratio of 24.3 % was obtained. Magnetic characteristic variations in the above mentioned two structures and two types of substrates (Corning glass 7059 and Si(111)) were compared. Annealing of the junctions was performed to find out magnetic characteristic variations expected from the device fabrication. Magneoresistance Ratio were observed to maintain as-deposited value up to 150 $^{\circ}C$ annealing and then to drop rapidly after 180 $^{\circ}C$ annealing.

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LEED I/V Curve Analysis of O/Fe(100) and MgO/Fe(100) System (O/Fe(100) and MgO/Fe(100) 계의 LEED I/V curve 분석)

  • Seo, J.K.;Kim, S.H.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2007
  • We have analyzed the atomic structure of O/Fe(100) and interface atomic structure of MgO deposited on Fe(100) surface using LEED I/V curve analysis. As the O adsorption on the Fe(100) surface, the first substrate interlayer distance is expanded by up to 16%. For 1ML MgO deposited on Fe(100) surface, the oxygen ions of MgO are located on-top of the Fe atoms, the interlayer distance at the MgO/Fe interface are expanded. From the AIA(average intensity mixing approximation) calculation, we find the interface structure of monolayer MgO on Fe(100) system has the two interface structure with MgO/FeO/Fe(100) and MgO/Fe(100). This supports the results of EELS experiment that shown existence of stretched FeO layer and coexistance of MgO/FeO/Fe(100) and MgO/Fe(100) structure.

Enhancement of Crystallinity and Exchange Bias Field in NiFe/FeMn/NiFe Trilayer with Si Buffer Layer Fabricated by Ion-Beam Deposition (이온 빔 증착법으로 제작한 NiFe/FeMn/NiFe 3층박막의 버퍼층 Si에 따른 결정성 및 교환결합세기 향상)

  • Kim, Bo-Kyung;Kim, Ji-Hoon;Hwang, Do-Guwn;Lee, Sang-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.132-136
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    • 2002
  • Enhancement of crystallinity and exchange bias characteristics for NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayer with Si buffer layer fabricated by ion-beam deposition were examined. A Si buffer layer promoted (111) texture of fcc crystallities in the initial growth region of NiFe layer deposited on it. FeMn layers deposited on Si/NiFe bilayer exhibited excellent (111) crystal texture. The antiferromagnetic FeMn layer between top and bottom NiFe films with the buffer Si 50 ${\AA}$-thick induced a large exchange coupling field Hex with a different dependence. It was found that H$\sub$ex/ of the bottom and top NiFe films with Si buffer layer revealed large value of about 110 Oe and 300 Oe, respectively. In the comparison of two Ta and Si buffer layers, the NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayer with Si could possess larger exchange coupling field and higher crystallinity.

The Study on the Change of Iron Concentration and the Reaction Mechanism of the 1,4-Dioxane Degradation using Zero Valent Iron and UV (영가철(Fe$^0$)과 UV를 이용한 1,4-dioxane 분해 반응시 철농도의 변화와 반응 메커니즘의 연구)

  • Son, Hyun-Seok;Im, Jong-Kwon;Zoh, Kyung-Duk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.323-330
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    • 2008
  • The study presents the results of 1,4-dioxane degradation using zero valent (Fe$^0$) or Fe$^{2+}$ ions with and without UV. During the reaction, the change of [Fe$^{2+}$] and [Fe$^{2+}$]/[Fe(t)], the concentration ratio of ferrous ion to total iron ion in solution was measured. Less than 10% degradation of 1,4-dioxane was observed by UV-only, Fe$^0$-only, and Fe$^{2+}$-only conditions, and also the changes of [Fe$^{2+}$] and [Fe$^{2+}$]/[Fe(t)] were minimal in each reaction. However, the oxidation of Fe$^0$ was enhanced with the irradiation of UV by approximately 25% and the improvement of 1,4-dioxane degradation was observed. Fenton reaction ($Fe^{2+}+H_2O_2$) showed higher degradation efficiency of 1,4-dioxane until 90 min, which of the degradation was stopped after that time. In the reaction of Fe$^{2+}$ and UV, the ratio of [Fe$^{2+}$]/[Fe(t)] decreased then slowly increased after a certain time indicating the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe$^{2+}$. In case of Fe$^0$ in the presence of UV, the first-order rate constant was found to be 1.84$\times$10$^{-3}$ min$^{-1}$ until 90 min, and then changed to 9.33$\times$10$^{-3}$ min$^{-1}$ when the oxidation of Fe$^{2+}$ mainly occurred. In this case [Fe$^{2+}$]/[Fe(t)] kept decreasing for the reaction. However, the addition of perchlortae (ClO$_4^-$) in the reaction of Fe$^0$ and UV induced the continuous increase of [Fe$^{2+}$]/[Fe(t)] ratio. The results mean the primary degradation factor of 1,4-dioxane is the oxidation by the radicals generated from the redox reaction between Fe$^{2+}$ and Fe$^{3+}$. Also, both UV and ClO$_4^-$ played the role inducing the reduction of Fe$^{3+}$, which is important to degrade 1,4-dioxane by enhancing the generation of radicals.

Annealing Effect on Exchange Bias in NiFe/FeMn/CoFe Trilayer Thin Films

  • Kim, Ki-Yeon;Choi, Hyeok-Cheol;You, Chun-Yeol;Lee, Jeong-Soo
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.97-101
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    • 2008
  • We investigated the exchange bias fields at the NiFe/FeMn and FeMn/CoFe interfaces in 18.9-nm NiFe/15.0-nm FeMn/17.6-nm CoFe trilayer thin films as the annealing temperature was varied from room temperature to $250^{\circ}C$ in a vacuum for 1 hour in a magnetic field of 150 Oe. Interestingly, magnetic hysteresis (M-H) measurements showed that NiFe/FeMn/CoFe trilayer thin films exhibited a completely contrasting variation of the exchange bias fields at both the NiFe/FeMn and FeMn/CoFe interfaces with annealing temperatures. High-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated the absence of any discernible effect of thermal treatment on the NiFe(111) and FeMn(111) peaks. The compositional depth profile obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results presented the asymmetric compositional depth profiles of the Mn and Fe atoms throughout the FeMn layer. We contend that this asymmetric compositional depth profile and the preferential Mn diffusion into the NiFe layer, compared to that into the CoFe layer, are conclusive experimental evidence of the contrasting variation of the exchange bias fields at two interfaces having a common polycrystalline FeMn(111) layer.

Exchange Bias Field and Coercivity of [NiFe/NiFeCuMo/NiFe]/FeMn Multilayers ([NiFe/NiFeCuMo/NiFe]/FeMn 다층박막의 교환결합력과 보자력에 관한 특성 연구)

  • Choi, Jong-Gu;Lee, Sang-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.132-135
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    • 2011
  • The exchange bias field ($H_{EX}$) and the coercivity ($H_C$) variation and change depending on the thickness of intermediately super-soft magnetic NiFeCuMo layer with different thickness of the bottom NiFe layer were investigated. The $H_{EX}$ of triple pinned NiFe(4 nm)/NiFeCuMo($t_{NiFeCuMo}$= 1 nm)/NiFe(4 nm)/FeMn multilayer has the maximum value more less than one of single pinned NiFe(8 nm)/FeMn layer. If NiFeCuMo layer is inserted each into between the pinned and free NiFe layers, we can be used as GMR-SV device for a bio-sensor that has improved magnetic sensitivity.

Exchange bias in NiFe/FeMn/NiFe multilayers

  • Sankaranarayanan, V.K.;Lee, Y.W.;Shalyguina, E.E.;Kim, C.G.;kim, C.O.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.55-58
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    • 2003
  • FeMn based spin valves often consist of a NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayer structure. We have investigated the evolution of exchange bias at the bottom and top interfaces in the NiFe(5nm)/FeMn(x)/NiFe(5nm) trilayer structure as a function of FeMn thickness in the range 3 nm to 30 nm. The XRD results indicate (111) textured growth for NiFe and FeMn layers. The magnetization studies using VSM show two hysteresis loops corresponding to the bottom NiFe seed layer and top NiFe layers with greater bias for the bottom NiFe layer, for FeMn thickness equal to and above 5 nm. The larger exchange bias for the bottom seed layer is confirmed by the surface sensitive MOKE hysteresis loop measurements which show gradual weakening of the MOKE hysteresis loop for the bottom NiFe layer with increasing FeMn thickness. The observed large exchange bias in a spin valve structure is usually attributed to the pinning NiFe layer on top of the FeMn layer, even when a NiFe seed layer of a few nm thickness is present, whereas, in reality it may be arising from the bottom seed layer, as shown by the present study.

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Enhancement of Fe Magnetic Moments in Ferromagnetic $Fe_{16}N_2$ (강자성 $Fe_{16}N_2$ 화합물에서의 Fe 자기모멘트의 증가)

  • 민병일;김창석
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 1991
  • In order to investigate electronic and magnetic properties of $Fe_{16}N_{2}$ ferromagnet, we have performed electronic structure calculations employing the self-consistent local density functional LMTO(linearized muffin tin orbital) band method. We have obtained the ground state parameters, such as band structures, density of states, Stoner parameters, and magnetic moments. Based on these results, we have investigated microscopically the magnetic structure and the enhancement of Fe magnetic moments in this compound. Magnetic moments of 3 types of Fe(Fe I, Fe II and Fe III) in $Fe_{16}N_{2}$ are 2.13, 2.50, and $2.85\;{\mu}_{B}$, respectively. Large enhancement of Fe magnetic moment is observed in Fe II and Fe III, which are located rather far from N. This implies that local environment is very important in determining the Fe magnetic moments in this compound. Our value of average magnetic moment per Fe atom. $2.50\;{\mu}_{B}$, is a bit smaller than the reported estimate, $-3.0\;{\mu}_{B}$, from the experiment.

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A Study for Reductive Degradation and Surface Characteristics of Hexachloroethane by Iron Sulfide ($FeS,\;FeS_{2}$) (황화철($FeS,\;FeS_{2}$)을 이용한 헥사클로로에탄의 환원적 분해반응과 표면특성에 관한 연구)

  • Park Sang-Won;Kim Sung-Kuk;Heo Jae-Eun
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2006
  • The following results were obtained in the reductive degradation of hexachloroethane (HCA), and surface characteristics by using iron sulfide ($FeS,\;FeS_{2}$) mediators. HCA was degraded to pentachloroethane (PCA), tetrachloroethylene(PCE), trichloroethylene(TCE) and cis-l,2-dichloroethylene (cis-1,2-DCE) by complicated pathways such as hydrogenolysis, dehaloelimination and dehydrohalogenation. FeS had more rapid degradation rates of organic solvent than $FeS_{2}$. In liquidsolid reaction, the reaction rates of organic solvents were investigated to explain surface characteristics of FeS and $FeS_{2}$.. To determine surface characteristics of FeS and $FeS_{2}$, the specific surface area and surface potential of each mineral was determined and the hydrophilic site ($N_{s}$) was calculated. The specific surface area ($107.0470m^{2}/g\;and\;92.6374m^{2}/g$) and the $pH_{ZPC}$ of minerals ($FeS\;PH_{ZPC}=7.42,\;FeS_{2},\;PH_{ZPC}=7.80$) were measured. The results showed that the Ns of FeS and $FeS_{2}$ were $0.053\;site/mm^{2}\;and\;0.205\;site/mm^{2}$, respectively. $FeS_{2}$ had more hydrophilic surface than FeS. In other words, FeS have more hydrophobic surface site than $FeS_{2}$.

A Study on the Magnetic Properties in Ni-Fe-Co/Cu/Ni-Fe-Co/Fe-Mn Multilayered Thin Films for Magnetoresistive Head (자기저항 헤드용 Ni-Fe-Co/Cu/Ni-Fe-Co/Fe-Mn 다층박막의 자기적 성질에 관한 연구)

  • 배성태;신경호;김진영
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.67-76
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    • 1995
  • 자기저항헤드용 Ni-Fe-Co/Cu/Ni-Fe-Co/Fe-Mn 다층박막에서 자기적 성질과 전기적 성질에 관하여 조사하였다. 저 포화자계에서 고 자기저항을 나타내는 스핀 밸브형 다층박막을 제작하기 위하여 Borond이 도핑된 p-type Si(100)기판위에 Ni-Fe-Co 단층박막과 Si/Ni-Fe-Co/Cu/Ni-FeCo, Si/Ni-Fe-Co/Fe-Mn 구조의 다층막을 제작하여 자기적 특성을 조사하였다. Ni-Fe-Co 단층박막의 자기적 특성은 고정된 아르곤 분압에서 박막의 두께 등에 의존성이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 Si/Ni-Fe-Co($70AA$)/Fe-Mn 구조에서 Ni-Fe-Co와 Fe-Mn 계면에서의 두 자성층의 이방성 차이에 의해서 발생되어지는 교환자기이방성이 존재하였으며, 교환자기이방성자계값은 Fe-Mn 두께가 $150\AA$일 때 가장 큰 값을 나타내었다. Ni-Fe-Co texture와 교환자기이방성자계값은 Fe-Mn 두께가 $150\AA$일 때 가장 큰 값을 나타내었다. Ni-Fe-Co texture와 교환자기이방성자계값의 의존성을 알아보기 위하여 Ti, Cu를 바닥층으로 사용하였다. Ti을 바닥층으로 사용하였을 경우, 교환자기이방성자계값은 23.5 Oe 정도의 가장 큰 값을 나타내었다. XRD 분석결과, Ti 바닥층이 Cu 바닥층이나, 바닥층이 없는 경우와 비교하여 성막된 Ni-Fe-Co 자성층의 강한 fcc(111) texture를 형성하는 것으로 나타났다. 각각의 단층박막과 다층박막에서의 자기적 특성을 측정한 후, Si/Ti($50\AA$)/Ni-Fe-Co($70\AA$)/Cu($23\AA$)/Ni-Fe-Co($70\AA$)/Fe-Mn(150$\AA$)/Cu(50$\AA$)의 스핀밸브구조를 갖는 다층박막을 제작하였으며, 11 Oe의 낮은 포화자계값에서 4.1%의 고 자기저항값을 얻을 수 있었다.

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