• Title/Summary/Keyword: Fatty acid

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The Plasma Fatty Acid Composition and Cholesterol Levels of Rates Fed Different Sources of $\omega$3 Fatty Acid and Excess DHA during Gestation, Lactation, and Growth

  • Lee, Hongmie;Lee, Juhee;Kim, Jiwon;Park, Haymie
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.170-175
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    • 2001
  • This study was designed to investigate the effect of different sources of $\omega$3 fatty acid in the diet with a similar polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) fatty acid ratio and $\omega$6/$\omega$3 fatty acid ratio as well as excess DHA on the plasma fatty acid composition and cholesterol level of rats. Three experimental diets contained 10% (w/w) dietary lipids. The control diet and one treatment diet were corn oil-based diets with different $\omega$-3 fatty acid sources: perilla (CO) or fish oil (CF), respectively. In order to examine the effect of excess DHA, the other treatment diet (FO) was a fish oil-based diet with corn oil to supply essential fatty acids at the level of 1.8% (w/w) of the diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed the experimental diets for 2 weeks prior to mating and throughout gestation and lactation. Pups were weaned to the same diet of dams at 21 days of age. Plasma fatty acid compositions and cholesterol contents were analyzed for pups at 3th, 7th and 10th week after birth. Plasma DHA concentrations increased significantly as the level of fish oil supplementation increased. Three-, seven- and ten-week old rats fed on CO diet which contained only $\alpha$-lino1enic acid as a $\omega$-3 fatty acid Source had Plasma DHA levels of 4.85%, 3.15% ana 2.47%, respectively, suggesting that rats at this period of development can convert $\alpha$-linolenic acid to DHA. But the ability to form DHA might be limited, since dietary DHA showed to be more effective in raising the plasma level of DHA. There was a significant negative correlation between DHA and cholesterol concentration of the rat plasma at 7th week (r=0.34, p<0.05) and l0th week after birth (r=036, p<0.05), proving the hypocholesterolemic effect of DHA.

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Effects of the Feeding Mixture of Mushrooms and Vegetables Oils on the Lipid Component and Fatty Acid Composition of Liver in Rats (식용버섯과 식물성 유지의 혼합급여가 흰쥐 간장의 지질성분 및 지방산 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김군자;김한수;김희숙;최운정;정승용;김성희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.736-742
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    • 1994
  • This study was designed to observe the effects of the mixed diets of edible mushrooms and vegetables oils on the lipid component and fatty acid composition in liver of the diet induced hydpercholesterolemic rats. Ten groups of male S.D. rats were fed a basal diet supplemented with 5% of one of three mushrooms(G.I, L.e, A.j) and 10% of one of three vegetable oils (olive ,safflower perilla) for three weeks. In liver, total cholesterol concentration was significantly low in group 3 (olive oil 10 % + L. edodes 5%) and 6 (safflower oil 10 % $_2$L. edodes 5%) , triglyceride concentration was low in groups 8 (perilla oil 10 % + g. lucidum 5%) and 9 (perilla oil 10% + L. edodes 5%) and phospholipid concentration was significantly low in groups 3, 5, (safflower oil 10 % + G.lucidum 5%), 6, 7 (safflower oil 10 % + A .judae 5%) 8, 9 and 10 (perilla oil 10% + a. judae 5%). in the fatty acid composition of total lipid inliver, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentration s were high in groups 2 (olive oil 105 + g. lucidum 5%), 3, and 4 (olive oil 10% + A. judae 5%) and all the perilla oil groups, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and linoleic aicd concentrations were signifciantly high in all the safflower oil groups. In the fatty acid composition of liver phospholipid , PUFA concentrations were ghih but MUFA concentrations were low. In the triglyceride component, MUFA were some more than saturated fatty acid (SFA) . In the cholesteryl ester component, MUFa concentrations were significantly high. In the fatty acid composition of liver lipid components, linholeic acid was high in the PUFA and so it was major fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) of phospholipid component in liver was significantly high.

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Fatty Acid Profile of Muscles from Crossbred Angus-Simmental, Wagyu-Simmental, and Chinese Simmental Cattles

  • Liu, Ting;Wu, Jian-Ping;Lei, Zhao-Min;Zhang, Ming;Gong, Xu-Yin;Cheng, Shu-Ru;Liang, Yu;Wang, Jian-Fu
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.563-577
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    • 2020
  • This study assessed breed differences in fatty acid composition and meat quality of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and semitendinosus (SE) of Angus×Chinese Simmental (AS), Wagyu×Chinese Simmental (WS), and Chinese Simmental (CS). CS (n=9), AS (n=9) and WS (n=9) were randomly selected from a herd of 80 bulls which were fed and managed under similar conditions. Fatty acid profile and meat quality parameters were analyzed in duplicate. Significant breed difference was observed in fatty acid and meat quality profiles. AS exhibited significantly (p<0.05) lower C16:0 and higher C18:1n9c compared with CS. AS breed also had a tendency (p<0.10) to lower total saturated fatty acid (SFA), improve C18:3n3 and total unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) compared with CS. Crossbreed of AS and WS had significantly (p<0.05) improved the lightness, redness, and yellowness of muscles, and lowered cooking loss, pressing loss, and shear force compared with CS. These results indicated that fatty acid composition and meat quality generally differed among breeds, although the differences were not always similar in different tissues. Fatty acid composition, meat color, water holding capacity, and tenderness favored AS over CS. Thus, Angus cattle might be used to improve fatty acid and meat quality profiles of CS, and AS might contain better nutritive value, organoleptic properties, and flavor, and could be potentially developed as an ideal commercial crossbreed.

Fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol species of the domestic and foreign chocolates collected from the market (국내 시장에서 유통되는 국내·외 초콜릿의 지방산 조성 및 triacylglycerol 조성 분석)

  • Hyeon, Jin-Woo;Shin, Jung-Ah;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.35-45
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    • 2013
  • The fat content, fatty acid composition, trans fatty acid content and triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of 22 chocolates (domestics 8, foreigns 14) collected from the Korea distribution markets were investigated. The crude fat was extracted by acid hydrolysis method and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and reversed-phase HPLC for fatty acid and TAG compositions, respectively. The crude fat content of all chocolates varied between 30.11% and 49.59%. The major fatty acids in most of the chocolates were palmitic acid (19.36~31.15 wt%), stearic acid (5.11~36.32 wt%) and oleic acid (18.77~36.68 wt%). Whereas lauric acid (approximately 35.43 wt%) was detected in chocolate fat of sample No. 18. High oleic acid content was observed for the sn-2 position fatty acid with a range from 64.91% to 86.93%. Trans fatty acid contents in domestic chocolates (sample No. 1~8) and foreign chocolates (sample No. 9~22) were 0.03~0.59 wt% (0.01~0.19 g/100g chocolate) and 0.05~6.32 wt% (0.02~1.99 g/100g chocolate), respectively. In TAG composition, TAGs such as POP/PPO(1,3(2)-palmitoyl-2(3)-oleoyl glycerol, PN=48), POS/PSO(palmitoyl-oleoyl-stearoyl glycerol or palmitoyl-stearoyl-oleoyl glycerol, PN=50), SOS/SSO(1,3(2)-stearoyl-2(3)-oleoyl glycerol, PN=50) were mainly detected in most of the chocolates. The peaks of TAG with low PN (ex, 32-34, 36-38, and 40-42) were detected in No. 18 chocolate fat because of containing short chain fatty acid such as lauric acid.

Effects of Procedures for Preparing Fatty Acid Methyl Esters on Fatty Acid Composition of Korean Vegetable Oils (Sesame Seed Oils) (지방산 메틸에스테르 조제방법이 한국산 식물성 기름(참깨 기름)의 지방산 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Tai-Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 1987
  • The effects of procedures for preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas chromatography were investigated. A quantitative comparison of four procedures for the preparation of the fatty acid methyl esters from Korean sesame seed lipids which can be representative of fatty acid ranges of Korean vegetable oils has been made. The procedures employed were $BF_3$-methanol, HCI-methanol, sodium methoxide-methanol, and tetramethylammonium hydroxide-methanol. Twelve fatty acids ranged from 14:0 to 24:0 were identified in the lipids from Korean white and black sesame seeds. All four procedures gave similar results for the fatty acids, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3 present in the range of $1{\sim}44%$ but only in the HCI-methanol procedure, the fatty acids, 16:1, 20:0, 22:0, 24:0 present in the range of $0.02{\sim}1%$ showed the lowest values. When using tetramethylammonium hydroxide-methanol procedure for determination of total fatty acid composition from white and black sesame seed lipids, unsaponifiable matters including sesamol, sesamolin and sesamin present in the seed lipids are not removed from the resulting reaction mixture. Thus the transesterification mixture is used without further treatment for injection into the gas chromatography. However, the gas chromatographic analysis of the transesterification mixture showed that the unsaponifiable matters had no effect on the fatty acid composition of the seed lipids. From the results, it appears that the $BF_3$-methanol, sodium methoxide-methanol and tetramethylammonium hydroxide-methanol procedures can be used to prepare fatty acid methyl esters from Korean vegetable oils. Among the methods, the tetramethylammonium hydroxide-methanol procedure, which give total fatty acid composition, glyceride fatty acid composition and composition of free fatty acids present, appears to be a simple, convenient and quantitative procedure and applicable to samples containing broad ranges of fatty acids.

The combination of canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid ameliorates insulin resistance and cardiac biomarkers via modulation of inflammatory cytokines in type 2 diabetic rats

  • Safhi, Mohammed Mohsen;Anwer, Tarique;Khan, Gyas;Siddiqui, Rahimullah;Sivakumar, Sivagurunathan Moni;Alam, Mohammad Firoz
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.493-501
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    • 2018
  • The present study was carried out with the hypothesis that combination of canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid may have potential effect on insulin level, insulin resistance, cardiac biomarkers, inflammatory cytokines and histological studies in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Type 2 DM was induced by injecting nicotinamide (120 mg/kg, i.p.) 15 min before STZ (60 mg/kg) injection. Canagliflozin (5 and 10 mg/kg) and omega-3 fatty acid (300 mg/kg) were given for 28 days after confirmation of diabetes. Biochemical estimations revealed elevated levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-R and inflammatory cytokines in diabetic group. Daily dosing of alone canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid slightly reduced elevated levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-R and inflammatory cytokines ($IL-1{\beta}$, IL-2, and $TNF{\alpha}$), whereas canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid combination has reduced these biochemical parameters significantly when compared with diabetic group. Similarly in diabetic group the levels of cardiac biomarkers such as lipid profile, LDH, CKMB and troponin were significantly increased. Elevated levels of cardiac biomarkers were significantly reduced after daily dosing of alone canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid. Canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid combination has offered better improvement in cardiac biomarkers compared to alone canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid. Histopathological analysis also supported the above hypothesis that combination therapy (canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid) offered better protection against degenerative changes in ${\beta}-cells$ of pancreas as compared to alone treatment with these drugs. Thus the present study revealed that canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid can be used as potential combination therapy in type 2 DM along with cardiac complication.

Effect of Trans-unsaturated Fatty Acid on Serum Lipid Levels in Mice (트랜스형 불포화 지방산이 mice 혈중 지질농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Yu, Sun-Nyoung;Ahn, Jeong-Bin;Park, Eun-Young;Lee, Sun-Jung;Tak, Min-Gi;Kim, Kwang-Youn;Kim, Sang-Hun;Kim, Ki-Dae;Ahn, Soon-Cheol
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.1126-1131
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trans-unsaturated fatty acid (TFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA) and general unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) on serum lipid levels in ICR mice. Male ICR 8-week-old mice were divided into six groups; the control group (C) fed with normal diet, the TFA-1 group fed with 10% trans-unsaturated fatty acid, the TFA-2 group fed with 30% trans-unsaturated fatty acid, the TFA-3 group fed with 50% trans-unsaturated fatty acid, the SFA group fed with 50% saturated fatty acid, and USFA group fed with 50% general unsaturated fatty acid. The serum total cholesterol of TFA-3 and SFA was higher than those of other fat groups and C. The serum triglyceride (TG) of TFA-3 and SFA showed the highest levels among all of diet groups. Also the serum HDL cholesterol levels of TFA-3 showed the lowest. LDL cholesterol and atherogenic indices (AI) were remarkedly increased in TFA-3 and SFA, as compared with other fat fed groups and C. Taken together with results, the TFA-3 group showed serum lipid levels similar to the SFA and different from the USFA. These results suggest that intake of high level of trans-unsaturated fatty acid increased serum triglyceride, LDL cholesterol and atherogenic indices, which may affect risk on serum lipid level for lipid metabolism syndrome.

Comparison of fatty acid composition of Staphylococcus sp isolated from bovine mastitis milk (유방염 감염 우유에서 분리된 Staphylococcus sp의 지방산 조성 비교)

  • Kim, Soon-Tae;Kim, Sin;Kim, Sang-Young;Son, Jae-Kweon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 1997
  • The result of API staph-ident system was compared with cellular fatty acid composition for the identification of Staphylococcus species isolated from cattle. Isolated strains from cattle were correctly identified to S aureus, S intermedius, S hyicus, S simulans, S saprophyticus, S epidemis, S sciuri and S xylosus by API staph-ident system. The correlation between bacterial cellular fatty acid profile and Staphylococcus species isolated to API STAPH-IDENT system were. In conclusion, the result presented indicate that Staphylococci can be indentified to the species level by the cellular fatty acid profiles. Moreover, computerized fatty acid profile correlative anaylsis can be applied for determining identify of Staphylococcus species.

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Effect of Sucrose Fatty Acid Ester on Yackwa Quality (Sucrose fatty acid ester가 약과 품질에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Soo-Youn;Kim, Myoung-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.260-266
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    • 2002
  • This study was performed to know effect of Yackwa quality when sucrose fatty acid esters(S-570, S-970, S-1570) were added as an emulsifier. In mechanical characteristics, the Yackwa of sucrose fatty acid esters did greatly decrease the hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and gumminess, respectively, and increase the brittleness compared to the Yackwa of non-emulsifier and egg yolk. This tendency showed at the above level of 1.0% S-570, and 0.5% S-970 and S-1570, respectively. In sensory evaluation, the Yackwa of sucrose fatty acid esters increased the softness compared to the Yackwa of non-emulsifiers and egg yolk. There were significantly differences in the preference at 0.5% level of S-970 and 1.5% level of S-1570, respectively compared to other treatments. In conclusion, the 0.5% level of S-970 would be mostly useful level of emulsifier for making Yackwa.

Studies on the Polymeric Surface Active Agent (I);Synthesis of Sodium ${\alpha}-Sulfo$ Fatty Acid Vinyl Ester Oligomers (고분자(高分子) 계면활성제(界面活性劑)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)(제(第) 1 보(報));나트륨 알파 술폰 지방산(脂肪酸) 비닐에스테르 올리머고류(類)의 합성(合成))

  • Jeong, No-Hee;No, Sueng-Ho;Nam, Ki-Dae;So, Boo-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 1989
  • Four fatty acid vinyl esters were synthesized by transesterification between vinyl acetate and lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, respectively. Fatty acid vinyl ester oligomers were prepared from polymerization of four fatty acid vinyl esters in the presence of potassium persulfate in methanol. The ${\alpha}-sulfonation$ of these four fatty acid vinyl ester oligomer were carried by direct addition of sulfur trioxide. Especially, molecular weights of sodium ${\alpha}-sulfo$ fatty acid vinyl ester oligomers were measured by boiling point method.