• Title/Summary/Keyword: Fatty acid

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Esterification of High Concentration Free Fatty Acid in Rice Bran Oil (미강유 중 고농도 자유지방산의 에스테르화)

  • Shin, Yong-Seop
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.211-224
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    • 2008
  • Characteristics of the esterification reaction between free fatty acid in rice bran oil and methanol was investigated in the presence of catalysts, such as PTS(p-toluene sulfonic acid), Amberlyst 15 dry and SCX(silica gel based strong cation exchange resin). While reaction temperature was kept constant at $65^{\circ}C$, initial feed content of free fatty acid was varied from 100% to 1% by addition of pure free fatty acid which was previously made from rice bran oil. Also, the effect of mole ratio of methanol to fatty acid on the final conversion was examined. When esterification of pure free fatty acid was catalyzed by several acids, final conversions were increased in order of Amberlyst 15 dry, SCX and PTS. Using PTS catalyst, initially the reaction proceeded in homogeneous 2nd oder reaction mechanism. However, phase of reaction mixture changed from homogeneous to heterogeneous along the reaction time and then reaction rate was retarded by mass transfer resistance of methanol. Final conversion of free fatty acid in reaction mixture was depended on initial feed content of free fatty acid, and had maximum value at 30% of initial feed free fatty acid content for all kinds of catalysts used. And the final conversion was increased with mole ratio of methanol by the improvement of reaction rate. When initial feed free fatty acid content below 10% and the reaction was catalyzed by PTS, concentration of free fatty acid in reaction mixture was increased in the middle of reaction time by hydrolysis of triglyceride in reaction mixture. Also, if silica gel was added into the reaction mixture which had initial feed free fatty acid content below 50%, final conversion was increased by the adsorption of moisture produced. The SCX catalyst made the esterification reaction of free fatty acid to progress like in case of PTS catalyst. However, when initial feed free fatty acid content below 10%, concentration of free fatty acid in. reaction mixture was decreased monotonically and not increased in the middle of reaction time on the contrary to the case of PTS. Thus, SCX catalyst accomplished more high value of final conversion than PTS catalyst for the initial feed fatty acid content range from 50% to 5% In case of initial feed free fatty acid content of 1% and mole ratio of methanol was 2, concentration of free fatty acid in reaction mixture increased over the initial feed free fatty acid content for all kind of catalysts used. Although SCX catalyst was added into reaction mixture which had 1% of initial feed fatty acid content, final conversion was hardly raised by mole ratio of methanol.

The Change in Content of Constitutive Lipid and Fatty Acid of Pacific Saury during Natural Freezing Dry(Kwa Mae Kee) (꽁치 자연동결건조(과메기)중 지방함량과 지방산 조성 변화)

  • 오승희;김덕진
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.239-252
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    • 1995
  • The results which were examined changes In contents of constitutive lipid and fatty acid during the natural drying of Pacific Saury were as follows. During the natural drying of Pacific Saury, offal lipid and moisture contents gradually decreased. In the survey of rancidity degree extracted lipid of Pacific Saury, peroxide value was gradually Increased, TBA and acid value were radically increased thereafter 9 days of drying. Neutral lipid, phospholipid and glycolipid contents of total lipid were 95%, 4% and 2%, respectively, and in the neutral lipid, content of TG was more than 90%, and in the phospholipid, contents of PC and PE were 45∼85%, 27∼34%, respectively. Fatty acid composition of total lipid was substantially higher in C18:0 and C20:1, C22:1, C22:6 contents and fatty acid composition of neutral lipid was higher In C22:1, C22:1, contents and fatty acid composition of phospholipid was the highest in C22:6 content. In the fatty acid composition of glycolipid, monounsaturated fatty acid content has substantially higher, C16:0 content was gradually Increased In saturated fatty acid and C22:1 content was gradually decreased in monounsaturated fatty acid. It showed that fatty acid composition of triglyceride has higher in monounsaturated fatty acid content and contents of C20:1, C22:1 was gradually decreased.

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Trans Fatty Acid Content in Commercial Processed Food in Jeon-Buk Area (전북지역 유통 가공식품 트랜스지방 함량)

  • Jeong, Ju-Ri;Seo, Kyu-Seok;Lee, Seog-Gyu;Jo, Eun-Ja;Na, Mun-Su;Jeong, Jin-Hoa;Oh, Se-Il;Son, Myong-Ok
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.291-299
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to examine the proportion of fatty acids and contents of trans fatty acid in commercial processed foods in Jeon-Buk area. Contents of trans fatty acid in bakery products ranged from 0.2% to 1.0% per 100 g food. Especially garlic bread and pastry contained the highest amount. Popcorns contained trans fatty acid from 0.0% to 13.4%. Among them, instant popcorns for microwave contained the highest amount, while trans fatty acid was hardly detected in popcorns for theater. And trans fatty acid detected in popcorns was mostly in the form of 18 : 1 trans. The content of trans fatty acid in pizza was nearly 0.2%. Amounts of saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid were similar between each type of pizza and frozen pizza. Fritters such as fried chickens and vegetables contained trans fatty acid less than 0.2% per 100 g food.

A Study on Fatty Acid Profiles of Eggs in Older Laying Hens fed Diets Supplemented with Bentonite (벤토나이트를 산란노계 사료에 첨가시 계란의 지방산조성에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, In Hag
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.341-344
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary bentonite supplementation on the fatty acid profiles of eggs in older laying hens. A total of 90 Hy-line Brown layers, 74 weeks of age, were confined in 6 wire cages and then assigned randomly to two groups to receive one of the two diets (3 replicates of 15 older layers each) containing 0 and 0.2% bentonite for 4 weeks. After the 4-week feeding trial, no remarkable differences in individual fatty acid, saturated fatty acid (SFA), unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), and mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels were found. However, linoleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and UFA/SFA ratio were influenced by 0.2% bentonite. In conclusion, supplementation with 0.2% bentonite improved the profiles of PUFA more than those of SFA, UFA, and MUFA inthe eggs of the older laying hens.

Effect of Dioscorea batatas and Gastrodia rhizoma on Fatty Acid Compositions of Serum, Liver and Brain in Rats (마와 천마 분말이 흰쥐의 혈청, 간장 및 뇌 조직의 지방산 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 박필숙;박미연
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.83-92
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    • 2001
  • This study evaluated the effects of Dioscorea batatas and Gastrodia rhizoma on fatty acid composition of serum, liver and brain in rats which were fed control diet adding 5%, 10%, 15% Dioscorea batatas powder and 5%, 10%, 15% Gastrodia rhizoma powder for 3 weeks, respectively. In the other total fatty acid composition of serum lipids, the percentage of SFA was higher in the control group than in the other groups. The percentages 18:2 and 20:4 in serum lipids were significantly higher in the group 5, 6 and 7 than control group. In phospholipid fatty acid composition of serum lipids, the percentage of 18:2 was significantly higher in the group 5, 6 and 7 than in the other groups. 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 20:4 were the main fatty acid in the total fatty acid and phospholipid fatty acid composition of liver lipids. 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, 20:4 and 22:6 were the main fatty acid in the total fatty acid and phospholipid fatty acid composition of brain lipids.

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Dietary Fatty Acid Increases Body Weight Gain without a Change in Rumen Fermentation in Fattening Cattle

  • Kita, K.;Oka, M.;Yokota, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.39-43
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    • 2003
  • Dietary fatty acid including mainly palmitic acid and stearic acid was fed to fattening cattle and its effect on body weight gain, plasma lipid contents and rumen liquid fermentation in vitro was examined. In expt. 1, the effect of dietary fatty acid on body weight gain and plasma lipid concentrations was examined. In the control diet group, cattle were fed 1 kg/day of rice straw and concentrate which satisfied the requirement. In the fatty acid group, cattle were given 250 g/d of fatty acid with the same diet of the control diet group. In the excess concentrate group, cattle were given the same diet of the control diet group plus 735 g/d of concentrate corresponding to the same TDN of 250 g/d of fatty acid. Diets were given for 7 days. Body weight gain of cattle given dietary fatty acid was significantly greater than that of cattle fed only rice straw and concentrate. When dietary fatty acid was added to cattle feed, plasma NEFA and HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased. In expt. 2, the influence of dietary fatty acid on gas production and VFA profile in the rumen liquid was investigated in vitro. In the control group, 10 mg of rice straw and 90 mg of concentrate were incubated in the rumen fluid. In the excess concentrate group, 10 mg of rice straw and 97.5 mg of concentrate were incubated. In the fatty acid group, 10 mg of rice straw, 90 mg of concentrate and 2.5 mg of fatty acids were incubated. The rumen liquid mixed with feed materials was incubated for 24 h and the cumulative gas volume was measured. The VFA profile was also measured. Cumulative gas volume in the rumen liquid with fatty acid was equal to the control. Excess concentrate increased cumulative gas volume compared to the fatty acid group. There was no significant difference in total VFA concentration between experimental diet groups. It is suggested that dietary fatty acid has the potency to improve growth performance in fattening cattle without failure in rumen fermentation.

Effects of Dietary Fatty Acid Status of Korean Adult on RBC Membrane Fatty Acid and Calcium Metabolism with Age (노화에 따른 한국성인의 혈구막 지방산과 칼슘대사 변화에 식이지방산이 미치는 영향)

  • 이혜양
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 1994
  • Recently it is reported that RBC membrane fluidity decreases and RBC calcium levels increase with age. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in lipid and calcium metabolism with age, and to seek relationship of diet and metabolism. With clinically normal Korean adults(male 60, female 63), this study was carried out in three phases : 1) to analyze fatty acid percentage of RBC membrane, 2) to analyze calcium levels of RBC with age, and 3) to compare the effects of dietary fatty acid intake on blood fatty acid profiles. The results are as follows : The P/S ratio of RBC membrane fatty acid decreased with age. The RBC calcium content increased according to age, with women having a higher level than men. The higher intake groups of linolenic acid(C18:3) has statistically higher serum linolenic acid levels. But dietary effects of membrane fatty acid were not found. Therefore, the further research to seek the possible relationship of diet and membrane fatty acid should be continued.

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Fatty Acid Composition of Children's Favorite Foods in Daejeon Area (대전 지역 어린이 기호식품의 지방산조성)

  • Jang, Jun-Hoe;Jeon, Mi-Sun;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 2009
  • Total fatty acid compositions, total content of crude fat, saturated, unsaturated and trans fatty acid content were studied in children's favorite foods such as hot dog, chicken popcorn, fried potato, snack and cookies, and imported biscuit. The samples were obtained from various stores in Daejeon. After fat extraction, methylation was carried out to analyze the fatty acid compositions by gas chromatography. The results showed that content of the trans fatty acid per 100 g of the hot dog, chicken popcorn, fried potato, snack and cookies, and imported biscuit were 0.02~0.03 g, 0.05~0.08 g, 0.02~0.05 g, 0.02~0.27 g, and 0.05~0.83 g, respectively. The highest content of saturated fatty acid (66.24%) was observed in the imported biscuit among the 20 analyzed samples.

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Performance evaluation of macro-packed fatty acid ester composites using energy-efficient thermal storage systems

  • Wi, Seunghwan;Jeong, Su-Gwang;Chang, Seong Jin;Lee, Jongki;Kim, Sumin
    • Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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    • v.55
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    • pp.215-223
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    • 2017
  • The fatty-acid composites are used for thermal-storage systems. The macro-packing method was developed to prevent leakage during the phase transition and to enhance the thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of the macro-packed fatty-acid composites were increased by 5.19-27.64% when compared with the non-packed fatty-acid composites. The thermal-storage performances were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The latent-heat levels of the fatty acid waxes during the endothermic process are from 106.9 to 173.6 J/g. A thermal-performance device was used for a dynamic heat-transfer analysis. The macro-packed fatty-acid composites significantly reduced the peak load.

Effect of Nutrient Limitation on Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Mutant Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (돌연변이 Chlamydomonas reinhardtii의 영양분 제한에 따른 지질 생산 및 지방산 조성 변화 연구)

  • Baek, Jaewon;Choi, Jong-il
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.91-95
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    • 2015
  • Production of biodiesel from microalgae is dependent on the microalgal lipid content and free fatty acid composition. Both lipid and free fatty acid are regulated by nutrient sources. In this study, newly developed mutant Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with higher lipid content was investigated for the effect of nutrient limitation. Nitrogen $NO_3{^{-}}$ and phosphate $PO_4{^{3-}}$ were limited for nutrient starvation during the cultivation. Under nutrient starvation, total lipid content level was increased to 27~33% and C16:0 fatty acid content constituted over 31~43% of total fatty acid. Interestingly, we also found that the expression of fatty acid desaturase (FAD7) was decreased when nutrients were starved.