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Simultaneous Determination and Monitoring of Bisphenols in River Water using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS 를 이용한 하천수 중 Bisphenol계 화합물의 동시분석 및 모니터링)

  • Kim, Jihyun;Choi, Jeong-Heui;Kang, Tae-Woo;Kang, Taegu;Hwang, Soon-Hong;Shim, Jae-Han
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.154-160
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND:This study was carried out to establish an efficient sample preparation for the simultaneous determination of bisphenols (BPs) in river water samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sample preparation was examined with conventional extraction methods, such as solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and their efficiency was compared with validation results, including linearity of calibration curve, method detection limit (MDL), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, and precision. METHODS AND RESULTS:The BPs (bisphenol A, BPA; bisphenol B, BPB; bisphenol C, BPC; bisphenol E, BPE; bisphenol F, BPF; bisphenol S, BPS) were analyzed using GC-MS. The range of MDLs by SPE and LLE methods was $0.0005{\sim}0.0234{\mu}g/L$ and $0.0037{\sim}0.2034{\mu}g/L$, and that of LOQs was $0.0015{\sim}0.0744{\mu}g/L$ and $0.0117{\sim}0.6477{\mu}g/L$, respectively. The calibration curve obtained from standard solution of $0.004{\sim}4.0{\mu}g/L$ (SPE) and $0.016{\sim}16{\mu}g/L$ (LLE) showed good linearity with $r^2$ value of 0.9969 over. Accuracy was 93.2~108% and 97.4~120%, and precision was 1.7~4.6% and 0.7~6.5%, respectively. The values of MDL and LOQ resulted from the SPE method were higher than those from the LLE method, particularly those values of BPA were highest among the BPs. Based on the results, the SPE method was applied to determine the BPs in river water samples. Water samples were collected from mainstream, tributary and sewage wastewater treatment plants (SWTPs) in the Yeongsan river basin. The concentration of BPB, BPC, BPE, BPF and BPS were not detected in all sites, whereas BPA was ranged $0.0095{\sim}0.2583{\mu}g/L$, which was $0.0166{\sim}0.0810{\mu}g/L$ for mainstreams, $0.0095{\sim}0.2583{\mu}g/L$ for tributaries, $0.0352{\sim}0.1217{\mu}g/L$ for SWTPs. CONCLUSION: From these results, the SPE method was very effective for the simultaneous determination of BPs in river water samples using GC-MS. We provided that it is a convenient, reliable and sensitive method enough to monitor and understand the fate of the BPs in aquatic ecosystems.

Design and Fabrication for the Development of Auto Pattern Maker (자동취형기 개발을 위한 설계 및 제작)

  • Lee, Young-Il;Kim, Jung-Hee;Park, Jee-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.231-239
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To design and fabricate the auto pattern maker for the development. Methods: we got the necessary data, needed in design, by using CAD. Based on the these data, we fabricated the trial product for the development of the auto pattern maker. Results: The auto pattern maker were composed with combinations of many elements; pattern making assembly, control panel, frame attachment and prober unit. The pattern making assembly was comprised of the cutter, the pattern holder, pattern remover and silence cover which could minimize the sound during the cutting process. The control panel was designed to be connected and operated with the main printed circuit board. The prober could get the eye shape data by scanning of 1.8 degrees around the groove of the frame through the encoding data according to the address. After starting, scanning was carried out in two passes, i.e. one right-handed and one left-handed. Communication connector could send the eye shape data from auto pattern maker to outer system with the RS232C transmission system. By using the one-way analysis of variance, we got the error rate of cut pattern size for ${\Phi}22mm$, ${\Phi}55mm$ and ${\Phi}62mm$. Because F-value was 0.510 and p-value was 0.601, no statistically significant differences were found. Also, the mean cutting error of the auto pattern maker was 0.0274 mm. Conclusions: we could succeed in making the trial product by applying it to the development of the auto pattern maker. The role of this auto pattern maker is to find a exact required size of lens to fit the frame by measuring the frame. The acquired data are transferred to outer system for grinding and finishing with patternless process. Also, the trial product can produce pattern to fit the frame. Therefore, it was confidently expected that the optometrists could handily produce pattern to fit the frame with this trial product and dispense the ophthalmic lens because of its efficiency and convenience compared to the past.

Inhibition of Adipocyte Differentiation and Adipogenesis by Aged Black Garlic Extracts in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes (흑마늘 추출물에 의한 3T3-L1 지방전구세포의 분화 및 adipogenesis 억제에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Jung-Ae;Park, Cheol;Han, Min-Ho;Kim, Byung-Woo;Chung, Yoon-Ho;Choi, Yung-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.720-728
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    • 2011
  • Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a source food as well as a traditional folk medicine ingredient since ancient times. Aged black garlic is a type of fermented garlic and is expected to have stronger anticancer and antioxidant activities than raw garlic. However, the mechanisms of their inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis are poorly understood. In the present study, the effects and mechanisms of water extracts of raw garlic (WERG) and aged black garlic (WEABG) on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were investigated. Treatment with WEABG significantly suppressed terminal differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner as confirmed by a decrease in lipid droplet number and lipid content through Oil Red O staining, however WERG had no such effect. In addition, WEABG reduced accumulation of cellular triglyceride, which is associated with a significant inhibition of key pro-adipogenic transcription factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ (PPAR${\gamma}$), cytidine-cytidine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine (CCAAT)/enhancer binding proteins ${\alpha}$ (C/EBP${\alpha}$) and C/EBP${\beta}$. Taken together, these results provide important new insight that aged black garlic might inhibit adipogenesis by suppressing the pro-adipogenic transcription factors in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and further studies will be needed to identify the active compounds that confer the anti-obesity activity of aged black garlic.

Comparison of the Quality Characteristics of Radish by Soaking Using Sun-dried Salt and Leuconostoc starter (무 절임 제조 시 천일염과 스타터 첨가에 따른 품질특성 비교)

  • Na, Jong-Min;Jin, Yong-Xie;Kim, Se-Na;Kim, Jung-Bong;Cho, Young-Suk;Kim, Kwang-Yup;Kim, Haeng-Ryan;Kim, So-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.951-956
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    • 2012
  • In this study, the effects of the use of a starter on radish soaked at $4^{\circ}C$ for 28 days using two kinds of domestic sun-dried salt (white and gray salt) were determined. As a result, the moisture contents of the radish soaked with white and gray salt were 7.93 and 4.50%, respectively. The salinity levels were found to be equal (90%). No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of the mineral contents of the salts therein ($37812.41{\pm}1922.95$ and $39755.13{\pm}1205.70$ mg/100 g, respectively). However, iron and zinc contents of gray salt were higher than those of white salt while the calcium, potassium, and magnesium contents were lower than those of white salt. After the addition of the starter, the sugar content increased, the pH decreased, and the total acidity rapidly decreased compared with the non-starter group during fermentation. The total microorganism count of the two groups increased during the fermentation period of 28 days. From the initial fermentation for 7 days, the lactic acid bacteria in the non-starter group increased while those in the leuconostoc starter group steadily increased within the whole fermentation period. The Leuconostoc spp. in non-starter group increased, but that in the starter group decreased to pH 4.0 on day 14.

Nutritional compositions and antioxidative activities of two blueberry varieties cultivated in South Korea (국내산 두 품종 블루베리의 영양성분 및 항산화 활성 비교)

  • Song, Hyo-Nam;Park, Myoung-Su;Youn, Ho-Sik;Park, Sung-Jin;Hogstrand, Christer
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.790-798
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    • 2014
  • The nutritional compositions and antioxidative activities of the Kimcheon lowbush and Pyungtaek highbush blueberries cultivated in South Korea were investigated. The approximate compositions, pH, and soluble-solid and mineral contents of P, Ca, Mg, Na, and Zn were determined. Both blueberry cultivars had mainly fructose and glucose as free sugars while disaccharides such as sucrose, maltose, and lactose were not detected in both. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the major fatty acids in both types of blueberries. The total of 16 free amino acids, including seven essential and nine non-essential amino acids, were higher in the Pyungtaek highbush blueberry. Among the amino acids, arginine was especially much higher in the Pyungtaek highbush blueberry. The anthocyanin, resveratrol, and polyphenol compounds, which are the important biologically active compounds in blueberries, were found. The anthocyanin contents of the Kimcheon lowbush and Pyungtaek highbush blueberries were 22.0 and 18.1 mg/100 g, respectively; the resveratrol contents by HPLC, 0.12 and 0.11 mg/100 g; and the total polyphenol contents, 141.3 and 138.4 mg/100 g. The electron-donating ability determined based on the DPPH radical scavenging activity was increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and it was higher than that of the Pyungtaek highbush blueberries, which implies that it is highly correlated with the higher amounts of total polyphenol, anthocyanin, and resveratrol in it. In conclusion, the two varieties of Korean blueberries can be suggested as potential sources of high-value-added functional foods.

Qualities and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Kyungokgos Sold in Local Markets (국내 시판 경옥고 제품의 품질 특성 및 항염증 활성)

  • Lee, Ka-Soon;Kim, Gwan-Hou;Kim, Hyun-Ho;Seong, Bong-Jae;Kim, Sun-Ick;Han, Seung-Ho;Kang, Eun Ju;Yoo, Yung Choon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.335-341
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    • 2013
  • Kyungokgos purchased in local markets in Korea vary in their combination and mixing ratios during processing. This study was investigated qualities of Kyungokgos manufactured traditionally to evaluating its qualities. The general components of Kyungokgos were moisture (18.62~49.78%), ash (0.198~1.211%), protein (0.89~3.58%), lipid (0.16~1.14%) and carbohydrates (47.95~77.08%). The color values of L, a, and b were 26.49~73.87, 16.51~38.64, and 45.41~88.94, respectively. The viscosity was classified into three non-Newtonian type groups: high, medium, and non-dilatant, according to the increase of loop execution times. Three extracts (KOG-1, -7, and -8, in a 30-fold dilution) showed no cytotoxicity toward RAW 264.7 cells, while the extracts of KOG-2, -4, and -5 showed a low cytotoxic effect. KOG-1 and -2 extracts with low cytotoxicity markedly inhibited the production of the inflammatory mediators-nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-${\alpha}$) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicate that KOG-1 and -2 extracts have anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

In vitro Multiplication of Hosta Tratt. Species Native to Korea by Shoot-tip Culture (경정배양에 의한 한국 자생 비비추속 식물의 기내증식)

  • Choi, Han;Yang, Jong Cheol;Ryu, Sun Hee;Yoon, Sae Mi;Kim, Sang Yong;Lee, Seung Youn
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to establish the in vitro propagation system by shoot tip culture of six Hosta species native to Korea (Hosta capitata (Koidz.) Nakai, H. clausa Nakai, H. jonesii M.G.Chung, H. minor (Baker) Nakai, H. venusta F.Maek., and H. yingeri S.B.Jones) for mass proliferation and a new cultivar development. The shoot tips of each Hosta species were cultured on MS medium containing eight combinations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 mg/L BA with 0.1 mg/L NAA, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/L TDZ with 0.1 mg/L NAA, and without any PGRs (control). They were investigated on callus, somatic embryo, crown bud, differentiation and growth of shoot and root, total fresh weight after 8 weeks of culture. In all six Hosta species, callus and somatic embryo induction rate and multiple shooting rate of the PGRs treatment group were higher than that of the control group. The highest number of differentiated shoots were obtained on medium supplemented with 2.0 ㎎/L TDZ in H. capitata (5.4), 1.0 mg/L TDZ in H. clausa and H. jonesii (3.3 and 5.8, respectively), 0.5 mg/L BA in H. minor (11.1), 1.0 mg/L BA and 0.1 mg/L TDZ in H. venusta (8.1), and 0.5 mg/L TDZ in H. yingeri (9.8). In somatic embryo formation, the PGRs treatment group of H. jonesii and H. yingeri were more effective than the control group, and the effects were relatively less in H. capitata, H. clausa Nakai, H. minor, H. venusta. Crown bud formation of four Hosta species (H.capitata, H. clausa, H. jonesiig, and H. yingeri) were also higher in the PGRs treatment group than in the control group. Crown bud formation of four Hosta species (H.capitata, H. clausa, H. jonesiig, and H. yingeri) were also higher in the PGRs treatment group than in the control group. H. clausa showed no significant effect on callus and shoot differentiation regardless of the type and concentration of cytokinin, but slightly increased in formation of crown bud in TDZ.

The Influence of Moral Distress and Moral Sensitivity on Moral Courage in Nursing Students (간호대학생의 도덕적 용기에 대한 도덕적 고뇌와 도덕적 민감성의 관계)

  • YUN, Hye-Young;KIM, Sun-Ki;JANG, Hyo-Eun;HWANG, Sin-Woo;KIM, Sang-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Medical Ethics
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.360-376
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    • 2018
  • Nursing students experience ethical conflicts that lead to moral distress and moral sensitivity in clinical practice. Most nursing students have some difficulty in speaking up when faced with morally challenging situations. Hence, increasing moral courage of these students is important to improve the quality of practice, and carry out nursing responsibilities. However, research on the moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage of nursing students has not been reported in South Korea. The purposes of this study were to (a) identify the levels of moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage of nursing students and (b) examine the influence of moral distress and moral sensitivity on moral courage. Data were collected through a survey using self-reported questionnaires sent to senior nursing students at two nursing colleges in Seoul and Gyeonggido. A total of 138 senior nursing students participated in the survey. The data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 23 program by Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The mean scores of the moral distress thermometer, moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage were $3.53{\pm}2.18$, $57.33{\pm}43.35$, $134.98{\pm}13.98$, and $56.33{\pm}12.75$, respectively. The significant factors influencing moral courage were the moral distress thermometer and patient-centered nursing, which was a subcomponent of moral sensitivity. The explanatory power of the model was 5%. This study confirms that nursing students, like nurses, experience moral distress. It is therefore important to create organizational environments that support the moral courage of nursing students.

Mitigation Effects of Foliar-Applied Hydrogen Peroxide on Drought Stress in Sorghum bicolor (과산화수소 엽면 처리에 의한 수수에서 한발 스트레스 완화 효과)

  • Shim, Doo-Do;Lee, Seung-Ha;Chung, Jong-Il;Kim, Min Chul;Chung, Jung-Sung;Lee, Yeong-Hun;Jeon, Seung-Ho;Song, Gi-Eun;Shim, Sang-In
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.65 no.2
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    • pp.113-123
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    • 2020
  • Global climatic change and increasing climatic instability threaten crop productivity. Due to climatic change, drought stress is occurring more frequently in crop fields. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) before leaf development on the growth and yield of sorghum for minimizing the damage of crops to drought. To assess the effect of H2O2 on the growth of sorghum plant, 10 mM H2O2 was used to treat sorghum leaves at the 3-leaf stage during growth in field conditions. Plant height, stem diameter, leaf length, and leaf width were increased by 7.6%, 9.6%, 8.3% and 11.5%, respectively. SPAD value, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were increased by 3.0%, 4.9%, 26.0%, 23.4% and 12.7%, respectively. The amount of H2O2 in the leaf tissue of sorghum plant treated with 10 mM H2O2 was 0.7% of the applied amount after 1 hour. The level increased to approximately 1.0% after 6 hours. The highest antioxidant activity measured by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay was 847.3 µmol·g-1 at 6 hour after treatment. However, in the well-watered condition, the concentration of H2O2 in the plant treated by the foliar application of H2O2 was 227.8 µmol·g-1 higher than that of the untreated control. H2O2 treatment improved all the yield components and yield-related factors. Panicle length, plant dry weight, panicle weight, seed weight per plant, seed weight per unit area, and thousand seed weight were increased by 8.8%, 18.0%, 24.4%, 24.7%, 29.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Proteomic analysis showed that H2O2 treatment in sorghum increased the tolerance to drought stress and maintained growth and yield by ameliorating oxidative stress.

A Survey of Nutritional Status on Pre-School Children in Korea (학영기전아동(學齡期前兒童)의 영양실태조사(營養實態調査))

  • Ju, Jin-Soon;Oh, Seoung-Ho
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.68-86
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    • 1976
  • The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the correct nutritional status on pre-school children in Korea. Furthermore, it made an attempt to find and define nutrional problems, and assist in establishment on their nutritional improvement plan. For this, food intake and health condition (physical, clinical, biochemical and parasitological) survey on 109 Pre-school children in both sexes, randomly selected from Yang-Gu area in Gang-Won province and Rea-ju area in Kyong-gy Province, were conducted by means of three-day records, during the two periods of Spring and Fall season in 1975. The results obtained are summerized as follows: 1. The food intake; Average food intake of the subjects per day were $508{\sim}647g$ ($83{\sim}91%$ in vegetable foods and $5.5{\sim}11.7%$ in animal foods) in Yang-gu area, and $587{\sim}698g$ ($88{\sim}89%$ in vegetable foods and $6.3{\sim}7.6%$ in animal foods) in Rea-ju area. 2. The intake of energy and nutrients; a) Calory intake. Average energy intake of subjects per day in Yang-gu area$(1120{\sim}1415kcal)$ were all lower than the Korean Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in either Spring and Fall survey, whereas the subjects in Rea-ju area were lower intake $(1213{\sim}1418kcal)$ than the RDA in the Spring but higher intake$(1516{\sim}1755kcal)$ than the RDA in the Fall, and the average intake were similar level with that of RDA. b) Protein intake. Average protein intake of the subjects per day in Yang-gu area $(33{\sim}43g)$ girl subjects in Rea-ju area $(35{\sim}39g)$ were lower than the RDA in either Spring and Fall survey, whereas the boy subjects in Rea-ju area$(36{\sim}38g)$ were lower in Spring and higher $(49{\sim}57g)$ in the Fall than that of the RDA, but the average $(43{\sim}47g)$ were similar level with the RDA. The protein intake from animal sources in all subjects were much lower $(5.5{\sim}11.7\;of\;total\;protein)$ than the RDA. c) Fat intake. Average fat intake were very lower in all subjects of both area $(14{\sim}24g\;in\;Yang-gu,\;10{\sim}12g\;in\;Rea-ju)$ than that of RDA which is recommended $12{\sim}14%$ of total energy to be supplied from fat. d) Calcium intake. Average calcium intake were very low in all subjects of both area $(264{\sim}355mg\;in\;Yang-gu\;and\;283{\sim}429mg\;in\;Rea-ju)$, especially, these in Spring were about a half level of the RDA, and it was much increased in the Fall due to increased intake of milk, but it was still not enough than the RDA. e) Vitamin A intake. Average intake of V.A ($703{\sim}1465\;IU$ in Ynag-gu and $750{\sim}1521\;IU$ in Rea-ju) were also lower than the RDA, moreover their V-A sources were mainly vegetable, so that the V-A supply might be critical one for the subjected. f) Riboflavin intake. Average riboflavin intake on all subjects in both area except boys in Rea-ju area in Fall, were very lower than the RDA. 3. The physical status; a) Average weight and height of boys aged 4 and 5 in Yang-gu area and girls of aged 5 in Rea-ju area were lower than those of Korean Standard of 1967 report, but those by age of girls in Yang-gu area and boys in Rea-ju area were a little heigher than the Korean Standard. It is, hower, present Korean standard of physical status might be somehow heigher than the 1967, since the socio-economical situation has been much improved during past a decade. So that, if one considered on this sense, the physical status of the subjects on this survey might be somehow lower than those of present Korean standard. b) Average upper arm circumference in both area were no difference each other, and their mean values of age 4, 5 and 6 in boy and girl were 15.6, 16.5, 16.4 and 15.5, 16.5, 16.4cm respectively. c) Average chest girth of boys were similar to those of Korean standard whereas the girls were smaller than the Korea standard. The average head circumference also showed similar tendency with the chest girth. 4. The clinical findings; The most popular clinical signs were angular stomatitis and dental caries, and boys had more heigher incidence then the girls. 5. The biochemical findings; a) Hemoglobin and anemia Average Hb value of boys and girls were 11.4 and 10.9g per 100 ml of blood respectively. The incidence of anemia (Hb value below 11 g/100 ml, by WHO) was increased by age, and girls had more heigher incidence than the boy (34% : 48%). The incidence of anemia in age of 4,5, and 6 in boys and girls were 28%, 41% 34%, and 33%, 50%, 49% respectively. The degree of the anemia was not severe, and the anemia of there subjects may be caused mainly low intake of better quality protein and low iron intake as well. b) Hematocrit. Average Ht value of whole subject were $39.9{\sim}41.6%$. c) Blood plasma protein. Average blood plasma protein contents of whole subjects were $6.6{\sim}7.4gm$ per 100 ml. The incidence of deficient range (<6.0g%, by ICNND) was only one girl of age 4 in yang Gu area. 6. Parasitological findgs; The most popular parasitism were asicris lumbicoides and trichocephalus trichiura, and about 2/3 of the whole subjects were suffering one or more of these parasitism.

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