• Title, Summary, Keyword: F&B

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Food and Beverage Marketing Mix in The Hotels (관광호텔 식음료상품 마케팅믹스에 관한 연구)

  • 하경희
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.175-204
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    • 1999
  • Today, the hotel industry in a whole are facing serious problems with a number of reasons. To overcome this situation, Customer-Oriented Marketing is considered to be a solution for the hotel F & B management, due to the potential of F & B department. The main purpose of this study was to present the Food and Beverage Marketing Mix Strategies suitable for the market characteristics. To achieve the purpose of this study, theoretical and empirical approaches were used. In review of theoritical background, basic concepts and characteristics of hotel F & B, hotel F & B marketing environment, and hotel F & B marketing mix were studied. Based on the theoritical studies and previous studies, F & B marketing mix sub-components were chosen. In this research, F & B 5P's and 1I marketing mix are discussed, they are Product, Price, Promotion, People, Physical evidence and Image. Through the survey, a number of important segment markets are emerged, which lead to essential segment markets ; business, conference and leisure market. F & B marketing mix strategies as follows. First, for the physical evidence mix, to build up the position as deluxe hotels, it is necessary to matte an investment in technical and decorative components. Second, for the people mix, to assure the service quality, the education and training programs for employee are required. Third, for the image mix, to ensure the image of hotel brand strength, the consideration for public area layout, restaurant and bar ambience, and green policy are required. Fourth, for the product and price mix, to differentiate the F & B, it is necessary to offer thorned and ethnic cuisine, and signature restaurants. Fifth, for the promotion mix, to attract more cumstomers, creative and various promotion activities, and long-term investment in customer-oriented marketing are required. There were some limitations in this study. That is, most of hotels don't operate the concrete and effective F & B marketing, have difficulty in getting data base for F & B customer. Despite their limitations, this study add some values to hotel F & B management in that it introduce the service marketing mix strategies to hotel F & B marketing.

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Inhibitory Effect of Polygonum Multiflorum on Melanin Synthesis and Its Action Mechanism in B16F10 (적하수오(赤何首烏)의 멜라닌 생성 억제와 작용기전에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Jong-Sek;Yoo, Dong-Youl
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.59-75
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This study was performed to determine the inhibitory effect of Polygonum multiflorum(PM) on melanin synthesis in B16F10. Methods: The Inhibitory effects of Polygonum multiflorum(PM) on melanin synthesis were determined by in-vitro assay. To elucidate inhibitory effects of Polygonum multiflorum on melanin synthesis, we determined the melanin release and melanin production in B16F10. And to investigate the action mechanism, we assessed the gene expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, MMP-2, PKA, PKC, ERK-1 ERK-2, AKT-1, MITF in B16F10. Results: 1. PM inhibited melanin-release, melanin production in B16F10. 2. PM inhibited tyrosinase activity in vitro and in B16F10. 3. PM suppressed the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1 in B16F10. 4. PM suppressed the expression of PKA in B16F10. 5. PM suppressed the expression of ERK-1, ERK-2, AKT-1 in B16F10. 6. PM suppressed the expression of MITF in B16F10. Conclusion: From these results, it may be concluded that PM possesses the antimelanogenetic effects.

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The Effect of Yukmijihwangtang -gagambang (YMG) on Melanin Synthesis and Gene Expression (육미지황탕가감방(六味地黃湯加減方)이 멜라닌 생성 및 유전자발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Kyung;Yoo, Dong-Youl
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.66-82
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: This study was performed to elucidate the inhibitory effect of Yukmijihwangtang-gagambang (YMG) on melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cell. Methods: To demonstrate the inhibitory effects of YMG on melanin synthesis, we measured the amount of released and produced melanin in B16F10 melanoma cell. Also, we evaluated tyrosinase-activity in vitro as well as in B16F10 melanoma cell. And to investigate the action mechanism we assessed the gene expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, MMP-2, PKA, PKC${\beta}$, ERK-1 ERK-2, AKT-1 and MITF in B16F10 melanoma cells. Results: 1. YMG decreased the release and production of melanin in B16F10 melanoma cells. 2. YMG decreased tyrosinase activity in vitro and in B16F10 melanoma cells. 3. YMG decreased the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, PKA, PKC${\beta}$ and MMP-2 in B16F10 melanoma cells. 4. YMG increased the expression of ERK-1, ERK-2, and AKT-1 in B16F10 melanoma cells. 5. YMG decreased the expression of MITF in B16F10 melanoma cells. Conclusion: From these results, we suggest that YMG inhibit melanin synthesis via tyrosinase inhibition and regulation of the gene expression in B16F10 melanoma cells.

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A Study on a Comb Filter Bank Circuit using B.B.D. (B.B.D.를 이용한 콤필터 뱅크회로에 관한 연구)

  • 이광형
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.156-160
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    • 1982
  • A Comb Filter(C.F.) is constucted with a N-stages one-dimensional B.B.D.(Bucket-Brigade Device) delay line. One channel of the B.P.F. (Band Pass Filter) Bank is experimented, which includes a R.F.(Recursie Filter) using S/H circuits cascaded to the C.F. This algorithm of the C.F.B.(Comb Filter Bank) becomes the parallel spectrum analyzer circuit. The algorithm has less number of multiplication than that of FFT and improves the SNR.

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ON THE SPECIAL FINSLER METRIC

  • Lee, Nan-Y
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.457-464
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    • 2003
  • Given a Riemannian manifold (M, $\alpha$) with an almost Hermitian structure f and a non-vanishing covariant vector field b, consider the generalized Randers metric $L\;=\;{\alpha}+{\beta}$, where $\beta$ is a special singular Riemannian metric defined by b and f. This metric L is called an (a, b, f)-metric. We compute the inverse and the determinant of the fundamental tensor ($g_{ij}$) of an (a, b, f)-metric. Then we determine the maximal domain D of $TM{\backslash}O$ for an (a, b, f)-manifold where a y-local Finsler structure L is defined. And then we show that any (a, b, f)-manifold is quasi-C-reducible and find a condition under which an (a, b, f)-manifold is C-reducible.

Physicochemical Properties of Indoor Particulate Matter Collected on Subway Platforms in Japan

  • Ma, Chang-Jin;Matuyama, Sigeo;Sera, Koichiro;Kim, Shin-Do
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.73-82
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    • 2012
  • This study was aimed to thoroughly estimate the characteristics of indoor particulate matter (PM) collected on subway platforms by the cooperative approach of semi-bulk and single particle analyses. The size-resolved PM and its number concentration were measured on the platform in a heavily traveled subway station in Fukuoka, Japan. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and micro-PIXE techniques were applied to the chemical analyses of semi-bulk and single particle, respectively. There was the close resemblance of timely fluctuation between PM number concentration and train service on the third basement floor (B3F) platform compared to the second basement floor (B2F) and its maximum level was marked in rush hour. Higher number counts in large particles ($>1{\mu}m$) and lower number counts in fine particles ($<1{\mu}m$) were shown on the platform compared to an above ground. PM2.5 accounted for 58.2% and 38.2 % of TSP on B3F and on B2F, respectively. The elements that were ranked at high concentration in size-resolved semi-bulk PM were Fe, Si, Ca, S, and Na. The major elements tending to have more elevated levels on B3F than B2F were Fe (4.4 times), Ca (17.3 times), and Si (46.4 times). Although concentrations were very low, Cr ($11.9ng\;m^{-3}$ on B3F, $2.4ng\;m^{-3}$ on B2F), Mn ($3.4ng\;m^{-3}$ on B3F, $0.9ng\;m^{-3}$ on B2F), and Pb ($0.6ng\;m^{-3}$ on B3F, $1.6ng\;m^{-3}$ on B2F) were detected from PM2.5. Individual PM was nearly all enriched in Fe with Si and Ca. Classifying and source profiling of the individual particles by elemental maps and particle morphology were tried and particles were presumably divided into four groups (i.e., train/rail friction, train-rail sparking, ballast/abrasive, and cement).

Cytogenetic Studies of Scila scilloides Complex from Korea I. Distribution of Genomes and Composition and Frequencies of B Chromosome (한국 무릇(Scilla scilloides Complex)의 세포유전학적 연구 I. 게놈에 따른 분포 및 B염색체의 조성과 출현 빈도)

  • 최혜운
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.237-242
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    • 1990
  • Geographical distribution of diploid plant with AA genome (2n=16) and allotetraploid with AABB genome (2n=34) of Scilla scilloides Complex from Korea has been studied. The composition and frequencies of B chromosomes ere also investigated. Plants with AABB genome were predominant over AA genome plants. A mixed population of AA and AABB genome plants was found for the first time. Aneuploid plants have not been found. Chromosomes of AA genome were composed of three pairs of metacentric, two pairs of submetacentric, two pairs of subtlocentric and one pair of telocentric chromosomes, whereas BB genome was four pairs of metacentric and five pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. B chromosomes were classified into two categories, isochromosome (F) and chromosome fragment (f). The frequencies of B chromosomes were 43% in AA genome plants and 44% in AABB genome plants. The number of B chromosome ranged from 1 to 3 and 1 to 7 in AA and AABB genome plants, respectively. B chromosome combinations were F and F+f in AA genome plants and F, F+f and f in AABB genome plants.

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A CHARACTERIZATION OF M-HARMONICITY

  • Lee, Jae-Sung
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 2010
  • If f is M-harmonic and integrable with respect to a weighted radial measure $\upsilon_{\alpha}$ over the unit ball $B_n$ of $\mathbb{C}^n$, then $\int_{B_n}(f\circ\psi)d\upsilon_{\alpha}=f(\psi(0))$ for every $\psi{\in}Aut(B_n)$. Equivalently f is fixed by the weighted Berezin transform; $T_{\alpha}f = f$. In this paper, we show that if a function f defined on $B_n$ satisfies $R(f\circ\phi){\in}L^{\infty}(B_n)$ for every $\phi{\in}Aut(B_n)$ and Sf = rf for some |r|=1, where S is any convex combination of the iterations of $T_{\alpha}$'s, then f is M-harmonic.

G(f)-SEQUENCES AND FIBRATIONS

  • Woo, Moo-Ha
    • Communications of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.709-715
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    • 1997
  • For a fibration (E,B,p) with fiber F and a fiber map f, we show that if the inclusion $i : F \to E$ has a left homotopy inverse, then $G^f_n(E,F)$ is isomorphic to $G^f_n(F,E) \oplus \pi_n(B)$. In particular, by taking f as the identity map on E we have $G_n(E,F)$ is isomorphic to $G_n(F) \oplus \pi_n(B)$.

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TABLES OF D-CLASSES IN THE SEMIGROUP $B_n1$ OF THE BINARY RELATIONS ON A SET X WITH n-ELEMENTS

  • Kim, Jin-Bai
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.9-13
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    • 1983
  • M$_{n}$(F) denotes the set of all n*n matrices over F={0, 1}. For a, b.mem.F, define a+b=max{a, b} and ab=min{a, b}. Under these operations a+b and ab, M$_{n}$(F) forms a multiplicative semigroup (see [1], [4]) and we call it the semigroup of the n*n boolean matrices over F={0, 1}. Since the semigroup M$_{n}$(F) is the matrix representation of the semigroup B$_{n}$ of the binary relations on the set X with n elements, we may identify M$_{n}$(F) with B$_{n}$ for finding all D-classes.l D-classes.

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