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The Impact of Market Environments on Optimal Channel Strategy Involving an Internet Channel: A Game Theoretic Approach (시장 환경이 인터넷 경로를 포함한 다중 경로 관리에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구: 게임 이론적 접근방법)

  • Yoo, Weon-Sang
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.119-138
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    • 2011
  • Internet commerce has been growing at a rapid pace for the last decade. Many firms try to reach wider consumer markets by adding the Internet channel to the existing traditional channels. Despite the various benefits of the Internet channel, a significant number of firms failed in managing the new type of channel. Previous studies could not cleary explain these conflicting results associated with the Internet channel. One of the major reasons is most of the previous studies conducted analyses under a specific market condition and claimed that as the impact of Internet channel introduction. Therefore, their results are strongly influenced by the specific market settings. However, firms face various market conditions in the real worlddensity and disutility of using the Internet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of various market environments on a firm's optimal channel strategy by employing a flexible game theory model. We capture various market conditions with consumer density and disutility of using the Internet.

    shows the channel structures analyzed in this study. Before the Internet channel is introduced, a monopoly manufacturer sells its products through an independent physical store. From this structure, the manufacturer could introduce its own Internet channel (MI). The independent physical store could also introduce its own Internet channel and coordinate it with the existing physical store (RI). An independent Internet retailer such as Amazon could enter this market (II). In this case, two types of independent retailers compete with each other. In this model, consumers are uniformly distributed on the two dimensional space. Consumer heterogeneity is captured by a consumer's geographical location (ci) and his disutility of using the Internet channel (${\delta}_{N_i}$).
    shows various market conditions captured by the two consumer heterogeneities.
    (a) illustrates a market with symmetric consumer distributions. The model captures explicitly the asymmetric distributions of consumer disutility in a market as well. In a market like that is represented in
    (c), the average consumer disutility of using an Internet store is relatively smaller than that of using a physical store. For example, this case represents the market in which 1) the product is suitable for Internet transactions (e.g., books) or 2) the level of E-Commerce readiness is high such as in Denmark or Finland. On the other hand, the average consumer disutility when using an Internet store is relatively greater than that of using a physical store in a market like (b). Countries like Ukraine and Bulgaria, or the market for "experience goods" such as shoes, could be examples of this market condition. summarizes the various scenarios of consumer distributions analyzed in this study. The range for disutility of using the Internet (${\delta}_{N_i}$) is held constant, while the range of consumer distribution (${\chi}_i$) varies from -25 to 25, from -50 to 50, from -100 to 100, from -150 to 150, and from -200 to 200.
    summarizes the analysis results. As the average travel cost in a market decreases while the average disutility of Internet use remains the same, average retail price, total quantity sold, physical store profit, monopoly manufacturer profit, and thus, total channel profit increase. On the other hand, the quantity sold through the Internet and the profit of the Internet store decrease with a decreasing average travel cost relative to the average disutility of Internet use. We find that a channel that has an advantage over the other kind of channel serves a larger portion of the market. In a market with a high average travel cost, in which the Internet store has a relative advantage over the physical store, for example, the Internet store becomes a mass-retailer serving a larger portion of the market. This result implies that the Internet becomes a more significant distribution channel in those markets characterized by greater geographical dispersion of buyers, or as consumers become more proficient in Internet usage. The results indicate that the degree of price discrimination also varies depending on the distribution of consumer disutility in a market. The manufacturer in a market in which the average travel cost is higher than the average disutility of using the Internet has a stronger incentive for price discrimination than the manufacturer in a market where the average travel cost is relatively lower. We also find that the manufacturer has a stronger incentive to maintain a high price level when the average travel cost in a market is relatively low. Additionally, the retail competition effect due to Internet channel introduction strengthens as average travel cost in a market decreases. This result indicates that a manufacturer's channel power relative to that of the independent physical retailer becomes stronger with a decreasing average travel cost. This implication is counter-intuitive, because it is widely believed that the negative impact of Internet channel introduction on a competing physical retailer is more significant in a market like Russia, where consumers are more geographically dispersed, than in a market like Hong Kong, that has a condensed geographic distribution of consumers.
    illustrates how this happens. When mangers consider the overall impact of the Internet channel, however, they should consider not only channel power, but also sales volume. When both are considered, the introduction of the Internet channel is revealed as more harmful to a physical retailer in Russia than one in Hong Kong, because the sales volume decrease for a physical store due to Internet channel competition is much greater in Russia than in Hong Kong. The results show that manufacturer is always better off with any type of Internet store introduction. The independent physical store benefits from opening its own Internet store when the average travel cost is higher relative to the disutility of using the Internet. Under an opposite market condition, however, the independent physical retailer could be worse off when it opens its own Internet outlet and coordinates both outlets (RI). This is because the low average travel cost significantly reduces the channel power of the independent physical retailer, further aggravating the already weak channel power caused by myopic inter-channel price coordination. The results implies that channel members and policy makers should explicitly consider the factors determining the relative distributions of both kinds of consumer disutility, when they make a channel decision involving an Internet channel. These factors include the suitability of a product for Internet shopping, the level of E-Commerce readiness of a market, and the degree of geographic dispersion of consumers in a market. Despite the academic contributions and managerial implications, this study is limited in the following ways. First, a series of numerical analyses were conducted to derive equilibrium solutions due to the complex forms of demand functions. In the process, we set up V=100, ${\lambda}$=1, and ${\beta}$=0.01. Future research may change this parameter value set to check the generalizability of this study. Second, the five different scenarios for market conditions were analyzed. Future research could try different sets of parameter ranges. Finally, the model setting allows only one monopoly manufacturer in the market. Accommodating competing multiple manufacturers (brands) would generate more realistic results.

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  • The new explore of the animated content using OculusVR - Focusing on the VR platform and killer content - (오큘러스 VR (Oculus VR)를 이용한 애니메이션 콘텐츠의 새로운 모색 - VR 플랫폼과 킬러콘텐츠를 중심으로 -)

    • Lee, Jong-Han
      • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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      • pp.197-214
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      • 2016
    • Augmented Reality, virtual reality in recently attracted attention throughout the world. and Mix them mixed reality etc., it has had a significant impact on the overall pop culture beyond the scope of science and technology. The world's leading IT company : Google, Apple, Samsung, Microsoft, Sony, LG is focusing on development of AR, VR technology for the public. The many large and small companies developed VR hardware, VR software, VR content. It does not look that makes a human a human operation in the cognitive experience of certain places or situations or invisible through Specific platforms or program is Encompass a common technique that a realization of the virtual space. In particular, out of the three-dimensional image reveals the limitations of the conventional two-dimensional structure - 180, 360 degree images provided by the subjective and objective symptoms such as vision and sense of time and got participants to select it. VR technology that can significantly induce the commitment and participation is Industry as well as to the general public which leads to the attention of colostrum. It was introduced more than 10 related VR works Year 2015 Sundance Film Festival New Frontier program. The appearance VR content : medical, architecture, shopping, movies, animations. Also, 360 individuals can be produced by the camera / video sharing VR is becoming an interactive tunnel between two possible users. Nevertheless, This confusion of values, moral degeneration and the realization of a virtual space that has been pointed out that the inherent. 4K or HUD, location tracking, motion sensors, processing power, and superior 3D graphics, touch, smell, 4D technology, 3D audio technology - It developed more than ever and possible approaches to reality. Thereafter, This is because the moral degeneration, identity, generational conflict, and escapism concerns. Animation is also seeking costs in this category Reality. Despite the similarities rather it has that image, and may be the reason that the animation is pushed back to the VR content creation. However, it is focused on the game and VR technology and the platform that is entertaining, but also seek new points within the animation staying in the flat Given that eventually consist of visual images is clear that VR sought. Finally, What is the reality created in the virtual space using VR technology could be applied to the animation? So it can be seen that the common interest is research on what methods and means applied.

    Problems in the field of maternal and child health care and its improvement in rural Korea (우리나라 농촌(農村)의 모자보건(母子保健)의 문제점(問題點)과 개선방안(改善方案))

    • Lee, Sung-Kwan
      • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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      • v.1 no.1
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      • pp.29-36
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      • 1976
    • Introduction Recently, changes in the patterns and concepts of maternity care, in both developing and developed countries have been accelerating. An outstanding development in this field is the number of deliveries taking place in hospitals or maternity centers. In Korea, however, more than 90% of deliveries are carried out at home with the help of untrained relatives or even without helpers. It is estimated that less than 10% of deliveries are assisted by professional persons such as a physician or a midwife. Taking into account the shortage of professional person i11 rural Korea, it is difficult to expect widespread prenatal, postnatal, and delivery care by professional persons in the near future, It is unrealistic, therefore, to expect rapid development of MCH care by professional persons in rural Korea due to economic and sociological reasons. Given these conditions. it is reasonable that an educated village women could used as a "maternity aid", serving simple and technically easy roles in the MCH field, if we could give such a women incentive to do so. The midwife and physician are assigned difficult problems in the MCH field which could not be solved by the village worker. However, with the application of the village worker system, we could expect to improve maternal and child hoalth through the replacement of untrained relatives as birth attendants with educated and trained maternity aides. We hope that this system will be a way of improving MCH care, which is only one part of the general health services offered at the local health centre level. Problems of MCH in rural Korea The field of MCH is not only the weakest point in the medical field in our country hut it has also dropped behind other developing countries. Regarding the knowledge about pregnancy and delivery, a large proportion of our respondents reported having only a little knowledge, while 29% reported that they had "sufficient" knowledge. The average number of pregnancies among women residing in rural areas was 4.3 while the rate of women with 5 or more pregnancies among general women and women who terminated childbearing were 43 and 80% respectively. The rate of unwanted pregnancy among general women was 19.7%. The total rate for complications during pregnancy was 15.4%, toxemia being the major complication. The rate of pregnant women with chronic disease was 7%. Regarding the interval of pregnancy, the rates of pregnancy within 12 months and within 36 months after last delivery were 9 and 49% respectively. Induced abortion has been increasing in rural areas, being as high as 30-50% in some locations. The maternal death rate was shown 10 times higher than in developed countries (35/10,000 live births). Prenatal care Most women had no consultation with a physician during the prenatal period. Of those women who did have prenatal care, the majority (63%) received such care only 1 or 2 times throughout the entire period of pregnancy. Also, in 80% of these women the first visit Game after 4 months of gestation. Delivery conditions This field is lagging behind other public health problems in our country. Namely, more than 95% of the women deliveried their baby at home, and delivery attendance by a professional person occurred only 11% of the time. Attendance rate by laymen was 78% while those receiving no care at all was 16%. For instruments used to cut the umbilical corn, sterilized scissors were used by 19%, non-sterilized scissors by 63% and 16% used sickles. Regarding delivery sheets, the rate of use of clean sheets was only 10%, unclean sheets, vinyl and papers 72%, and without sheets, 18%. The main reason for not using a hospital as a place of delivery was that the women felt they did not need it as they had previously experience easy deliveries outside hospitals. Difficult delivery composed about 5% of the total. Child health The main food for infants (95%) was breast milk. Regarding weaning time, the rates within one year, up to one and half, two, three and more than three years were 28,43,60,81 and 91% respectively, and even after the next pregnancy still continued lactation. The vaccination of children is the only service for child health in rural Korea. As shown in the Table, the rates of all kinds of vaccination were very low and insufficient. Infant death rate was 42 per 1,000 live births. Most of the deaths were caused by preventable diseases. Death of infants within the neonatal period was 83% meaning that deaths from communicable diseases decreased remarkably after that time. Infant deaths which occurred without medical care was 52%. Methods of improvement in the MCH field 1. Through the activities of village health workers (VHW) to detect pregnant women by home visiting and. after registration. visiting once a month to observe any abnormalities in pregnant women. If they find warning signs of abnormalities. they refer them to the public health nurse or midwife. Sterilized delivery kits were distributed to the expected mother 2 weeks prior to expected date of delivery by the VHW. If a delivery was expected to be difficult, then the VHW took the mother to a physician or call a physician to help after birth, the VHW visits the mother and baby to confirm health and to recommend the baby be given proper vaccination. 2. Through the midwife or public health nurse (aid nurse) Examination of pregnant women who are referred by the VHW to confirm abnormalities and to treat them. If the midwife or aid nurse could not solve the problems, they refer the pregnant women to the OB-GY specialist. The midwife and PHN will attend in the cases of normal deliveries and they help in the birth. The PHN will conduct vaccination for all infants and children under 5, years old. 3. The Physician will help only in those cases referred to him by the PHN or VHW. However, the physician should examine all pregnant women at least three times during their pregnancy. First, the physician will identify the pregnancy and conduct general physical examination to confirm any chronic disease that might disturb the continuity of the pregnancy. Second, if the pregnant woman shows any abnormalities the physician must examine and treat. Third, at 9 or 10 months of gestation (after sitting of the baby) the physician should examine the position of the fetus and measure the pelvis to recommend institutional delivery of those who are expected to have a difficult delivery. And of course. the medical care of both the mother and the infants are responsible of the physician. Overall, large areas of the field of MCH would be served by the VHW, PHN, or midwife so the physician is needed only as a parttime worker.

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    Development of Intelligent Job Classification System based on Job Posting on Job Sites (구인구직사이트의 구인정보 기반 지능형 직무분류체계의 구축)

    • Lee, Jung Seung
      • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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      • v.25 no.4
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      • pp.123-139
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      • 2019
    • The job classification system of major job sites differs from site to site and is different from the job classification system of the 'SQF(Sectoral Qualifications Framework)' proposed by the SW field. Therefore, a new job classification system is needed for SW companies, SW job seekers, and job sites to understand. The purpose of this study is to establish a standard job classification system that reflects market demand by analyzing SQF based on job offer information of major job sites and the NCS(National Competency Standards). For this purpose, the association analysis between occupations of major job sites is conducted and the association rule between SQF and occupation is conducted to derive the association rule between occupations. Using this association rule, we proposed an intelligent job classification system based on data mapping the job classification system of major job sites and SQF and job classification system. First, major job sites are selected to obtain information on the job classification system of the SW market. Then We identify ways to collect job information from each site and collect data through open API. Focusing on the relationship between the data, filtering only the job information posted on each job site at the same time, other job information is deleted. Next, we will map the job classification system between job sites using the association rules derived from the association analysis. We will complete the mapping between these market segments, discuss with the experts, further map the SQF, and finally propose a new job classification system. As a result, more than 30,000 job listings were collected in XML format using open API in 'WORKNET,' 'JOBKOREA,' and 'saramin', which are the main job sites in Korea. After filtering out about 900 job postings simultaneously posted on multiple job sites, 800 association rules were derived by applying the Apriori algorithm, which is a frequent pattern mining. Based on 800 related rules, the job classification system of WORKNET, JOBKOREA, and saramin and the SQF job classification system were mapped and classified into 1st and 4th stages. In the new job taxonomy, the first primary class, IT consulting, computer system, network, and security related job system, consisted of three secondary classifications, five tertiary classifications, and five fourth classifications. The second primary classification, the database and the job system related to system operation, consisted of three secondary classifications, three tertiary classifications, and four fourth classifications. The third primary category, Web Planning, Web Programming, Web Design, and Game, was composed of four secondary classifications, nine tertiary classifications, and two fourth classifications. The last primary classification, job systems related to ICT management, computer and communication engineering technology, consisted of three secondary classifications and six tertiary classifications. In particular, the new job classification system has a relatively flexible stage of classification, unlike other existing classification systems. WORKNET divides jobs into third categories, JOBKOREA divides jobs into second categories, and the subdivided jobs into keywords. saramin divided the job into the second classification, and the subdivided the job into keyword form. The newly proposed standard job classification system accepts some keyword-based jobs, and treats some product names as jobs. In the classification system, not only are jobs suspended in the second classification, but there are also jobs that are subdivided into the fourth classification. This reflected the idea that not all jobs could be broken down into the same steps. We also proposed a combination of rules and experts' opinions from market data collected and conducted associative analysis. Therefore, the newly proposed job classification system can be regarded as a data-based intelligent job classification system that reflects the market demand, unlike the existing job classification system. This study is meaningful in that it suggests a new job classification system that reflects market demand by attempting mapping between occupations based on data through the association analysis between occupations rather than intuition of some experts. However, this study has a limitation in that it cannot fully reflect the market demand that changes over time because the data collection point is temporary. As market demands change over time, including seasonal factors and major corporate public recruitment timings, continuous data monitoring and repeated experiments are needed to achieve more accurate matching. The results of this study can be used to suggest the direction of improvement of SQF in the SW industry in the future, and it is expected to be transferred to other industries with the experience of success in the SW industry.