• Title/Summary/Keyword: Esophageal Cancer

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Clinical Application of $^{18}F-FDG$ PET in Esophageal Cancer (식도암에서의 $^{18}F-FDG$ PET의 임상 이용)

  • Choi, Joon-Young
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.sup1
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    • pp.32-38
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    • 2008
  • This review focuses on the clinical use of $^{18}F-FDG$ PET in esophageal cancer. For initial staging of esophageal cancer, $^{18}F-FDG$ PET is better than chest CT and is complementary to endoscopic ultrasound. Due to its good results for detecting distant metastasis, $^{18}F-FDG$ PET evades unnecessary curative surgery. Also, PET findings are associated with prognosis in esophageal cancer. $^{18}F-FDG$ PET seems to be useful for detecting recurrence and restaging in esophageal cancer. For therapy response assessment, $^{18}F-FDG$ PET is effective after chemotherapy or radiation therapy. $^{18}F-FDG$ PET is useful to predict pathological response after neoadjuvant therapy in esophageal cancer, which is better than chest CT and endoscopic ultrasound. For radiation therapy planning, $^{18}F-FDG$ PET may be helpful, but requires further investigations.

Analysis of the Relationships between Esophageal Cancer Cases and Climatic Factors Using a Geographic Information System (GIS): a Case Study of Ardabil province in Iran

  • Ahari, Saeid Sadeghieh;Agdam, Fridoon Babaei;Amani, Firouz;Yazdanbod, Abbas;Akhghari, Leyla
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.2071-2077
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    • 2013
  • Esophageal cancer is a mjaor health problems in many parts of the world. A geographical information system (GIS) allows investigation of the geographical distribution of diseases. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between esophageal cancer and effective climatic factors using GIS. The dispersion distribution and the relationship between environmental factors effective on cancer were measured using Arc GIS. The highest degree of spread was in Germi town and the least was in Ardabil city. There was a significant relationship between effective environmental factors and esophageal cancer in Ardabil province. The results indicated that environmental factors probably are influential in determining the incidence of esophageal cancer. Also, these results can be considered as a window to future comprehensive research on esophageal cancer and related risk factors.

Esophageal Cancer Staging

  • Rice, Thomas W.
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.157-163
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    • 2015
  • Accurate staging of esophageal cancer is very important to achieving optimal treatment outcomes. The AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) first published TNM esophageal cancer staging recommendations in the first edition of their staging manual in 1977. Thereafter, the staging of esophageal cancer was changed many times over the years. This article reviews the current status of staging of esophageal cancer.

Surgery and Postoperative Immunochemotherapy for Thoracic Esophageal Cancer (흉부식도암의 수술 면역화학요법)

  • 김광택
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.214-218
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    • 1993
  • Extensive lymphnode dissection combined with thoracic esophagectomy improved prognosis of esophageal cancer, but there is still high postoperative recurrence rate. The immunologic capacity of esophageal cancer patients is compromised by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Therefore immunological therapy for esophageal cancer patients seems rational. We have adopted postoperative immunochemotherapy since 1988. From 1988 to 1992, 31 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer underwent esophagectomy and radical lymphnode dissection, and selected patient with early esophageal cancer and unfit for thoracotomy underwent transhiatal esophagectomy in Korea University Hospital. Mean age of patients was 56 years. There were 28 squamous cell cancers, 2 adenocarcinomas and one mixed tumor. There were 4 stage I, 3 stage II, 18 stage III, and 6 stage IV cases. There were no opeartive death. Postoperative complications included anastomotic leakage in 9%, pneumonia 3 %, cylothorax 3%, recurrent laryngeal neve paresis in 3% of all patients. Curative resection group[n=19] received immunotherapy. Noncurative resection group[n=12] received postoperative immunochemotherapy, including PS-K, CDDP, and 5-FU. Operative survivors were followed from 4 months to 5 years. There were 3 lost of follow-up. Actuarial survival rate is 79% to one year, 54% to two years and 27% to five years.In conclusion, an transthoracic esophagectomy combined with systematic lymph node dissection and postoperative immunochemotherapy could improve survival rate for esophageal cancer.

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Time Trends of Esophageal Cancer Mortality in Linzhou City During the Period 1988-2010 and a Bayesian Approach Projection for 2020

  • Liu, Shu-Zheng;Zhang, Fang;Quan, Pei-Liang;Lu, Jian-Bang;Liu, Zhi-Cai;Sun, Xi-Bin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4501-4504
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    • 2012
  • In recent decades, decreasing trends in esophageal cancer mortality have been observed across China. We here describe esophageal cancer mortality trends in Linzhou city, a high-incidence region of esophageal cancer in China, during 1988-2010 and make a esophageal cancer mortality projection in the period 2011-2020 using a Bayesian approach. Age standardized mortality rates were estimated by direct standardization to the World population structure in 1985. A Bayesian age-period-cohort (BAPC) analysis was carried out in order to investigate the effect of the age, period and birth cohort on esophageal cancer mortality in Linzhou during 1988-2010 and to estimate future trends for the period 2011-2020. Age-adjusted rates for men and women decreased from 1988 to 2005 and changed little thereafter. Risk increased from 30 years of age until the very elderly. Period effects showed little variation in risk throughout 1988-2010. In contrast, a cohort effect showed risk decreased greatly in later cohorts. Forecasting, based on BAPC modeling, resulted in a increasing burden of mortality and a decreasing age standardized mortality rate of esophageal cancer in Linzhou city. The decrease of esophageal cancer mortality risk since the 1930 cohort could be attributable to the improvements of socialeconomic environment and lifestyle. The standardized mortality rates of esophageal cancer should decrease continually. The effect of aging on the population could explain the increase in esophageal mortality projected for 2020.

Epidemiological Characteristics and Prediction of Esophageal Cancer Mortality in China from 1991 to 2012

  • Tang, Wen-Rui;Fang, Jia-Ying;Wu, Ku-Sheng;Shi, Xiao-Jun;Luo, Jia-Yi;Lin, Kun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6929-6934
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    • 2014
  • Background: To analyze the mortality distribution of esophageal cancer in China from 1991 to 2012, to forecast the mortality in the future five years, and to provide evidence for prevention and treatment of esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: Mortality data for esophageal cancer in China from 1991 to 2012 were used to describe its epidemiological characteristics, such as the change of the standardized mortality rate, urban-rural differences, sex and age differences. Trend-surface analysis was used to study the geographical distribution of the mortality. Curve estimation, time series, gray modeling, and joinpoint regression were used to predict the mortality for the next five years in the future. Results: In China, the incidence rate of esophageal cancer from 2007 and the mortality rate of esophageal cancer from 2008 increased yearly, with males at $8.72/10^5$ being higher than females, and the countryside at $15.5/10^5$ being higher than in the city. The mortality rate increased from age 45. Geographical analysis showed the mortality rate increased from southern to eastern China, and from northeast to central China. Conclusions: The incidence rate and the standardized mortality rate of esophageal cancer are rising. The regional disease control for esophageal cancer should be focused on eastern, central and northern regions China, and the key targets for prevention and treatment are rural men more than 45 years old. The mortality of esophageal cancer will rise in the next five years.

Review of the Burden of Esophageal Cancer in Malaysia

  • Siti-Azrin, Ab Hamid;Wan-Nor-Asyikeen, Wan Adnan;Norsa'adah, Bachok
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.3705-3709
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    • 2016
  • Esophageal cancer is one of the top leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Malaysia. To date, neither the prevalence nor incidence of esophageal cancer nationally have been recorded. Esophageal cancer remains a major and lethal health problem even if it is not common in Malaysia. The late presentation of esophageal cancer makes it a difficult and challenging medical problem. Therefore, more governmental and non-governmental organizations of Malaysia should emphasize primary and secondary prevention strategies.

Esophageal Cancer in Korea: Epidemiology and Treatment Patterns

  • Park, Seong Yong;Kim, Dae Joon
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.54 no.6
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    • pp.454-459
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    • 2021
  • According to statistics from 2017, esophageal cancer is the fifteenth most common cancer and the eleventh most common cause of cancer-related death in Korea. The most common pathology is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, the incidence of esophageal cancer has been gradually decreasing in Korea, and the percentage of early-stage cases has gradually increased to the point that it is higher than that of other countries. The 5-year relative survival rate has improved over time. Approximately 800 esophagectomy procedures are performed annually. Using a cut-off number of 21 cases per 2 years to define high-volume centers, it was found that 70% of esophagectomies were performed by a few high-volume centers. Unfortunately, there is no nationwide registry or database on esophageal cancer and esophagectomy in Korea. Efforts to establish a nationwide database on esophageal cancer and esophagectomy should be made.

Null Genotype of GSTT1 Contributes to Esophageal Cancer Risk in Asian Populations: Evidence from a Meta-analysis

  • Yi, Sheng-Ming;Li, Gui-Yuan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.4967-4971
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    • 2012
  • Background/Aims: Glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1), a phase-II enzyme, plays an important role in detoxification of carcinogen electrophiles. Many studies have investigated the association between GSTT1 polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk in Asian populations, but its actual impact is not clear owing to apparent inconsistencies among those studies. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to explore the effect of GSTT1 polymorphism on the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Methods: A literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Wanfang databases up to August 2012 was conducted and 15 eligible papers were finally selected, involving a total of 1,626 esophageal cancer cases and 2,216 controls. We used the pooled odds ratio (OR) with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) to estimate the association of GSTT1 polymorphism with esophageal cancer risk. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were performed to further identify the association. Results: Meta-analysis of total studies showed the null genotype of GSTT1 was significantly associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer in Asians (OR=1.26, 95%CI=1.05-1.52, $P_{OR}=0.015$, $I^2=42.7%$). Subgroup analyses by sample size and countries also identified a significant association. Sensitivity analysis further demonstrated a relationship of GSTT1 polymorphism to esophageal cancer risk in Asians. Conclusions: The present meta-analysis of available data showed a significant association between the null genotype of GSTT1 and an increased risk of esophageal cancer in Asians, particularly in China.

Repeated Favorable Responses to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in a Case of Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma

  • Kim, Eun-Young;Kim, Yoon-Hee;Ban, Hee-Jung;Oh, In-Jae;Kwon, Yong-Soo;Kim, Kyu-Sik;Kim, Yu-Il;Lim, Sung-Chul;Kim, Young-Chul
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.74 no.3
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 2013
  • The presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR ) mutation is a prognostic and predictive marker for EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. However, inevitably, relapse occurs due to the development of acquired resistance, such as T790M mutation. We report a case of repeated responses to EGFR-TKIs in a never-smoked woman with adenocarcinoma. After six cycles of gemcitabine and cisplatin, the patient was treated by gefitinib for 4 months until progression. Following the six cycles of third-line pemetrexed, gefitinib retreatment was initiated and continued with a partial response for 6 months. After progression, she was recruited for an irreversible EGFR inhibitor trial, and the time to progression was 11 months. Although EGFR direct sequencing on the initial diagnostic specimen revealed a wild-type, we performed a rebiopsy from the progressed subcarinal node at the end of the trial. The result of peptide nucleic acid clamping showed L858R/L861Q.