• Title/Summary/Keyword: Equilibrium Position

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Biosorption of Copper by Immobilized Biomass of Pseudomonas stutzeri

  • Cho, Ju-Sik;Hur, Jae-Seoun;Kang, Byung-Hwa;Kim, Pil-Joo;Sohn, Bo-Kyoon;Lee, Hong-Jae;Jung, Yeun-Kyu;Heo, Jong-Soo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.964-972
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    • 2001
  • The kinetics of copper ion biosorption by Pseudomonas stutzeri cells immobilized in alginate was investigated. During the first few minutes of the metal uptake, the copper biosorption was rapid and then became progressively slower until an equilibium was rapid, and then became progressively slower until an equilibrium was reached. At a biomass concentration of 100g/l, the copper biosorption reaction reached approximately 90% of the equilibrium position within 30 min. A Freundich-type adsorption isotherm model was constructed based on kinetics with different amounts of biomass. When using this model, the experimental values only agreed well with the predicted values in a solution containing less than 200 mg/l Cu(II). Desorption of the bound copper ions was achieved using electrolytic solutions of HCl, $H_2SO_4$, EDTA, and NTA (0.1 or 0.5 M). Metal desorption with 0.1 M NTA allowed the reuse of the biosorbent for at least ten consecutive biosorption/desorption cycles, without an apparent decrease in its metal biosorption capability. A packed-bed column reactor of the immobilized biomass removed approximately 95% of the metal in the first 30 liter of wastewater [containing 100 mg/l Cu(II)] delivered at a rate of 20 L/day, and, thereafter, the rate gradually decreased.

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Measurement of rivulet movement and thickness on inclined cable using videogrammetry

  • Jing, Haiquan;Xia, Yong;Xu, Youlin;Li, Yongle
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.485-500
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    • 2016
  • Stay cables in some cable-stayed bridges suffer large amplitude vibrations under the simultaneous occurrence of rain and wind. This phenomenon is called rain-wind-induced vibration (RWIV). The upper rivulet oscillating circumferentially on the inclined cable surface plays an important role in this phenomenon. However, its small size and high sensitivity to wind flow make measuring rivulet size and its movement challenging. Moreover, the distribution of the rivulet along the entire cable has not been measured. This paper applies the videogrammetric technique to measure the movement and geometry dimension of the upper rivulet along the entire cable during RWIV. A cable model is tested in an open-jet wind tunnel with artificial rain. RWIV is successfully reproduced. Only one digital video camera is employed and installed on the cable during the experiment. The camera records video clips of the upper rivulet and cable movements. The video clips are then transferred into a series of images, from which the positions of the cable and the upper rivulet at each time instant are identified by image processing. The thickness of the upper rivulet is also estimated. The oscillation amplitude, equilibrium position, and dominant frequency of the rivulet are presented. The relationship between cable and rivulet variations is also investigated. Results demonstrate that this non-contact, non-intrusive measurement method has good resolution and is cost effective.

Studies on the Wrinkle Resistance of the Silk Fabric I. Wrinkle Recovery behavior of spun.silk fabric (견직물의 방추성에 관한 연구 I. 견방사직물을 중심으로)

  • Bae, Du-Geun;Nam, Jung-Hui;Kim, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.61-65
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    • 1986
  • This work was to realize the wrinkling behavior of spun silk fabric. The results were obtained through the various conditions such as temperature, wrinkling time, wrinkling load and crease recovery time. The obtained results were summerized as follows : 1. Wrinkle recovery of the silk fabric was decreased with the increase of temperature, humidity and the influence of humidity was superior to the influence of temperature. 2. The change of wrinkle recovery depending on the wrinkle recovery time showed the experimental equation (Y=a+b lnT). The wrinkle recovery increased with the lapse of wrinkle recovery time but arrived at the equilibrium position about 300 sec. 3. The value "K1" of the silk fabric in the "Voigt model" was inferior as compared with the polyester and Nylon. 4. The change of wrinkle recovery depending on the wrinkling time was decreased with the lapse of wrinkle recovery time but the change of the value "a" could not be fined. 5. The change of wrinkle recovery depending on the wrinkling load was same as above 4.

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Analysis on Forces Acting on the Contact Lens Fitted on the Cornea (콘택트 렌즈에 작용하는 힘의 해석)

  • Kim, Dae-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2002
  • A mathematical model is proposed to analyze the force; acting on the hard contact lens fitted on the cornea. The model incorporates the nonlinear equations and their numerical solution program, based on the formulations of surface tension force arising from the capillary action in the tear-film layer between the lens and cornea. The model simulates how the adhesion between lens and cornea varies according to the base curves and diameters of the lenses. When the spherical lens is fitted on the spherical cornea it is to rotate downward due to the weight of lens itself until it reaches an equilibrium position along the cornea where the counter(upward) moment caused by net force between the upper and lower portion of the periphery of lens. It is found that both the adhesion and displacement of lens along the cornea, where the gravity of lens balances the capillary-induced upward force, increases rapidly as the base curve of lens increases, i.e., as the lens gets flatter, while the increase in the diameter of lenses has resulted in the less increase in the rotation and adhesion. With the base curve and diameters of lenses being remained constant the increase in surface tension of tear film yields the increase in the adhesion between the cornea and lens while the initial rotation of lens is inversely proportional to the surface tension of the tear film.

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Quasi-Static Equilibrium of a Propeller Shaft in a Hydrodynamic Oil-Lubricated Stern Tube Bearing (윤활유(潤滑油) 선미관(船尾管) 베어링 축계(軸系)의 준정적(準靜的) 평형상태(平衡狀態)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • S.Y.,Ahn;S.S.,Kim
    • Bulletin of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 1989
  • Recently, the growth in the propulsion power and propeller size of typical energy saving ships has resulted in severe damages of the oil-lubricated stern tube bearing. Consequently, a more rational analytical method for the design of the shafting system is required. In this paper an analytical method applicable to the design of the oil-lubricated stern tube bearing and shafting system is presented. The method consists of the finite element analysis of the shafting system and the oil film hydrodynamics. The shafting system is modeled as a three-dimensional problem using beam elements taking account for the steady components of thrust, lateral forces and moments of the propeller as well as the elastic foundation effects. The oil film hydrodynamics is modeled as a two-dimensional problem. Equal and retangular elements employing hourglass control method are used for the construction of the oil film fluidity matrix. To search the quasi-static equilibrium position between the propeller shaft and the oil film, an optimization technique is employed. Some numerical results based on the proposed method are compared with some measured and numerical data available. They show acceptable agreements with the data.

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Fundamentals of Tight fitted Contact Lens Movement (Tight Fit 콘택트렌즈 운동의 기초)

  • Kim, Dae Soo
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: This review article was written to determine the effects of parameters characterizing a hard contact lens (RGP included), such as BCs, diameters, edge angles, on the time interval for tight fitted lens to return to the equilibrium when it was decentered from blinking. Methods: A mathematical formulation was established to relate or calculate the restoring forces and thickness of lacrimal layer beneath the cornea with the various lens parameters when the tight fitted lens was decentered from blinking. Based on this formulation the differential equations and their numerical solution program were set up to describe the time dependence of the lens on the position and to estimate the time for the lens's return to the equilibrium after blink. Results: It is found that the time interval for the tight fitted lens to return to the equilibrium decreases as either the BC decreases or the diameter increases because both the reduction in BC and increase in diameter result in the increase in the lacrimal layer thickness between the lens and cornea increase which yielded the lowering of the viscous friction in the lens motion. As the edge angle of tight fitted lens increases the time for recentering decreases due to the increase in restoring force without change in lacrimal thickness beneath the lens. In the case of flat fitted hard lens (RGP included), the lacrimal layer thickness under the lens increases as either BC or diameter increases which results in reduction in viscous friction so that the time for the lens's return to the equilibrium were to decrease. The edge angle of flat fitted lens does not affect the lens motion. Conclusions: The effect of BCs on the lens motion (time to approach the equilibrium) was concluded to be significant with both tight and flat fitted lens where its results are contrary with each other. The edge angle of lens only affects the motion in tight fitted lenses.

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A Dinamic Consideration on the Temperature Distribution in the East Coast of Korea in August (8월의 한국동안에서의 수온분포에 관한 역학적 고찰)

  • Seung, Young Ho
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.52-58
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    • 1974
  • The water temperature distribution and the water movement closely related with it, in the east side of Korea, was condidered. Special emphasis was paid on the low temperature phenomenon near Ulgi. It was known from the temperature distribution in the east side of Korea that the Tsushima current continues to flow northward at the surface near Sokcho. Also the influence of the cold water extends from the North to the South with increasing depth. The formation of the cold core near Ulgi was explained as due mainly to the existence of the boundary layer near the surface, and partly to the effect of the wind. This inclination of the boundary layer has the value of about 3.0m/Km, and the lower cold current velocity computed using this value lies in the range of those observed by Nishida(1926, 1927). The upwelling velocity was computed approximately as 1.4 10$\^$-3/ cm/sec, and the maximum distance to which the boundarylayer can rise or fall from it's equilibrium position was considered as below 10m.

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Model on the Contact Lens Movement from Eye-lid Blinking (순목 작용에 의한 콘택트 렌즈의 운동 모델)

  • Kim, Daesoo
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.145-159
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    • 2004
  • A mathematical model and its computer solution program were proposed to analyze the motion of contact lenses which are being subject to lid-blinking. The equation was derived by incorporating an acceleration induced lid's force exerting on the contact lens, the viscous damping resistance in the tear layer beneath the lens and the sliding frictional force between the lid and the contact lens surface into the formulation of differential equation describing the vibration. The model predicts the time-dependent displacement from the equilibrium postion during/after the blinking. During the blinking, as the time for the completion of one cycle of blinking decreases the off-the-equilibrium displacement of contact lens increases while the decrease of diameter in the contact cause the opposite effect. It is found that lid pressure exerting on the lens cause an insignificant lens displacement from the equilibrium position. After blinking the frequency of damped oscillation of contact lens decreases as the diameter of lens increases, due to the incresed surface while the reduced blinking time does not cause a significant frequency change. This is because that driving force for the contact lens movement posterior to blinking is the capillary-induced force not the lid force.

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Fundamentals of Contact Lens Movement (콘택트렌즈 운동의 기초)

  • Kim, Dae Soo
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This review article was written to investigate what kind of forces are acting on the contact lens fitted on the cornea and its subsequent motion. Methods: A capillary action-induced force develops in the tear layer between the lens and cornea, which leads to the restoring force due to difference in layer thickness according to lens rotation. The characteristics of the lens movement can be determined by the various factors such as friction between eyelid and lens, acceleration force based on blinking and the restoring force incorporated with the viscous damping force. A mathematical model which consists of the differential equations and their numerical solution was proposed to analyze the damped motion of lenses. The model predicts the time dependence of lenses during and after the blink varying the BC, blink period and eyelid pressure. Results: It was found that both the blink period and lid pressure increases the movement increases because of the enhanced lid friction. As the BC increases the viscous damping reduces due to the lacrimal layer's increase which resulted in the enhanced lens motion. After blink the lens illustrates the damped oscillation because of the restoring force by the increased lacrimal layer thickness and reduced viscous resistance. The time for the lens to return to the equilibrium shortens as the BC increase because of the resistance reduction. Conclusions: The movement of the contact lens is governed by the characteristics of the lacrimal layer between the lens and cornea as well as the lid blink.

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