• Title, Summary, Keyword: Endangered species

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Flora of a Cool Temperate Forest Around Restoration Center for Endangered Species, Yeongyang

  • Kim, Seongjun;Lee, Chang-Woo;Park, Hwan-Joon;Lee, Byoung-Doo;Hwang, Jung Eun;An, Jiae;Park, Hyung Bin;Baek, Ju Hyeong;Kim, Pyoung Beom;Kim, Nam Young
    • Proceedings of NIE
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.70-75
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    • 2021
  • The present study aimed to clarify flora living at the area of Restoration Center for Endangered Species in Yeongyang, Gyeongbuk Province. In May, August, and September 2019 and in May and July 2020, all of vascular plants were recorded, and endangered, Korea endemic, and exotic plant species were further identified. The study site contained a total of 418 floral taxa (98 families, 261 genera, 384 species, 4 subspecies, 27 variations, and 3 formations), in which Magnoliophyta accounted for larger proportion (95.2%) than Pteridophyta (3.6%) and Pinophyta (1.2%). In addition, 1 endangered (Cypripedium macranthos Sw.) and 5 Korea endemic species (Aconitum pseudolaeve Nakai, Eleutherococcus divaricatus var. chiisanensis [Nakai] C.H. Kim & B.-Y. Sun, Lonicera subsessilis Rehder, Paulownia coreana Uyeki, and Weigela subsessilis [Nakai] L.H. Bailey) were detected. The number of exotic species was 33, consisting of 4 invasive-exotic, 4 potentially invasive-exotic, and 25 non-invasive species. Compared to a previous assessment before the establishment of the center (in 2014), there were increases in total floral taxa (from 361 to 418), endangered species (from 0 to 1), and exotic species (from 26 to 33). These results possibly reflect temporal changes in floral community, which should be confirmed through subsequent long term monitoring.

Post-release Monitoring after Reintroduction of Captive-reared Korean Endangered Frog, Pelophylax Chosenicus

  • Park, Chang-Deuk;Kwon, Kwanik;Yoo, Nakyung;Lee, Jung-Hyun;Kang, Dong-Won;Park, Jong-Sung;Yoo, Jeongwoo;Kim, Keun-Sik;Yoon, Ju-Duk
    • Proceedings of NIE
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.114-119
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    • 2021
  • To restore the Gold-spotted pond frog (Pelophylax chosenicus), a Korean endangered frog, 600 captive-reared individuals were reintroduced between August and September 2019 into an aquatic garden in the National Institute of Ecology where P. chosenicus had previously inhabited. After reintroduction, six post-release monitoring sessions were conducted from August 2019 to May 2020. Monitoring was performed using three methods (counting calls, observation, and capture) from sunset to midnight near release sites, eliminating potential threat factors. Snout-vent lengths and body weights of recaptured individuals were measured before they were released immediately. We noted that both snout-vent lengths and body weights of recaptured individuals were slightly higher than those before. The average recapture rate was 4.66%. Reintroduced frogs were recaptured at the last monitoring session conducted in May 2020, indicating that these reintroduced frogs hibernated during the winter successfully. We found that these reintroduced frogs successfully settled after release. This result will be useful for establishing management strategies for endangered frogs in Korea. Particularly, post-release monitoring could be an essential approach in the restoration program of a target species.

Are the conservation areas sufficient to conserve endangered plant species in Korea?

  • Kang, Hye-Soon;Shin, Sook-Yung;Whang, Hye-Jin
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.377-389
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    • 2010
  • Understanding the factors relevant to endangerment and the patterns of habitat locations in relation to protected areas is critically important for the conservation of rare species. Although 64 plant species have recently been listed as endangered species in Korea, this information has, until now, not been available, making appropriate management and conservation strategies impossible to devise. Thus, we collected information on potentially threatening factors, as well as information on the locations in which these species were observed. The potentially threatening factors were classified into seven categories. National parks, provincial parks, ecosystem conservation areas, and wetland conservation areas were defined as protected conservation areas. Korean digital elevation model data, along with the maps of all protected areas were combined with the maps of endangered plant species, and analyzed via Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Excluding the category of "small population", endangered plant species in Korea were associated more frequently with extrinsic factors than intrinsic factors. Considering land surface only, all conservation areas in Korea totaled 4.9% of the land, far lower than International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)'s 10% coverage target. At the species level, 69% of the endangered plant species were detected in conservation areas, mostly in national parks. However, this result demonstrates that 31% of endangered species inhabit areas outside the conservation zones. Furthermore, at the habitat level, a large proportion of endangered species were found to reside in unprotected areas, revealing "gaps" in protected land. In the face of rapid environmental changes such as population increases, urbanization, and climate changes, converting these gap areas to endangered species' habitats, or at least including them in habitat networks, will help to perpetuate the existence of endangered species.

Valuation of Forest Habitat Functions of Endangered Mammals Using Species Distribution Model

  • Kim, Jung Teak;Kim, Jaeuk;Lee, Woo-Kyun;Jeon, Seong Woo;Kim, Joon Soon
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 2015
  • It is estimated that there is a total of approximately 100,000 species in Korea. However, the number is currently about 30,000 and only 16,027 species are listed in the 'Species Korea' (as of December, 2014). Of the listed species, 51 species are designated as the Endangered Species Class I while 195 species are in the Class II, totaling 246 endangered species including 20 mammals. Under the circumstances that development (e.g., roads) is increasingly threatening the persistence of endangered mammals, it is significant to identify and preserve suitable habitats for them. In this context, evaluating the values of the suitable habitat environment would serve as essential information for development decision making. This study estimated the values of endangered mammals' forest habitats through spatialization of habitat services. In doing so, a species distribution model, Maximum Entropy Model (MaxEnt) was utilized for a group of endangered mammals including, mountain goat, wildcat, marten cat, and flying squirrel. To calculate the values per unit area, a benefit transfer method was used based on the point-estimate technique with the best available values estimated previously. The range of discount rate of 3.0 to 5.5 percent was applied taking the notion of social discount rate into account. As a result, the province with the highest values for endangered mammal habitats appeared to be Gangwon, followed by Gyeongbuk and Gyeongnam. The monetary values of the endangered mammal habitats were estimated to be 330 billion to 421 billion won per year.

Protection and Preservation of Clithon retropictus, Level II Endangered Species Declining due to Development Projects Carried out in its Habitat

  • Choi, Sang Duk;Jeon, Hong il;Myeong, No Yun;Choi, Sung Min;Lee, Cheol;An, Yun Keun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.174-179
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    • 2018
  • Clithon retropictus has been protected by the Ministry of Environment as an endangered species since 1998 and has been listed on the state red list of endangered species category II. It is viewed as a representative for all endangered species in the northeastern coastal waters of Korea. Most of the habitats of C. retropictus have been found to be in an unstable state because of development projects such as road construction, small stream development, irrigation for securing agricultural water, and flood prevention. These habitats are damaged by small stream maintenance projects and development, and the risk of damage is increasing and active efforts are needed in order to protect them. Although the Ministry of Environment is striving to preserve this endangered species, the habitat of C. retropictus is still facing external threats because it spreads to only a small area at high densities. Therefore, in order to protect the habitat of C. retropictus, a level II endangered species, it is urgent to make an effort to minimize habitat damage and to take measures for its protection.

Evaluation of conservation of endangered species through somatic cell nuclear technology (체세포복제를 통한 멸종위기동물의 종 보전 평가)

  • Hyun, Sang Hwan;Jeong, Yeon Woo;Hwang, Kyu Chan;Lee, Guk Jin;Yang, Il Suk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.155-161
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    • 2015
  • The number of wild animal species is gradually decreasing due to poaching, hunting and habitat loss. While several endangered animal species have been successfully preserved at the zoo, assisted reproductive technology (ART) must be applied to restore wild animals. In the case of critically endangered animals, somatic cell cloning is considered the most appropriate method of ART. Somatic cell cloning can be beneficial for the reproduction of endangered species with limited female populations. However, gene and cell banks, and understanding of reproductive physiology and optimization of ART for wild animals are urgently required for further activation of artificial reproduction of endangered species, which enlarges its application and maintains biodiversity. Care should also be taken to consider ethical and legal issues associated with somatic cell cloning for conservation of endangered animals.

Integrated Analysis of Major Surveys on Biota in Gyeonggi Province and its Implications (경기도 내 분포·서식 생물종에 대한 주요 조사의 통합적 분석 및 함의)

  • Park, Eun-Jin;Lee, Eng Kyoung;Hyun, Jin-Oh;Park, Miseon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.93-108
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    • 2014
  • The inventory list of wildlife species inhabiting or distributing in Gyeonggi Province was made by compiling species data from precedent surveys, 10 national level nature surveys, 1 survey that Gyeonggi-do conducted, and 46 local surveys presented in scientific journals. Total 2,913 wildlife species including 2,041 vascular plants, 39 mammals, 304 birds, 34 herptiles, 145 fish, and 350 benthic macro-invertebrates were listed in the inventory. It explains 47% of nationwide total species in vascular plants, 31.5% in mammals, 58.2% in birds, 65.4% in herptiles, 12.2% in fish. The total number of important species including endangered species, national monuments, national red lists, etc. was 628 species, accounting for 21.6% of all listed species in Gyeonggi Province. More than 90% of endangered bird species, almost half of endangered fish and herptile species were found in Gyeonggi Province. In particular, abundant bird diversity and inhabitation of many endangered bird species were identified in Gyeonggi Province. Species diversity was greater in the northern area adjacent to the Demilitarized Zone and the eastern forest area. The distribution of the important species such as national endangered species was more distinct in these areas, especially in Gapyeong and Yeoncheon Counties. The inventory list compiled in this study implicates the level of management for biological resources and can provide information for policy decisions regarding new survey sites, protection management of specific species and areas, management practices by spatial characteristics. It should be more compiled and updated with survey data to be utilized as basic indices for local biodiversity strategies and management of biological resources.

Isolation and characterization of EST-SSR markers for Astilboides tabularis (Saxifragaceae), endangered species in Korea

  • JUNG, Eui-Kwon;KANG, Dae-Hyun;YOO, Ki-Oug;KWAK, Myounghai;KIM, Young-Dong;KIM, Bo-Yun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2018
  • Genetic assessments of rare and endangered species are among the first steps necessary to establish the proper management of natural populations. Transcriptome-derived single-sequence repeat markers were developed for the Korean endangered species Astilboides tabularis (Saxifragaceae) to assess its genetic diversity. A total of 96 candidate microsatellite loci were isolated based on transcriptome data using Illumina pair end sequencing. Of these, 26 were polymorphic, with one to five alleles per locus in 60 individuals from three populations of A. tabularis. The observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.000 to 0.950 and from 0.000 to 0.741, respectively. These polymorphic transcriptome-derived simple sequence repeat markers would be invaluable for future studies of population genetics and for ecological conservation of the endangered species A. tabularis.

Vascular Plants of Hyangro-bong in Gangwon-do, Korea

  • Kwon, Mi Jeong;Han, Gab-Soo
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.136-148
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    • 2015
  • Hyangro-bong is located on the northern side of the civilian access control line and therefore has gone through natural ecological succession without human interference. Currently, it forms a distinctive natural ecosystem in which rare wild animals and plants are various. It is located in the Baekdudaegan mountain system and plays an ecologically important role as a bridge that connects the Geumgang mountain and Seorak mountain. This study investigated the flora of the eastern parts, Forest Genetic Resources Reserve Area, of Hyangro-bong. A total of 363 vascular plants that belonged to 77 families, 206 genera, 310 species, 3 subspecies, and 47 varieties were found in the study area. Rare and endangered plants identified in this study included the critically endangered Swertia wilfordii and endangered Irisuniflora var. caricina. Furthermore, 4 vulnerable species, Hanabusaya asiatica, Codonopsis pilosula, Leontopodium japonicum, and Taxus cuspidata, were found. A total of 7 families and 14 taxa including Aconitum pseudolaeve and Clematis fusca var. coreana were confirmed as endemic plants. Naturalized plants belonging to 4 families, 11 genera, and 13 species were distributed along the Hyangro-bong forest roads.

Brief Introduction of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) and Possible Measures to Protect the Endangered Species of TCM

  • Kim, Sung-Hoon;Kim, In-Rak
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.366-373
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    • 1997
  • Recently the endangered species of wild fauna and flora used in TCM have been held under a spotlight by CITES-implementing countries. USA and other western countries have suspected Oriental countries might not keep the regulation of CITES effectively for the continuous use of endangered species such as tiger bone, rhino horn, bear gallbladder and others. However, most of Oriental countries have tried to keep CITES truly. The misunderstanding of culture and thought in Oriental countries can be one of important factors. Thus, for effective implementation of CITES, we have to keep communication with western countries especially in the principles of TCM or others and vice versa. In addition, TCM using countries and counterpart countries should prevent illegal trade of endangered species in TCM and also fry to develop natural or synthesized substitutes for endangered species. We have to continue to develop methods to artificially propagate endangered species, while trying to alleviate the ethical problems entailed by breeding in captivity. In south Korea we also have to make known our implementation of CITES such as reinforced law for prohibition of using CITES items, public awareness by training program, brochure and surveys to other countries.

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