• Title, Summary, Keyword: Egg Yolk Cholesterol

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Effect of Dietary Alfalfa Meal on Egg Yolk Cholesterol Content and Productivity in Laying Hens (산란계 사료에 대한 Alfalfa Meal의 첨가가 난황 콜레스테롤 및 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 안병기;정태영;김종민;이상진;김삼수;정선부
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.125-136
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    • 1992
  • This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary alfalfa meal on the contents of egg yolk cholesterol, the levels of egg yolk pigmentation and the performance of laying hens. Alfalfa meal which was alternated wheat bran was supplied 0, 3.5 and 7%, respectively. Total 192 brown laying pullets of 47 weeks old were randomly assigned to the wire cages from July 23 to October 7, 1991 for 10 weeks. The results obtained were summarized as follows : 1. The egg production was highest at 3.5% alfalfa meal level during the entire period. But there was no significant difference among treatments. 2. Egg weight increased in treatments 3.5 and 7% alfalfa meal supplementation significantly. (P<0.01). 3. Even though there was no significant difference, the daily egg mass was the highest at 3.5% of alfalfa meal level. 4. Daily feed intake was the highest at 3.5% of alfalfa meal level. However, feed conversion rate was the lowest among treatments. 5. The feed cost per kg egg mass in the treatment of 3.5% alfalfa meal was significantly lower than the other treatments. (P<0.05). 6. Shell thickness and shell weight in terms of egg shell quality were increased as the levels of alfalfa meal were increased. But there was no significant difference among treatments. 7, The egg yolk Pigmentation was improved significantly as the level of alfalfa meal was increased (P<0.01). 8.899 yolk cholesterol contents were decreased in the treatments of 3.5 and 7% alfalfa meal supplementation compared with those in the treatment of wheat bran only(P >0.05). The results of this study indicate that 3.5% alfalfa meal level was most effective and economical in laying hen.

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Effects of Dietary Lycopene and Vitamin E on Egg Production, Antioxidant Status and Cholesterol Levels in Japanese Quail

  • Sahin, N.;Sahin, K.;Onderci, M.;Karatepe, M.;Smith, M.O.;Kucuk, O.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.224-230
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    • 2006
  • Japanese Quails were used to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E (dl-a-tocopheryl-acetate), lycopene, and their combination on egg production, egg quality, concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin E, A and cholesterol in serum and egg yolk. Quails (n = 120; 55 d old) were divided into four groups (n = 30/group) and fed a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with lycopene (100 mg/kg diet), vitamin E (250 mg dl-${\alpha}$-tocopheryl-acetate/kg diet) or a combination of lycopene and vitamin E (100 mg/kg lycopene plus 250 mg dl-${\alpha}$-tocopheryl-acetate/kg diet). Vitamin E and lycopene did not affect (p>0.05) body weight, feed intake or egg weight. Egg production and Haugh unit were greater (p<0.05) in each supplemental group compared with the control group (p<0.05). Serum and liver MDA levels were decreased in supplemented groups compared with the control group. Separately or as a combination, supplemental lycopene and vitamin E increased serum and egg yolk vitamin E and A but decreased cholesterol concentrations (p<0.05). In general, when a significant effect was found for a parameter, the magnitude of the responses to vitamin and lycopene supplements was greatest with the combination of the lycopene and vitamin E, rather than that observed with each supplement separately. Results of the present study indicate that supplementing with a combination of dietary lycopene and vitamin E reduced serum and yolk cholesterol concentrations and improved antioxidant status.

Consumption of Water-Soluble Egg Yolk Extract on Growth Rate, Changes in Blood Cholesterol Levels, and Immune Modulation in BALB/c Mice

  • Lee, Won-Young;Lee, Ran;Kim, Hee-Chan;Lee, Kyung-Hoon;Noh, Kyung Sook;Kim, Hyoun Wook;Kim, Ji-Hyuk;Ahn, Dong-Uk;Jang, In-Surk;Jang, Aera;Lee, Hoon-Taek;Song, Hyuk
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.587-594
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    • 2013
  • Egg consumption has been limited to avoid cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia, because the yolk contains high levels of cholesterol. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the water-soluble component of egg-yolk on the growth efficiency, immune modulation, and changes in serum lipid levels in BALB/c mice. A total 5 wk old 120 BALB/c male mice were divided into 4 groups and were fed 0, 2, 10, and 20 mg/d water-soluble egg yolk extract (WSEYE) for 5 wk. Water-soluble egg yolk extract (WSEYE) uptake resulted in a significant reduction in daily weight gain and feed efficiency rate (FER). The mouse groups treated with 2 and 20 mg/d WSEYE showed a significant increase in populations of monocytes at the third wk and B-lymphocyte activity at the fifth wk. In addition, WSEYE uptake did not influence serum immunoglobulin E levels. In serum lipid-profile studies, treatment of WSEYE did not alter total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels; however, blood triglyceride levels were significantly diminished in mice treated with 2 mg/d at the third wk (p<0.05), and the level of high-density lipoprotein was significantly increased in the mice group treated with 2 and 10 mg/d WSEYE after 5 wk (p<0.05). Taken together, the data demonstrate the beneficial effects of WSEYE in the diet on immune modulation and serum lipid profiles in mouse models; therefore, this study suggests that ingestion of water-soluble fraction of egg yolk might not be related to the increased risk of heart disease, but can be an excellent candidate for maintaining health.

Effect of Dietary β-Cyclodextrin on Egg Quality and Cholesterol Content of Egg Yolks (난황 콜레스테롤 및 계란 품질에 관한 식이내 베타-사이클로덱스트린의 효과)

  • 박병성
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.614-620
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    • 2004
  • This study was to determine the effect of dietary $\beta$-cyclodextrin ($\beta$CD) on egg quality and cholesterol content of egg yolk. One-hundred 28-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of twenty hens each and maintained in individual laying cages for 10 weeks of the experiment. They were assigned to the five treatments of experimental layer diets containing 0, 3, 5, 7 or 10% pure $\beta$CD of diets. Food intake, egg production and egg weight varied slightly and insignificantly in the hens fed with 0, 3, 5 or 7% $\beta$CD-added diets. But food intake, egg production, and egg weight were uniformly lower (p<0.05) in the hens fed with 10% $\beta$CD-added diets. Food conversion rate, when expressed per number egg, was impaired (p<0.05) without having an obvious relation to the dietary $\beta$CD level. No difference in haugh unit, egg yolk color, and egg shell thickness was found among treatment. The cholesterol content of egg yolks was significantly decreased (p<0.05) to 3.76, 5.12, 5.49 and 6.48 mg/g yolk in $\beta$CD 3, 5, 7 and 10% treatments respectively when compared to that of the $\beta$CD 0% group. The cholesterol content of eggs, when expressed in mg/60 g egg, was greatly (p<0.05) decreased to 54, 71, 77 and 86 mg in $\beta$CD 3, 5, 7 and 10% treatments when compared to that of the $\beta$CD 0% group. The most striking effects (p<0.05) were observed in $\beta$CD 5% and 7% treatments, whose cholesterol content decreased from 28.19% to 30.23%. In conclusion, $\beta$CD added-diets fed to laying hens can reduced the cholesterol content of egg yolk, and this new type of egg yolk with lower cholesterol can be considered a functional livestock food.

Effect of Cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin in Presence and Absence of Egg Yolk during Freezing Step on Quality of Markhoz Buck's Spermatozoa

  • Farshad, A.;Amidi, F.;Khor, A. Koohi;Rashidi, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 2011
  • Cryopreservation protocols induce partially irreversible damage to mammalian sperm plasma membranes. Previous studies have indicated that adding cholesterol to the plasma membrane, as cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins, improves cryosurvival of sperm. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if treating sperm of Markhoz bucks with cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins (CLC) (0, 0.75, 1.5, 2.25 and 3 mg/ml diluted $240{\times}10^6$ sperm/ml) in Tris-citric acid-glucose diluents with and without egg yolk (containing 5% glycerol) would improve the post-thaw sperm quality. The motion characteristics were evaluated with a Computer Assisted System Analyzer (CASA); acrosome integrity and vitality were measured with the triple-stain technique. Samples were recovered before and after freezing by means of putting straws into $37^{\circ}C$ water for 30 sec and then parameters were assessed. The results showed that the treatments significantly affected motility, progressive motility, recovery rate, curvilinear velocity, beat cross frequency, live sperm with reacted acrosome, live sperm with unreacted acrosome, dead sperm with reacted acrosorne, and dead sperm with unreacted acrosome during freezing (p<0.05). However; no significant differences were found for average path velocity, straight line velocity, amplitude of lateral head displacement, straightness and linearity (p>0.05). The best results were observed for extender containing 2.25 mg/ml ($240{\times}10^6$ sperm/ml) CLC supplemented with 2.6% egg yolk. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate improved Markhoz sperm viability and motility following treatment in the presence of egg yolk.

Increasing Content of Healthy Fatty Acids in Egg Yolk of Laying Hens by Cheese Byproduct

  • Hwangbo, Jong;Kim, Jun Ho;Lee, Byong Seak;Kang, Su Won;Chang, Jongsoo;Bae, Hae-Duck;Lee, Min Suk;Kim, Young Jun;Choi, Nag-Jin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.444-449
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    • 2006
  • This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of cheese byproduct on performance, egg quality and fatty acid profile of egg yolk lipids from laying hens. One hundred five 30-wk-old White leghorn laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of twenty one hens each and maintained in individual laying cages for 4 weeks. The hens were assigned to five treatments that consisted of corn-soybean meal based diets containing 0, 1, 3, 5 or 10% of cheese byproduct. Feed intake and rate of egg production of hens were not significantly different across the treatments during the whole experiment (p>0.05). Similarly, egg yolk cholesterol level, egg weight, Haugh's unit, eggshell thickness, color, and strength were not significantly different across the treatments (p>0.05). The amount of C16:0 in egg yolk was not significantly different across the treatments, but that of C18:0 decreased with increased cheese byproduct (p<0.01). Monounsaturated fatty acid (C16:1 and C18:1) content in egg yolk was similar across the treatments. Total CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA content increased linearly with increased cheese byproduct (p<0.001), while trans-10, cis-12 CLA amount was not significantly different across the treatments (p>0.05). Total saturated fatty acid (SFA) in the egg yolk was decreased as the level of cheese byproduct including CLA increased (p<0.01). However, the amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) such as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-6 PUFA, and total PUFAs in the egg yolk were not significantly different across the treatments (p>0.05). Therefore, the present results showed that cheese byproduct beneficially improved the fatty acid composition of concern to human health in the egg yolk without adverse effects on egg quality.

Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens

  • Peng, Kai;Long, Lei;Wang, Yuxi;Wang, Shunxi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1458-1463
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    • 2016
  • A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p<0.05) laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, egg albumen height, Haugh unit and eggshell strength on d 42, but decreased (p<0.05) feed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

High Density Lipoprotein from Egg Yolk (EYHDL) Improves Dyslipidemia by Mediating Fatty Acids Metabolism in High Fat Diet-induced Obese Mice

  • Yu, Zhihui;Mao, Changyi;Fu, Xing;Ma, Meihu
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.179-196
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    • 2019
  • We investigated the effect of high density lipoprotein from egg yolk (EYHDL) on serum, hepatic and fecal lipid and fatty acids (FAs) levels and on gene expression involved in FAs metabolism. Male KM mice were fed either normal diet (ND; n=20), high fat diet (HFD; n=20), or high fat diet containing EYHDL (EYHDL; 0.6 mg/g, every day by oral gavage, n=20) for 100 days. At the end of the experiment, the effects of treatments on biochemical parameters, FAs profiles and involved gene expression were analyzed. Our results revealed that EYHDL markedly suppressed the body weight gain, accumulation of abdominal fat tissues, serum concentrations of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol accumulation, while increased serum concentration of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). EYHDL intake also increased total cholesterol (TC) excretions compared with HFD group. Moreover, it alleviated the severity of fatty liver and improved glucose and insulin tolerance compared with HFD. More importantly, EYHDL partially normalized FAs profiles in serum, liver and fecaces and neutralized the HFD-induced upregulation of SREBP-1c, Acaca, Fasn, GPAT and Scd1. In conclusion, our findings indicate that EYHDL may have the potential to improve metabolic disturbances that occur in HFD mice and can be considered as an appropriate dietary recommendation for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Effects of the Addition of \beta-Glucanase to Barley-based Layer Diet (산란계 사료에 \beta-Glucanase 첨가가 보리의 이용성에 미치는 효과)

  • 이정호;이규호;이영철;오상집
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.195-205
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    • 1994
  • Effects of the addition of \beta-glucanase to barley-based layer diets were examined by feeding 200 Leghorn layers with corn-based (Control) and \beta-glucanase supplemented diets (Barley+ Enzyme). The results obtained are sumrrarized as follows. 1. There were no siginificant (P>0.05) differences in hen-day egg production(%) and average egg weight between two treatments, indicating that the \beta-glucanase supplemented barley could successfully replace the commonly used corn in the layer diets. 2. Although there was no statistical difference (P>0.05) between two treatments, the daily feed consumption was numerically high in layers fed the barly diet compared to the corn-based diet. 3. Availabilities of crude fat and crude fiber of the barley diet were significantly poor (P<0.05) as compared to corn diet. 4. The \beta-glucarase supplementation depressed the viscosity of barley diets and excreta from therm. 5. Both serum and egg yolk cholesterol were not significantly affected by the addition of \beta-glucarase in the barley based diet. Our data indicate that the barley grain supplemented with \beta-glucarase can be sucessfully used as an energy source of layer diet when there is a price advantage. Although some possibilities to produce low cholesterol egg were recognized in this study, further studies pertaining to long-term feeding experiment and elucidaton of the metabolic interrelationship between serum and yolk cholesterol, are required to confirm the result.

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ATHEROSCLEROSIS, CHOLESTEROL AND EGG - REVIEW -

  • Paik, I.K.;Blair, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-25
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    • 1996
  • The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis can not be summarized as a single process. Lipid infiltration hypothesis and endothelial injury hypothesis have been proposed and investigated. Recent developments show that there are many points of potential interactions between them and that they can actually be regarded as two phases of a single, unifying hypothesis. Among the many risk factors of atherosclerosis, plasma homocysteine and lipoprotein(a) draw a considerable interest because they are independent indicators of atherogenicity. Triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (chylomicron and VLDL) are not considered to be atherogenic but they are related to the metabolism of HDL cholesterol and indirectly related to coronary heart disease (CHD). LDL can of itself be atherogenic but the oxidative products of this lipoprotein are more detrimental. HDL cholesterol has been considered to be a favorable cholesterol. The so-called 'causalist view' claims that HDL traps excess cholesterol from cellular membranes and transfers it to TG-rich lipoproteins that are subsequently removed by hepatic receptors. In the so-called 'noncausalist view', HDL does not interfere directly with cholesterol deposition in the arterial wall but instead reflects he metabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins and their conversion to atherogenic remnants. Approximately 70-80% of the human population shows an effective feedback control mechanism in cholesterol homeostasis. Type of dietary fat has a significant effect on the lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis. Generally, saturated fatty acids elevate and PUFA lower serum cholesterol, whereas MUFA have no specific effect. EPA and DHA inhibit the synthesis of TG, VLDL and LDL, and may have favourable effects on some of the risk factors. Phospholipids, particularly lecithin, have an antiatherosclerotic effect. Essential phospholipids (EPL) may enhance the formation of polyunsaturated cholesteryl ester (CE) which is less sclerotic and more easily dispersed via enhanced hydrolysis of CE in the arterial wall. Also, neutral fecal steroid elimination may be enhanced and cholesterol absorption reduced following EPL treatment. Antioxidants protect lipoproteins from oxidation, and cells from the injury of toxic, oxidized LDL. The rationale for lowering of serum cholesterol is the strong association between elevation of plasma or serum cholesterol and CHD. Cholesterol-lowing, especially LDL cholesterol, to the target level could be achieved using diet and combination of drug therapy. Information on the link between cholesterol and CHD has decreased egg consumption by 16-25%. Some clinical studies have indicated that dietary cholesterol and egg have a significant hypercholesterolemic effect, while others have indicated no effect. These studies differed in the use of purified cholesterol or cholesterol in eggs, in the range of baseline and challenge cholesterol levels, in the quality and quantity of concomitant dietary fat, in the study population demographics and initial serum cholesterol levels, and clinical settings. Cholesterol content of eggs varies to a certain extent depending on the age, breed and diet of hens. However, egg yolk cholesterol level is very resistant to change because of the particular mechanism involved in yolk formation. Egg yolk contains a factor of factors responsible for accelerated cholesterol metabolism and excretion compared with crystalline cholesterol. One of these factors could be egg lecithin. Egg lecithin may not be as effective as soybean lecithin in lowering serum cholesterol level due probably to the differences of fatty acid composition. However, egg lecithin may have positive effects in hypercholesterolemia by increasing serum HDL level and excretion of fecal cholesterol. The association of serum cholesterol with egg consumption has been widely studied. When the basal or control diet contained little or no cholesterol, consumption of 1 or 2 eggs daily increased the concentration of plasma cholesterol, whereas that of the normolipemic persons on a normal diet was not significantly influenced by consuming 2 to 3 eggs daily. At higher levels of egg consumption, the concentration of HDL tends to increase as well as LDL. There exist hyper-and hypo-responders to dietary (egg) cholesterol. Identifying individuals in both categories would be useful from the point of view of nutrition guidelines. Dietary modification of fatty acid composition has been pursued as a viable method of modifying fat composition of eggs and adding value to eggs. In many cases beneficial effects of PUFA enriched eggs have been demonstrated. Generally, consumption of n-3 fatty acids enriched eggs lowered the concentration of plasma TG and total cholesterol compared to the consumption of regular eggs. Due to the highly oxidative nature of PUFA, stability of this fat is essential. The implication of hepatic lipid accumulation which was observed in hens fed on fish oils should be explored. Nutritional manipulations, such as supplementation with iodine, inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis, garlic products, amino acids and high fibre ingredients, have met a limited success in lowering egg cholesterol.