• Title/Summary/Keyword: Effectiveness

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A Biomechanical Analysis of Judo's Kuzushi(balance-breaking) Motion (유도 팔방기울이기 동작의 생체역학적 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Sung-Sup;Kim, Eui-Hwan;Kim, Tae-Whan
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.207-216
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to biomechanical analysis Judo's Kuzushi throwing motion in order to increase the effectiveness of Nage-waja(throwing technique). The Tori was a Judo player with 18 years experience(4th degree) while the Uke was a player with 2 years experience(1st degree). The kinematic data was captured using the Vicon motion system (7 cameras) and the kinetics were recorded by force plates(2 AMTI). The following were the results; While leaning to the front the subject's trunk's angle was $14.5^{\circ}$, the lower limbs angle was $23.8^{\circ}$, knee angle was $179.6^{\circ}$ and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 325.42N(BW 0.34) and the right leg was 233.7N(BW 0.47). While leaning back the subject's trunk's angle was $11.3^{\circ}$, the lower limbs angle was $4.1^{\circ}$, knee angle was $1761^{\circ}$ and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 299.53N(BW 0.43) and the right leg was 441.7N(BW 0.64). While leaning to the left the subject's trunk's angle was $30.8^{\circ}$, the lower limbs angle was $2.7^{\circ}$, knee angle was $175.2^{\circ}$ and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 711N(BW 1.03) and the right leg was 9.2N(BW 0.01). While leaning to the right the subject's trunk's angle was $36.5^{\circ}$, the lower limbs angle was $10.4^{\circ}$, knee angle was $175.2^{\circ}$ and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 13.2N(BW 0.02) and the right leg was 694.7N(BW 1.01). While leaning to the left front corner the subject's trunk's angle was $19.8^{\circ}$ (front) and $15.1^{\circ}$ (left), the lower limbs angle was $17.8^{\circ}$ (front) and $2.4^{\circ}$ (left), knee angle was $177.8^{\circ}$ (front) and $173.9^{\circ}$(left), and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 547.4N(BW 0.8) and the right leg was 117.8N(BW 0.17). While leaning to the right front corner the subject's trunk's angle was $15.4^{\circ}$ (front) and $17.7^{\circ}$ (right), the lower limbs angle was $21.1^{\circ}$, (front) and $5.7^{\circ}$ (right), knee angle was $175.5^{\circ}$ (front) and $178.9^{\circ}$(right), and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 53N(BW 0.08) and the right leg was 622.4N(BW 09). While leaning to the left rear corner the subject's trunk's angle was $9.2^{\circ}$ (back) and $13.8^{\circ}$ (left), the lower limbs angle was $2^{\circ}$, (back) and $5.7^{\circ}$ (left), knee angle was $175.5^{\circ}$ (back) and $172.8^{\circ}$(left), and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 698.2N(BW 1.02) and the right leg was 49.6N(BW 0.07). While leaning to the right rear corner the subject's trunk's angle was $8.9^{\circ}$ (back) and $19.6^{\circ}$ (right), the lower limbs angle was ${0.6^{\circ}}_"$ (back) and $3.1^{\circ}$ (right), knee angle was $174.6^{\circ}$ (back) and $175.6^{\circ}$(right), and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 7.2N(BW 0.01) and the right leg was 749.4N(BW 1.09). It was observed that during the Judo motion Kuzushii the range of the COM varied from $26.5{\sim}39.9cm$. It was concluded that the upper body leaned further than the lower body as there was knee extension. There was high left leg reaction forces while leaning to the left and likewise for the right side. It was therefore deduced that the Kuzushi was a more effective throwing technique for the left side.

Dosimetric Characteristics of a Thermal Neutron Beam Facility for Neutron Capture Therapy at HANARO Reactor (하나로 원자로 BNCT 열중성자 조사장치에 대한 선량특성연구)

  • Lee, Dong-Han;Suh, So-Heigh;Ji, Young-Hoon;Choi, Moon-Sik;Park, Jae-Hong;Kim, Kum-Bae;Yoo, Seung-Yul;Kim, Myong-Seop;Lee, Byung-Chul;Chun, Ki-Jung;Cho, Jae-Won;Kim, Mi-Sook
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 2007
  • A thermal neutron beam facility utilizing a typical tangential beam port for Neutron Capture Therapy was installed at the HANARO, 30 MW multi-purpose research reactor. Mixed beams with different physical characteristics and relative biological effectiveness would be emitted from the BNCT irradiation facility, so a quantitative analysis of each component of the mixed beams should be performed to determine the accurate delivered dose. Thus, various techniques were applied including the use of activation foils, TLDs and ionization chambers. All the dose measurements were perform ed with the water phantom filled with distilled water. The results of the measurement were compared with MCNP4B calculation. The thermal neutron fluxes were $1.02E9n/cm^2{\cdot}s\;and\;6.07E8n/cm^2{\cdot}s$ at 10 and 20 mm depth respectively, and the fast neutron dose rate was insignificant as 0.11 Gy/hr at 10 mm depth in water The gamma-ray dose rate was 5.10 Gy/hr at 20 mm depth in water Good agreement within 5%, has been obtained between the measured dose and the calculated dose using MCNP for neutron and gamma component and discrepancy with 14% for fast neutron flux Considering the difficulty of neutron detection, the current study support the reliability of these results and confirmed the suitability of the thermal neutron beam as a dosimetric data for BNCT clinical trials.

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Impact of Net-Based Customer Service on Firm Profits and Consumer Welfare (기업의 온라인 고객 서비스가 기업의 수익 및 고객의 후생에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Jin;Lee, Byung-Tae
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.123-137
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    • 2007
  • The advent of the Internet and related Web technologies has created an easily accessible link between a firm and its customers, and has provided opportunities to a firm to use information technology to support supplementary after-sale services associated with a product or service. It has been widely recognized that supplementary services are an important source of customer value and of competitive advantage as the characteristics of the product itself. Many of these supplementary services are information-based and need not be co-located with the product, so more and more companies are delivering these services electronically. Net-based customer service, which is defined as an Internet-based computerized information system that delivers services to a customer, therefore, is the core infrastructure for supplementary service provision. The importance of net-based customer service in delivering supplementary after-sale services associated with product has been well documented. The strategic advantages of well-implemented net-based customer service are enhanced customer loyalty and higher lock-in of customers, and a resulting reduction in competition and the consequent increase in profits. However, not all customers utilize such net-based customer service. The digital divide is the phenomenon in our society that captures the observation that not all customers have equal access to computers. Socioeconomic factors such as race, gender, and education level are strongly related to Internet accessibility and ability to use. This is due to the differences in the ability to bear the cost of a computer, and the differences in self-efficacy in the use of a technology, among other reasons. This concept, applied to e-commerce, has been called the "e-commerce divide." High Internet penetration is not eradicating the digital divide and e-commerce divide as one would hope. Besides, to accommodate personalized support, a customer must often provide personal information to the firm. This personal information includes not only name and address, but also preferences information and perhaps valuation information. However, many recent studies show that consumers may not be willing to share information about themselves due to concerns about privacy online. Due to the e-commerce divide, and due to privacy and security concerns of the customer for sharing personal information with firms, limited numbers of customers adopt net-based customer service. The limited level of customer adoption of net-based customer service affects the firm profits and the customers' welfare. We use a game-theoretic model in which we model the net-based customer service system as a mechanism to enhance customers' loyalty. We model a market entry scenario where a firm (the incumbent) uses the net-based customer service system in inducing loyalty in its customer base. The firm sells one product through the traditional retailing channels and at a price set for these channels. Another firm (the entrant) enters the market, and having observed the price of the incumbent firm (and after deducing the loyalty levels in the customer base), chooses its price. The profits of the firms and the surplus of the two customers segments (the segment that utilizes net-based customer service and the segment that does not) are analyzed in the Stackelberg leader-follower model of competition between the firms. We find that an increase in adoption of net-based customer service by the customer base is not always desirable for firms. With low effectiveness in enhancing customer loyalty, firms prefer a high level of customer adoption of net-based customer service, because an increase in adoption rate decreases competition and increases profits. A firm in an industry where net-based customer service is highly effective loyalty mechanism, on the other hand, prefers a low level of adoption by customers.

Survival Rate on the Small Cyprinidae by PIT Tagging Application (소형 잉어과 어류의 PIT tag 적용을 위한 생존율 평가)

  • Jang, Min-Ho;Yoon, Ju-Duk;Do, Yuno;Joo, Gea-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.371-377
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    • 2007
  • The passive integrated transponder (PIT) telemetry is a useful method for investigating fish population dynamics, community structure and migration. It can be applied for small fishes (TL<100 mm) because of its tiny size and light weight. The survival rate of PIT tag was investigated on 4 small size cyprindae fish species, Carassius gibelio langsdorfi (n=34, standard length; $91.9{\pm}0.9mm$, body weight; $21.2{\pm}0.9g$), Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (n=16, SL; $75.1{\pm}0.9mm$, BW; $6.0{\pm}0.2g$), Pseudorasbora parva (n=30, SL; $51.4{\pm}1.1mm$, BW; $2.7{\pm}0.2g$) and Phoxinus phoxinus (n=37, SL; $70.6{\pm}1.4mm$, BW; $8.2{\pm}0.5g$) under age 1 for applicability and effectiveness. We used three type tags including a small (length 11.0 mm, diameter 2.1 mm, weight 0.088 g), middle (20 mm, 3.5 mm, 0.102 g), large (30 mm, 3.5 mm, 0.298 g) size. After 30 days of tag insertion, survival rate of 117 individuals were 58.1% (large tag, 50.0%; middle tag, 57.5%; small tag, 61.4%). Survival rates varied between three types of tags because the abdominal cavity of each individual was different size. The death was due to surgical damage. If we apply tagging systems on field research of the Korean freshwater fish, the PIT tag will be effective method for analyzing fish ecology.

Comparison of a Closed with an Open Endotracheal Suction: Costs and the Incidence of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia (비용, 인공환기관련폐렴 발생 빈도에 있어서의 개방 기관내 흡인술에 대한 폐쇄 흡인술의 비교)

  • Jung, Jae Woo;Choi, Eun Hee;Kim, Jin Hee;Seo, Hyo Kyung;Choi, Ji Yeon;Choi, Jae Cheol;Shin, Jong Wook;Park, In Won;Choi, Byoung Whui;Kim, Jae Yeol
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.65 no.3
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    • pp.198-206
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    • 2008
  • Background: Tracheobronchial suctioning using the closed suctioning system has physiological benefits for critically ill patients. Despite these benefits, there are concerns about increased colonization of tracheobronchial tree by pathogenic organisms. The cost is another hinder to the introduction of closed suction system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of colonization and ventilator associated pneumonia and the cost-effectiveness of closed suction compared with open suction. Methods: During separated one month period, patients admitted MICU were cared by multiple-use, open suction, single-use, open suction and multiple-use, closed suction method, consecutively. Costs, colonization of tracheobronchial tree by MRSA and the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) were analyzed. Results: One-hundred and six patients were enrolled. Twenty patients were treated with multiple-use, open suction, while 42 and 44 patients were cared with single-use, open catheter and multiple-use, closed catheter, respectively. Colonization by MRSA and the incidence of VAP were not different among three ways of suctioning. The overall costs per patient per day for suctioning were $10.58 for multiple-use, open suction, $28.27 for single-use, open suction and $23.76 for multiple-use, closed suction. Conclusion: Multiple-use, closed suctioning, when suction catheters were changed every 48 hrs, has the similar incidence of colonization of MRSA and occurrence of VAP and is a cost-efficient way of endotracheal suction.

Treatment of Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax Using a Commercialized 8-French Catheter ($Pleuracan^{(R)}$) (상품화된 8 Fr 흉부 배액도관($Pleuracan^{(R)}$)을 이용한 원발성 자연기흉의 치료)

  • Park, Jung-Sik;Hwang, Yeo-Ju;Park, Kook-Yang;Park, Chul-Hyun;Jeon, Yang-Bin;Choi, Chang-Hyu;Lee, Jae-Ik
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.292-296
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    • 2007
  • Background: This retrospective study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of the 8-French (Fr) catheter ($Pleuracan^{(R)}$) for the initial treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Material and Method: Between July 2004 and July 2006, 59 patients (72 cases) underwent a closed thoracostomy for primary spontaneous pneumothorax. We divided these patients into two groups: group T (large bore (>20 Fr) chest tube group) and group P ($Pleuracan^{(R)}$ group). Result: Initially, the $Pleuracan^{(R)}$ catheters were inserted in 41 cases. There were four catheter malfunctions (9.8%) : three cases had a subsequent closed thoracostomy with a large bore chest tube. Ultimately, there were 34 cases in group T and 38 cases in group P. There were no significant differences in indwelling catheter time ($T:\;2.1{\pm}1.5\;days,\;P:\;2.1{\pm}1.3\;days$), hospital stay ($T:\;6.4{\pm}5.4\;days,\;P:\;5.2{\pm}2.9\;days$) and complications (T: 3%, P: 0%) between the two groups. The percentage of cases that needed intravenous analgesics in group P was 60% (23/38); this was significantly lower than the number for group T (90%, 31/34) (p=0.003). In a subgroup of patients that did not undergo bullectomy(T: 17 cases, P: 19 cases), there were no significant differences in the duration of air leakage ($T:\;0.5{\pm}0.7\;days,\;P:\;0.5{\pm}1.2\;days$) and in the percentage of patients with complete lung re-expansion (T: 94%, P: 84%) between the two groups. Conclusion: Application of the $Pleuracan^{(R)}$ catheter for the initial treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax was as effective as the large bore chest tube.

Viscosity and Wettability of Carboxymethylcellulose(CMC) solutions and Artificial Saliva (Carboxymethylcellulose(CMC) 용액과 인공 타액의 점도와 습윤성)

  • Park, Moon-Soo;Kim, Young-Jun
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.365-373
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    • 2007
  • Destruction of oral soft and hard tissues and resulting problems seriously affect the life quality of xerostomic patients. Although artificial saliva is the only regimen for xerostomic patients with totally abolished salivary glands, currently available artificial salivas give restricted satisfaction to patients. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the development of ideal artificial saliva through comparing viscosity and wettability between CMC solutions and human saliva. Commercially-available CMC is dissolved in simulated salivary buffer (SSB) and distilled deionized water (DDW). Various properties of human whole saliva, human glandular saliva, and a CMC-based saliva substitutes known as Salivart and Moi-Stir were compared with those of CMC solutions. Viscosity was measured with a cone-and-plate digital viscometer at six different shear rates, while wettability on acrylic resin and Co-Cr alloy was determined by the contact angle. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The viscosity of CMC solutions was proportional to CMC concentration, with 0.5% CMC solution displaying similar viscosity to stimulated whole saliva. Where as a decrease in contact angle was found with increasing CMC concentration. 2. The viscosity of human saliva was found to be inversely proportional to shear rate, a non-Newtonian (pseudoplastic) trait of biological fluids. The mean viscosity values at various shear rates increased as follows: stimulated parotid saliva, stimulated whole saliva, unstimulated whole saliva, stimulated submandibular-sublingual saliva. 3. Contact angles of human saliva on the tested solid phases were inversely correlated with viscosity, namely decreasing in the order stimulated parotid saliva, stimulated whole saliva, unstimulated whole saliva, stimulated submandibular-sublingual saliva. 4. Boiled CMC dissolved in SSB (CMC-SSB) had a lower viscosity than CMC-SSB (P < 0.01 at shear rate of $90s^{-1}$). 5. For human saliva, contact angles on acrylic resin were significantly lower than those on Co-Cr alloy (P < 0.01). 6. Comparing CMC solutions with human saliva, the contact angles between acrylic resin and human saliva solutions were significantly lower than those between acrylic resin and CMC solutions, including Salivart and Moi-Stir (P <0.01). The effectiveness of CMC solutions in terms of their rheological properties was objectively confirmed, indicating a vital role for CMC in the development of effective salivary substitutes.

Estimation of Groundwater Recharge by Considering Runoff Process and Groundwater Level Variation in Watershed (유역 유출과정과 지하수위 변동을 고려한 분포형 지하수 함양량 산정방안)

  • Chung, Il-Moon;Kim, Nam-Won;Lee, Jeong-Woo
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.19-32
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    • 2007
  • In Korea, there have been various methods of estimating groundwater recharge which generally can be subdivided into three types: baseflow separation method by means of groundwater recession curve, water budget analysis based on lumped conceptual model in watershed, and water table fluctuation method (WTF) by using the data from groundwater monitoring wells. However, groundwater recharge rate shows the spatial-temporal variability due to climatic condition, land use and hydrogeological heterogeneity, so these methods have various limits to deal with these characteristics. To overcome these limitations, we present a new method of estimating recharge based on water balance components from the SWAT-MODFLOW which is an integrated surface-ground water model. Groundwater levels in the interest area close to the stream have dynamics similar to stream flow, whereas levels further upslope respond to precipitation with a delay. As these behaviours are related to the physical process of recharge, it is needed to account for the time delay in aquifer recharge once the water exits the soil profile to represent these features. In SWAT, a single linear reservoir storage module with an exponential decay weighting function is used to compute the recharge from soil to aquifer on a given day. However, this module has some limitations expressing recharge variation when the delay time is too long and transient recharge trend does not match to the groundwater table time series, the multi-reservoir storage routing module which represents more realistic time delay through vadose zone is newly suggested in this study. In this module, the parameter related to the delay time should be optimized by checking the correlation between simulated recharge and observed groundwater levels. The final step of this procedure is to compare simulated groundwater table with observed one as well as to compare simulated watershed runoff with observed one. This method is applied to Mihocheon watershed in Korea for the purpose of testing the procedure of proper estimation of spatio-temporal groundwater recharge distribution. As the newly suggested method of estimating recharge has the advantages of effectiveness of watershed model as well as the accuracy of WTF method, the estimated daily recharge rate would be an advanced quantity reflecting the heterogeneity of hydrogeology, climatic condition, land use as well as physical behaviour of water in soil layers and aquifers.

Determination of Target Clean-up Level and Risk-Based Remediation Strategy (위해성에 근거한 정화목표 산정 및 복원전략 수립)

  • Ryu, Hye-Rim;Han, Joon-Kyoung;Nam, Kyoung-Phile
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.73-86
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    • 2007
  • Risk-based remediation strategy (RBRS) is a consistent decision-making process for the assessment and response to chemical release based on protecting human health and the environment. The decision-making process described integrates exposure and risk assessment practices with site assessment activities and remedial action selection to ensure that the chosen actions are protective of human health and the environment. The general sequences of events in Tier 1 is as follows: initial site assessment, development of conceptual site model with all exposure pathways, data collection on pollutants and receptors, and identification of risk-based screening level (RBSL). If site conditions do not meet RBSL, it needs further site-specific tier evaluation, Tier 2. In most cases, only limited number of exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, and chemicals of concern are considered the Tier 2 evaluation since many are eliminated from consideration during the Tier 1 evaluation. In spite of uncertainties due to the conservatism applied to risk calculations, limitation in site-specific data collections, and variables affecting the selection of target risk levels and exposure factors, RBRS provides us time- and cost-effectiveness of the remedial action. To ensure reliance of the results, the development team should consider land and resource use, cumulative risks, and additive effects. In addition, it is necessary to develop appropriate site assessment guideline and reliable toxicity assessment method, and to study on site-specific parameters and exposure parameters in Korea.

A study on the state of inservice education for dental hygienists and their relevant awareness (치과위생사의 보수교육 실태 및 인식에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Jae-Yeon;Kim, Kyung-Mi;Cho, Myung-Sook;Ahn, Geum-Sun;Song, Kyoung-Hee;Choi, Hye-Jung;Choi, Youn-Seon;Hwang, Yoon-Sook
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.73-89
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the reality of inservice education provided to members of Korean Dental Hygienists Association, the state of relevant academic conferences, and the perception of the members about inservice education and academic conference. It's basically meant to help boost their participation in inservice education and their satisfaction with it, and to show some of the right directions for that. The subjects in this study were dental hygienists who attended a symposium on July 1, 2006. After a survey was conducted, the answer sheets from 489 participants were analyzed, and the findings of the study were as follows: 1. General hospitals and university hospitals made up the largest group(91.4%) that gave a monthly leave of absence, and the second largest group was dental hospitals(75.4%), followed by dental clinics(58.3%) and public dental clinics(48.0%). The most common closing time in dental clinics and dental hospitals was 5 p.m., and that was 12 p.m. in general hospitals and university hospitals. The dental hygienists in public dental clinics didn't work on Saturdays. By type of workplace, treatment was the most common duty for the dental hygienists in dental clinics and dental hospitals to perform, and those who worked at general hospitals, university hospitals and public health clinics were in charge of extensive range of jobs. 2. The rates of the dental hygienists who took that education stood at 94.9% in public dental clinics, 78.7% in dental hospitals and 75.3% in dental clinics, general hospitals and university hospitals. Regarding how many marks they got on an yearly basis, those who got eight marks or more made up the largest group(55.6%), followed by four marks or more(11.8%), six marks or more(3.4%), and two marks or more(1.5%). As for the usefulness of inservice education for their job performance, the largest number of the dental hygienists(40.8%) found it to be helpful, and the second greatest group(37.5%) considered its effectiveness to be so-so. The third largest group(8.4%) found it to be of great use, and the fourth biggest group(4.2%) considered it to be of no service. The fifth biggest group(l.3%) thought it was absolutely useless. By type of workplace, the workers in dental clinics, dental hospitals, general hospitals and university hospitals wanted the most to learn how to take care of clinical work(acquisition of up-to-date technology), and those in public health clinics hoped the most to learn about public dental health. By type of workplace, the workers in dental clinics had their sight set on self-development the most, and the dental hygienists in dental hospitals, general hospitals, university hospitals and public health clinics were most in pursuit of acquiring new knowledge. By type of workplace, the specific given conditions at work were most singled out by the dental clinic workers as the reason, and the dental hospital employees pointed out time constraints the most. The dental hygienists in general hospitals and university hospitals cited time constraints and financial burden the most, and the public health clinic personnels mentioned inaccessibility of a place for inservice education as the reason. 3. The public health clinic workers participated in academic conferences the most(90.8%), followed by the general and university hospital personnels(68.8%), dental hospital employees(65.6%) and dental clinic workers(65.5%). By type of workplace, the public health clinic workers(73.5%) expressed the most satisfaction, followed by the general and university hospital employees(67.7%), dental clinic workers(62.3%) and dental hospital personnels(54.1%). By type of workplace, the employees of dental clinics, dental hospitals, general hospitals and university hospitals preferred Saturdays, and the public health clinic workers had a liking for weekdays. As for a favored place, hotels were most preferred, followed by university hospitals, general hospitals, college lecture rooms, district halls and local public institutions. Hotels were most favored regardless of the type of workplace. 4. Regarding outlook on inservice education, they had the highest opinion on the facilities and given conditions of lecture rooms($3.41{\pm}0.83$), followed by the professionalism of lecturers($3.34{\pm}0.83$), procedures of receipt and attendance confirmation($3.34{\pm}0.83$) and class size($3.13{\pm}0.89$). On the contrary, they took the most dismal view of the inaccessibility of a place of inservice education($2.08{\pm}0.92$), followed by limited opportunity and limited date for that education($2.51{\pm}0.99$), extra financial burden($2.53{\pm}1.18$) and high tuition fee($2.57{\pm}0.96$).

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