• Title, Summary, Keyword: EC-SOD

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Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase (EC-SOD) Transgenic Mice: Possible Animal Model for Various Skin Changes

  • Kim, Sung-Hyun;Kim, Myoung-Ok;Lee, Sang-Gyu;Ryoo, Zae-Young
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 2006
  • We have generated transgenic mice that expressed mouse extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) in their skin. In particular, the expression plasmid DNA containing human keratin K14 promoter was used to direct the keratinocyte-specific transcription of the transgene. To compare intron-dependent and intron-independent gene expression, we constructed two vectors. The vector B, which contains the rabbit -globin intron 2, was not effective for mouse EC-SOD overexpression. The EC-SOD transcript was detected in the skin, as determined by Northern blot analysis. Furthermore, EC-SOD protein was detected in the skin tissue, as demonstrated by Western blot analysis. To evaluate the expression levels of EC-SOD in various tissues, we purified EC-SOD from the skin, lungs, brain, kidneys, livers, and spleen of transgenic mice and measured its activities. EC-SOD activities in the transgenic mice skin were approximately 7 fold higher than in wild-type mice. These results suggest that the mouse overexpressing vector not only induces keratinocyte-specific expression of EC-SOD, but also expresses successfully functional EC-SOD. Thus, these transgenic mice appeared to be useful for the expression of the EC-SOD gene and subsequent analysis of various skin changes, such as erythema, inflamation, photoaging, and skin tumors.

Expression of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Protein in Diabetes

  • Kim, Chul Han
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.517-521
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    • 2013
  • Background Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, which can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The formation of ROS induces oxidative stress and activates oxidative damage-inducing genes in cells. No research has been published on oxidative damage-related extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) protein levels in human diabetic skin. We investigated the expression of EC-SOD in diabetic skin compared with normal skin tissue in vivo. Methods The expression of EC-SOD protein was evaluated by western blotting in 6 diabetic skin tissue samples and 6 normal skin samples. Immunohistochemical staining was also carried out to confirm the EC-SOD expression level in the 6 diabetic skin tissue samples. Results The western blotting showed significantly lower EC-SOD protein expression in the diabetic skin tissue than in the normal tissue. Immunohistochemical examination of EC-SOD protein expression supported the western blotting analysis. Conclusions Diabetic skin tissues express a relatively small amount of EC-SOD protein and may not be protected against oxidative stress. We believe that EC-SOD is related to the altered metabolic state in diabetic skin, which elevates ROS production.

Superoxide Dismutase Isoenzyme Activities in Plasma and Tissues of Iraqi Patients with Breast Cancer

  • Hasan, Hathama Razooki;Mathkor, Thikra Hasan;Al-Habal, Mohammed Hasan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2571-2576
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    • 2012
  • Breast cancer is the first of the most common ten cancers in Iraq. Its etiology is multifactorial, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation being suggested to play important roles in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the oxidant-antioxidant status in breast cancer patients, by measuring SOD isoenzyme activities (total SOD, CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD and EC-SOD) in plasma and breast tumors, and by estimating thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBRS) in tissue homogenates. General increase in total SOD activity was observed in plasma and tissue samples of breast tumors, greater in the malignant when compared to benign group (p<0.05). Mn-SOD showed a significant decrease in tissue malignant samples (p<0.05), and insignificant decrease in plasma malignant samples compared with control and benign samples. Plasma EC-SOD activity in both patient benign and malignant breast tumors demonstrated 3.5% and 22.8% increase, respectively. However, there was a decrease in tissue EC-SOD activity in malignant breast tumors when compared with benign. A similar tendency was noted for TBRS. We suggest that elevated total SOD might reflect a response to oxidative stress, and then may predict a state of excess reactive oxygen species in the carcinogenesis process. If there is proteolytic removal of the heparin binding domain, EC-SOD will lose its affinity for the extracellular matrix and diffuse out of the tissue. This will result in a decreased EC-SOD activity, thus leading to an increase in the steady-state concentration of $O^{2-}$ in this domain, and increase in EC-SOD activity in the extracellular fluid. This might explain the results recorded here concerning the decrease in tissue EC-SOD activity and increase in plasma of breast cancer patients.

Inactive extracellular superoxide dismutase disrupts secretion and function of active extracellular superoxide dismutase

  • Jeon, Byeong-Wook;Kim, Byung-Hak;Lee, Yun-Sang;Kim, Sung-Sub;Yoon, Jong-Bok;Kim, Tae-Yoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.40-45
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    • 2011
  • Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme that protects cells and tissues from extracellular damage by eliminating superoxide anion radicals produced during metabolism. Two different forms of EC-SOD exist, and their different enzyme activities are a result of different disulfide bond patterns. Although only two folding variants have been discovered so far, five folding variants are theoretically possible. Therefore, we constructed five different mutant EC-SOD expression vectors by substituting cysteine residues with serine residues and evaluated their expression levels and enzyme activities. The mutant EC-SODs were expressed at lower levels than that of wild-type EC-SOD, and all of the mutants exhibited inhibited extracellular secretion, except for C195S ECSOD. Finally, we demonstrated that co-expression of wild-type EC-SOD and any one of the mutant EC-SODs resulted in reduced secretion of wild-type EC-SOD. We speculate that mutant EC-SOD causes malfunctions in systems such as antioxidant systems and sensitizes tissues to ROS-mediated diseases.

IFNγ-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation through increased PKCδ-induced overexpression of EC-SOD

  • Jeon, Yoon-Jae;Yoo, Hyun;Kim, Byung Hak;Lee, Yun Sang;Jeon, Byeongwook;Kim, Sung-Sub;Kim, Tae-Yoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.11
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    • pp.659-664
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    • 2012
  • Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) overexpression modulates cellular responses such as tumor cell suppression and is induced by $IFN{\gamma}$. Therefore, we examined the role of EC-SOD in $IFN{\gamma}$-mediated tumor cell suppression. We observed that the dominant-negative protein kinase C delta ($PKC{\delta}$) suppresses $IFN{\gamma}$-induced EC-SOD expression in both keratinocytes and melanoma cells. Our results also showed that $PKC{\delta}$-induced EC-SOD expression was reduced by pretreatment with a PKC-specific inhibitor or a siRNA against $PKC{\delta}$. $PKC{\delta}$-induced EC-SOD expression suppressed cell proliferations by the up-regulation of p21 and Rb, and the downregulation of cyclin A and D. Finally, we demonstrated that increased expression of EC-SOD drastically suppressed lung melanoma proliferation in an EC-SOD transgenic mouse via p21 expression. In summary, our findings suggest that $IFN{\gamma}$-induced EC-SOD expression occurs via activation of $PKC{\delta}$. Therefore, the upregulation of EC-SOD may be effective for prevention of various cancers, including melanoma, via cell cycle arrest.

Cloning, Purification, and Characterization of Recombinant Human Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase in SF9 Insect Cells

  • Shrestha, Pravesh;Yun, Ji-Hye;Kim, Woo Taek;Kim, Tae-Yoon;Lee, Weontae
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.242-249
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    • 2016
  • A balance between production and degradation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Increased levels of ROS during oxidative stress are associated with disease conditions. Antioxidant enzymes, such as extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), in the extracellular matrix (ECM) neutralize the toxicity of superoxide. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of EC-SOD in protecting the brain, lungs, and other tissues from oxidative stress. Therefore, EC-SOD would be an excellent therapeutic drug for treatment of diseases caused by oxidative stress. We cloned both the full length (residues 1-240) and truncated (residues 19-240) forms of human EC-SOD (hEC-SOD) into the donor plasmid pFastBacHTb. After transposition, the bacmid was transfected into the Sf9-baculovirus expression system and the expressed hEC-SOD purified using FLAG-tag. Western blot analysis revealed that hEC-SOD is present both as a monomer (33 kDa) and a dimer (66 kDa), as detected by the FLAG antibody. A water-soluble tetrazolium (WST-1) assay showed that both full length and truncated hEC-SOD proteins were enzymatically active. We showed that a potent superoxide dismutase inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), inhibits hEC-SOD activity.

Increased Yield of High-Purity and Active Tetrameric Recombinant Human EC-SOD by Solid Phase Refolding

  • Ryu, Kang;Kim, Young-Hoon;Kim, Young-Hwa;Lee, Joon-Seok;Jeon, Byeong-Wook;Kim, Tae-Yoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1648-1654
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    • 2008
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD) removes damaging reactive oxygen species from the cellular environment by catalyzing the dismutation of two superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a tetramer and is present in the extracellular space and to a lesser extent in the extracellular fluids. Increasing therapeutic applications for recombinant human extracellular superoxide dismutase (rEC-SOD) has broadened interest in optimizing methods for its purification, with a native conformation of tetramer. We describe a solid phase refolding procedure that combines immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and gel filtration chromatography in the purification of rEC-SOD from Escherichia coli. The purified rEC-SOD tetramer from the $Ni^{2+}$-column chromatography is refolded in Tris buffer. This method yields greater than 90% of the tetramer form. Greater than 99% purity is achieved with further purification over a Superose 12PC 3.2/30 column to obtain the tetramer and specific activities as determined via DCFHDA assay. The improved yield of rEC-SOD in a simple chromatographic purification procedure promises to enhance the development and therapeutic application of this biologically potent molecule.

Expression and Purification of Recombinant Superoxide Dismutase (PaSOD) from Psychromonas arctica in Escherichia coli

  • Na, Ju-Mee;Im, Ha-Na;Lee, Kyung-Hee
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.2405-2409
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    • 2011
  • The psychrophilic bacteria Psychromonas arctica survives at subzero temperatures by having adapted several protective mechanisms against freezing and oxidative stresses. Many reactive oxygen species are likely generated in P. arctica as a result of reduced metabolic turnover rates. A previous study identified the pasod gene for superoxide dismutase from P. arctica using a series of PCR amplifications. Here, upon cloning into a His-tag fused plasmid, the sod gene from P. arctica (pasod) was successfully expressed by IPTG induction. His-tagged PaSOD was subsequently purified by $Ni^{2+}$-NTA affinity chromatography. The purified PaSOD exhibited a higher SOD activity than that of Escherichia coli (EcSOD) at all temperatures. The difference in activity between PaSOD and EcSOD becomes even more significant at 4$^{\circ}C$, indicating that PaSOD plays a functional role in the cold adaptation of P. arctica in the Arctic.

Human extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) expression in transgenic chicken

  • Byun, Sung June;Ji, Mi-Ran;Jang, Ye-Jin;Hwang, A-In;Chung, Hee Kyoung;Kim, Jeom Sun;Kim, Kyung-Woon;Chung, Hak-Jae;Yang, Byoung-Chul;Jeon, Iksoo;Park, Jin-Ki;Yoo, Jae Gyu;Kim, Tae-Yoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.46 no.8
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    • pp.404-409
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    • 2013
  • Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a metallo-protein and functions as an antioxidant enzyme. In this study, we used lentiviral vectors to generate transgenic chickens that express the human EC-SOD gene. The recombinant lentiviruses were injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid eggs. Subsequently, the embryos were incubated to hatch using phases II and III of the surrogate shell ex vivo culture system. Of 158 injected embryos, 16 chicks (G0) hatched and were screened for the hEC-SOD by PCR. Only 1 chick was identified as a transgenic bird containing the transgene in its germline. This founder (G0) bird was mated with wild-type hens to produce transgenic progeny, and 2 transgenic chicks (G1) were produced. In the generated transgenic hens (G2), the hEC-SOD protein was expressed in the egg white and showed antioxidant activity. These results highlight the potential of the chicken for production of biologically active proteins in egg white.

Expression of Superoxide Dismutase Isoforms in Inflamed Gingiva (염증성 치은에서 superoxide dismutase isoform의 발현에 대한 연구)

  • Na, Hei-Jin;Kim, Ok-Su;Park, Byung-Ju
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.97-112
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    • 2006
  • 유리 라디칼과 활성 산소종, 산화방지제 간의 불균형이 염증성 구강내 질환의 발생과 진행에 있어 중요한 역할을 한다는 주장이 제기되었고 최근에는 만성 염증성 치주질환에서도 산화에 의한 소실이 관찰되었다. 다양한 내적인 항산화 방어 기전 중 superoxide dismutase 가 $O_2$$H_2O_2$로 효과적으로 전환시킴으로써 활성산소종에 대한 일차적인 방어를 맡고 있다. 현재까지 인간에서 발견된 superoxide dismutase 는 cytoplasmic copper-zinc SOD와 mitochondrial manganase SOD, extracellular SOD의 3가지 아형이다. 이번 연구는 만성 치주질환을 가전 환자의 치주조직에서 효소 항산화제인 SOD의 발현정도를 알아봄으로써 질환조직 내의 산화자극 정도를 평가해 보고자하였다. 전남대학교 치주과에 내원한 33명의 만성 치주질환자와 20명 의 임상적으로 건강한 대상으로부터 조직을 얻어 Cu/Zn-SOD와 Mn-SOD, EC-SOD를 이용한 면역조직화학 염색을 시행하였다. 임상적 소견과 조직학적 소견이 일치하지 않아 조직학적 소견을 기준으로 건강한 조직, 경도, 중등도, 중도 치주질환 조직으로 그룹을 나누고 완전한 상피와 결합조직을 가진 27개의 표본에 대한 분석을 시행하였다. 치주질환 조직에서 건강한 조직에 비해 Cu/Zn-SOD가 상피의 기저층과 상피에 근접한 결합조직에서 발현되고 Mn-SOD는 염증이 증가함에 따라 크게 상피의 과립증과 각화층, 그리고 상피에 근접한 결합조직에서 발현됨으로써 활성산소종이 치주조직 파괴에 관여한다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 세 아형 모두 혈관주위에서 발현되었고 특히 EC-SOD는 작은 모세혈관주위에서만 발현되었으나 염증에 의해 혈관벽이 두꺼워지고 혈관 수가 증가한 곳에서 뚜렷하게 염색되었다. 이번 연구는 염증성 치주조직내 증가된 SOD의 활성이 치주질환자의 산화자극 정도와 관련되어 있음을 시사하였다.