• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dry matter digestibility (DMD)

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Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Treatment on Nutritive Value of Pelleted Rye Hay (호밀건초 Pellet 조제시 NaOH 처리가 사료가치에 미치는 효과)

  • 한성윤;김대진
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2000
  • This syudy was conducted to increase the utility of forage rye which are suitable to be cultivated at high altitude Taekwllyong area. For that purpose two cultivars of rye (winter-more, kool-glazer) were cultivated for 3years using a randomized block design with 3 replications. The dry matter digestibility (DMD) was evaluated with the pelleted rye hay produced by adding sodium hydroxide and then the TDN value was calculated by the DMD. By adding NaOH, DMD and TDN value of rye pellets (Y=46.92+ 1.8X, ~ 0 . 9 7 )w ere increased significantly (p<0.05) and NDF (neutral detergent fiber) decrease significantly. However, ADF (acid detergent fiber) and lignin did not significantly decrease (p<0.05). Rye could be cultivated as a second crop after com at high altitude area in the same year and pelleted with NaOH in order to increase the nutritive values (p< 0.05). (Key words : Dry matter digestibility (DMD), Forage rye, NDF, ADF, Sodium hydroxide)

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Voluntary Intake and Digestibility of Saltbush by Sheep

  • Abu-Zanat, M.M.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.214-220
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    • 2005
  • The study was conducted to compare the dry matter intake and digestibility of Atriplex halimus (AH) and Atriplex nummularia (AN) and determine the proper proportion of saltbushes for partial replacement of alfalfa hay in the diets of Awassi sheep. The foliage of AH and AN were hand-plucked, air-dried in shade and then chopped mechanically similar to alfalfa hay. Two trials were conducted separately to determine voluntary feed intake and digestibility of saltbush browse. In the first trial, fifteen 8 month old Awassi lambs were distributed into 3 equal groups, and each animal was housed in individual pen. Each group received one of three dietary treatments: chopped alfalfa hay (H), dried foliage of Atriplex nummularia or foliage of Atriplex halimus. In the second trial, twentyseven 12 months old Awassi male lambs were randomly selected, distributed into nine equal groups, and housed into metabolic crates. Each group of animals received one of nine dietary treatments: alfalfa hay, AN, AH and different proportions (25, 50 and 75%) of AN or AH mixed with alfalfa hay. Forage type had a significant (p<0.001) effect on dry matter intake (DMI) and growth rate of lambs of the voluntary feed intake trial. Lambs receiving the alfalfa hay diet showed high DMI and high growth rate compared to those fed the diets containing saltbush. In the digestibility trial, dietary treatments had significant (p<0.05) effect on DMI, dry matter digestibility (DMD) (p<0.01) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) (p<0.01). The inclusion of AN in the diet up to 50% had no significant effect on DMI and DMD, whereas the inclusion of AH above 25% reduced DMI, DMD and OMD. The treatments had significant (p<0.05) effect on water intake and on live weight changes of lambs. Except for the diet containing 25% of AN browse, all lambs fed diets containing the saltbushes exhibited loss in body weight. The nutritive value of Atriplex nummularia foliage is better than that of A. halimus and it is possible to replace up to 50% of alfalfa hay by A. nummularia without negative effects on intake and digestibility of dry matter.

A Comparative Study of Dry Matter Yield and Quality of Pasture Sown Different Species Seed Combination (초종구성을 달리한 혼파 초지의 건물수량 및 품질 비교 연구)

  • Lee, I.D.;Lee, Hyung-Suk
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.1081-1086
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of mixture types which consist of different species on the dry matter(DM) yield, botanical composition and forage quality. The experimental design includes three mixture types: Conventional mixtures(orchardgrass 50% + tall fescue 20% + perennial ryegrass 10% + Kentucky bluegrass 10% + white clover 10%), complex mixtures(orchardgrass 40% + tall fescue 20% + perennial ryegrass 10% + Kentucky bluegrass 10% + redtop 10% + alfalfa 5% + red clover 5%) and simple mixtures(orchardgrass 80% + red clover 20%). The DM yield was higher in conventional mixtures(13,070kg/ha) than in other mixtures(p<0.05). In the chemical composition and dry matter digestibility, there was significant difference among mixtures. Crude protein content and dry matter digestibility were higher in complex mixtures than in other mixtures(p<0.05). But, the content of fibrous constituents was higher in conventional mixtures than in other mixtures. The yield of crude protein dry matter(CPDM) and digestible dry matter(DDM) were higher in complex mixtures than in other mixtures. In this experiment, DM yields and quality of mixture types were observed significant difference. therefore, the complex mixtures which combined various species were more effective in enhancing the dry matter digestibility(DMD) and digestible dry matter(DDM) yield.

Further Modifications to the Mobile Nylon Bag Technique to Determine Nutrient Digestibility for Swine

  • Thacker, P.A.;Qiao, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.1149-1156
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    • 2001
  • Previous studies conducted with swine have reported that the mobile nylon bag technique (MNBT) does not always accurately predict in vivo nutrient digestibilities. Therefore, in this study, the MNBT was modified so that nutrient digestibilities would more closely resemble those from conventional (Con) digestibility studies obtained using the indicator method. A total of 19 feeds were tested including five cereal grains, five legumes, three high protein sources and six mixed diets. The principle changes to the MNBT included the use of a fecal collection harness which minimized the number of bags lost. In addition, previous protocols involved pooling of bags within pig while in the present experiment all bags were analyzed separately to increase the precision of the test. Finally, chemical analyses were done using the entire nylon bag plus residue rather than opening.the bags and scraping out the contents. With the exception of the barley sample (p=0.01), dry matter digestibility (DMD) coefficients obtained with the MNBT were not significantly different from those obtained with the indicator method. The linear regression equation relating the MNBT to the indicator method was Con DMD=-O.77+1.02 MNBT DMD ($r^2=0.93$: p<0.0001). There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in gross energy digestibility (GED) coefficients determined using the MNBT or the indicator method for any of the 19 feeds. The regression line equation relating the MNBT to the indicator method was Con GED=-5.68+1.06 MNBT GED ($r^2=0.94$: p<0.0001). The MNBT was less effective in predicting in vivo crude protein digestibility (CPD) than it was in predicting dry matter and energy digestibility. Differences greater than five percentage units were observed for two of the legumes, Kabuli chickpeas (p=0.02) and the extruded pea-canola seed mixture (p=0.01) as well as for three of the mixed diets including the unheated hulled barley-based diet (p=0.01), the unheated hulless-barley based diet (p=0.08) and the barley-soybean meal based diet (p=0.008). The regression equation relating the MNBT to the indicator method was Con CPD=5.75 + 0.90 MNBT CPO ($r^2=0.76$; p<0.0001). This study indicates that the modified MNBT can be used for the rapid determination of dry matter and energy digestibility in a wide variety of ingredients. For the measurement of crude protein digestibility, the technique produces results similar to conventional digestibility studies for cereal grains and high protein feeds but tends to overestimate protein digestibility for legumes and mixed diets.

Estimation of In vitro Digestibility of Barley Straw by Using a Homogenized Rumen Fluid and Artificial Saliva Mixed with Nitrogen and Energy Sources

  • Chaudhry, Abdul S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.13-16
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    • 1998
  • A $2{\times}2{\times}4$ factorial study was conducted to examine the possibility of improving estimates of in vitro digestibility, using untreated (UBS) and ammonia-treated (ABS) barley straw, through homogenization of rumen fluid (RF) and by additions of urea (U) and casein (C) as N sources and Xylose + Glucose (XG) as energy sources into artificial saliva. Digestibiltiy of ABS was significantly greater than that of UBS (p < 0.001). There was a significant decrease in digestibility when additions (U, UC, UCXG) were compared with the control (p < 0.001). A 2-way interaction between RF and straw type was significant (p < 0.05) for dry matter digestibility (DMD). Homogenization of RF increased DMD of ABS (p < 0.05) whereas it decreased DMD of UBS (p > 0.05). The study showed that addition of N alone or in combination with energy sources was not better than control, rather the reverse, digestion was inhibited by a combination of U and casein (UC). It was concluded that sufficient N and branched chain fatty acids were supplied in the inoculum from sheep fed high protein grass cubes to support the growth of cellulolytic microbes during in vitro incubation. Further studies are, however, required to explore the potential of homogenization in improving the in vitro method to estimate digestibility of cereal straws.

Studies on Quality of Silage form Domestic Herbage III. Effects of starch addition on the quality of Kudzu silage (야초 사일리지의 품질향상에 관한 연구 III. 칡 사일리지에 있어서 전분첨가효과)

  • 김종쾌;황태기;김대진
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.48-54
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    • 1990
  • In order to investigate effects of starch addition on the fermentative quality and dry matter digestibility (DMD) of Kudzu, Puerarie thunbergii Bentham plants were ensiled by the conventional method in small experimental plastic silo of 7.5 liter with different levels of starch addition. The fermentative quality, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) of silage were determined by chemical analysis, and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD) by pepsin-cellulase technique. Total digestibile nutrients (TDN), digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) were calculated with DMD. The results obtained were as follows; 1. Acetate, butyrate, PH, NDF, ADF, and ADL of Kudzu silage were reduced with increasing of starch addition but the contents of lactate and total acid were increased. 2. The DMD was marked 47.5, 49.5, 51.2, 57.9 and 62.0 % under starch addition with a rate of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 %, respectively. 3. TDN, DF and ME were increased with high rate of starch addition. 4. The regression equation and correlation of Kudzu silage between level of starch (X) and DMD (Y) were Y= 41.6 + 1.86 X (I= 0.96, P < 0.01), of silage between Flieg's score (X) and DMD (Y) were Y= 41.6 + 0.23 X (I= 0.96, P < 0.01) and of silage between level of starch (X) and Flieg's score (Y) were Y= 21.3 + 7.97 X (I= 0.97, P < 0.01), respectively.

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Nutritional Evaluation of Fodder Tree Leaves with Goats

  • Azim, A.;Khan, A.G.;Ahmad, J.;Ayaz, M.;Mirza, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.34-37
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    • 2002
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of common fodder tree leaves with goats fed at 50% of total ration. In experiment 1, leaves from six fodder tree species i.e., Ailanthus aitissima, Elaeagnus angustifolic, Morus alba (Mulberry), Populus spp, Robina pseudoacacia and Salix babylonia were harvested in spring and winter from northern areas of Pakistan. Chemical composition and apparent in situ dry matter digestibility (DMD) of fodder tree leaves were measured. Results showed that crude protein (CP) values were higher (p<0.05) in all the species during spring compared to winter (17.9% vs 12.0%). The concentration of NDF in Elaeagnus and Robinia was higher in spring, whereas no seasonal difference was found in other species. In situ DMD was higher (p<0.05) in Ailanthus and Populus at spring while it was higher (p<0.05) in Elaeagnus, Mulberry and Robinia at winter. There was no (p<0.05) seasonal effect on in situ DMD of Salix. In experiment II, four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric rations viz., A, B, C and D were prepared containing 50% (winter harvested) sun dried leaves of Salix, Robinia, Mulberry and Elaeagnus, respectively and 50% concentrate. Dry matter and crude protein intakes were higher (p<0.05) given ration A (Salix) whereas DM and CP digestibility was lowest (p<0.05) given ration B. Nitrogen retention was higher (p<0.05) given ration A. Goats fed on fodder tree leaves and concentrate showed moderate intake and digestibility.

A Comparative Study on the Nutritive Value of Oak Browse (참나무 수엽의 사료가치 비교 연구)

  • 이인덕;이중해;이형석
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.221-227
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    • 1993
  • Browse from Quercus aliena Blume, Quercus mongolica Fisch.. Quercus serrata Thunb., Quercus acutissima Carruth., Quercus variabilies Blume, and Quercus dentata Thunb. were analyzed for crude protein (CP). crude fiber(CF). neutral detergent fiber(NDF). acid detergent fiber(ADF). cellulose. lignin, in vitro dry matter digestibility(DMD), and tannin acid equivalents(TAE). According to the chemical composition and DMD. the total digestible nutrients(TDN). digestible energy(DE), and metabolizable energy(ME) were estimated. Oak browse samples were collected from May through October from 1990 to 1992 in Mt. Kyeryong. Browse from Quercus aliena, Quercus acutissima, and Quercus serrata contained higher levels of CP, DMD. TDN, DE. and ME. but lower levels of CF, NDF. ADF, and TAE as compared with other oak browse. Differences among seasons and years in the concentration of CP. NDF, and organic matter digestibility(0MD) were significantly appeared in all oak browse(P<0.05). The order of preference ratings of oak browse were Quercus aliena ) Quercus acutissima ) Quercus serrata ) Quercus mongollca ) Quercus variabilies ) Quercus dentata. As the results of this study, it could be considered that Quercus aliena and Quercus acutisslma were more valuable browse source than others.

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METHODS TO IMPROVE UTILIZATION OF RICE STRAW III. EFFECT OF UREA AMMONIA TREATMENT AND UREA MOLASSES BLOCKS SUPPLEMENTATION ON INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY, RUMEN AND BLOOD PARAMETERS

  • Badurdeen, A.L.;Ibrahim, M.N.M.;Ranawana, S.S.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.363-372
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    • 1994
  • In two separate experiments with crossbred bulls (Sahiwal $\times$ indigenous) the effect of access to a urea-molasses lickblock (MOL-U-MIN) on straw diets was studied. The animals were given either untreated (US) or urea treated (TS) rice straw with or without lickblock supplementation. In experiment 1, individual dry matter intake (DMI) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) were measured, while in experiment 2 in addition to the above rumen (pH, ammonia, minerals) and blood (protein, minerals and haemotological) parameters were also measured. With both experiments urea treatment did not effect DMI, but lickblock supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) increased DMI. The DMD values obtained in both experiments for TS were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than for US, but lickblock supplementation did not effect the DMD of either US or TS fed animals. Both urea treatment (6.97 vs 6.93) and lickblock supplementation (6.98 vs 6.92) significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the rumen pH. Urea treatment and lickblock supplementation increased the rumcn $NH_3-N$ concentration (mg/100 ml) from 8.7 to 11.9 and 9.2 to 11.4, respectively. Both US and TS diets fed with or without lickblock increased the molar ratio of Na : K in saliva. Phosphorus content in blood plasma was significantly (p < 0.01) increased due to lickblock supplementation, whereas the Fc content in blood was significantly increased (p < 0.01) by urea treatment. Haemoglobin content in blood ranged from 11.3 to 11.7 g/dl, and was not influenced by urea treatment or lickblock supplementation. Lickblock significantly reduced the number of red blood cells, but increased the mean corpuscular volume. It is concluded that feeding urea treated straw with proper mineral supplementation could be a more economical alternative to lickblock supplementation.

IN SITU RUMINAL DEGRADATION KINETICS OF FORAGES AND FEED BYPRODUCTS IN MALE NILI-RAVI BUFFALO CALVES

  • Sarwar, M.;Mahmood, S.;Abbas, W.;Ali, C.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.533-538
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    • 1996
  • The rate and extent of digestion of dietary carbohydrates has a tremendous impact on ruminal fermentation and the productivity of the animals. The objective of the study was to determine the dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradabilities and rate and extent of feed byproducts (cotton seed cake, wheat bran), legumes [berseem (Egyptian clover), lucern (Medicago sativa), cowpeas (Vigna sinensis)], grasses [maize (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare)] and wheat straw in ruminally fistulated male buffalo calves. By using nylon bags, 10 grams sample was exposed to the ruminal fermentation for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 16, 24, 36, 48 and 96 hours. Dry matter and NDF degradability was measured at 48 hours. Extent of DM and NDF disappearance was determined at each time point. Rates of disappearance of DM and NDF were determined by regressing the natural logarithm of the percentage of original DM and NDF remaining in the bags between 1 and 96 hours. The dry matter digestibility (DMD) of the feed byproducts (FBP) and legume forages when incubated in the rumen of male buffalo calves were greater (p < 0.05) than grasses. Extent of digestion followed similar pattern as DMD. Rate of DMD was higher in FBP than in legumes and was the lowest in the wheat straw. The NDF degradability (NDFD) of FBP, legumes and grasses did not differ, however, wheat straw had the lowest NDFD from all the feeds tested. The lowest NDFD of wheat straw may have been due to the depressing effect of lignin on fiber digestion. The FBP and legumes had higher (p < 0.05) rates and lower extents of NDF digestion than grasses.