• Title, Summary, Keyword: Diarrhea Score

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Protective effects of a transgenic carrot vaccine on piglet diarrhea (자돈 설사병에 대한 형질전환 당근백신의 방어 효능 평가)

  • Kim, Yeong-Hun;Nam, Jin-Young;Lee, Hyang-Keun;Hwang, Cheol-Ho;Han, Jeong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2011
  • The study evaluated whether a transgenic carrot vaccine could induce a K88-specific immune response in sows and whether the resultant maternal antibody could protect piglets against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88ac infection. Sows (n = 15) selected randomly from a farm in Korea were assigned to three groups (n = 5 per group: control [untreated]), group A (orally inoculated with a nontransgenic and transgenic carrot vaccines at 2 and 4 weeks ante partum, respectively), and group B (conventionally vaccinated according to the manufacturer's instructions). After 7 days of lactation, 5 piglets selected randomly from each group were challenged with $1{\times}10^{10}$ colony forming units/mL ETEC K88ac. Group C had the lowest mean fecal consistency score on post-challenge days 1 and 7. Histiologically, On post-challenge day 7, group C showed an increased duodenum and ileum villus:crypt ratio, compared to group A in the duodenum, with group B displaying the highest ratio. Groups B and C had more increased villus width than group A in the jejunum. Group C displayed the greatest increase in villus width in the ileum. The colostrums and serum from groups B and C displayed higher concentrations of IgA and IgG against ETEC K88, compared to group A. Based on the results, it was concluded that the transgenic carrot vaccine in sow per oral may have an effect on preventing piglet diarrhea as good as commercial recombinant vaccine.

Anticoccidial Effect of Herb Extracts against Eimeria tenella (약초 추출액의 닭콕시듐 Eimeria tenella 대한 항콕시듐 효과)

  • Kim Byeung-gie
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.911-916
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    • 1995
  • Ionophorous antibiotics have been used popularly for the protection of avian coccidiosis, though Halo-fuginone which is derived from an extract of the Dichroa febrifuga, was developed as an antimalarial and anticoccidial agent. The antibiotics are regarded as the causes of residues in the avian products, therefore the author has tried to find out more safe herbal materials for the control of avian coccidiosis. Thus, the extracts of 5 kinds of herbs, roots of Pulsatilla koreana Nakai and Sophora flavescens Aiton, nuts of Quisqualis indica Linne, whole herbs of Artemisia annua Linne and Polygonum aviculare Linne, were investigated on the efficacy against E tenella. Survival rates, bloody diarrhea, lesion scores, body-weight gains and feed conversion rate were investigated at the 1st and the 2nd week after infection. The bloody diarrhea in the groups treated with P koreana, A annua, Q indica and P aviculare were milder than those in the groups treated with S flavescens and infected control. The lesion score in the groups treat.4 with herb extracts(2.00$\pm$0.82~2.65$\pm$0.89) were lower than those in the control group (2.80$\pm$0.7l). But, there was not significant in all infected groups. The body weight gai in the groups treated with P koreana, S flavescens, A annua and Q indica(291.74$\pm$15.76~303.43$\pm$51.90) were higher than that in the control group (283.71$\pm$16.53) but there was not significant. In a conclusion, analyzing the data of the survival rates, bloody diarrheal symptoms, lesion scores, body weight gains and oocyst excretions, the extract of S flavescens, P koreana, A annua and Q indica were effective. The further research on the above herbal materials will have been carried out by the author and the other researchers by means of the chemical analysis of the components.

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Quality of Life in Malaysian Colorectal Cancer Patients : A Preliminary Result

  • Natrah, M.S.;Ezat, Sharifa W.P.;Syed, M.A.;Rizal, A.M. Mohd;Saperi, S.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.957-962
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    • 2012
  • Objective: Rapidly increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in Malaysia and the introduction of cutting edge new treatments, which prolong survival, mean that treatment outcome measures meed to be evaluated, including consideration of patient's quality of life (QoL) assessment. There are limited data on QoL in CRC patients, especially in Malaysia. Therefore, this study was performed focusing on cancer stages and age groups. Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted from June to September 2011 at three public tertiary hospitals with the EORTC QLQ C-30 questionnaire in addition to face to face interview and review of medical records of 100 respondents. Results: The mean age was 57.3 (SD 11.9) years with 56.0% are males and 44.0% females, 62% of Malay ethnicity, 30% Chinese, 7% Indian and 1% Sikh. Majority were educated up to secondary level (42%) and 90% respondents had CRC stages III and IV. Mean global health status (GHS) score was 79.1 (SD 21.4). Mean scores for functional status (physical, emotional, role, cognitive, social) rangeds between 79.5 (SD 26.6) to 92.2 (SD 13.7). Mean symptom scores (fatigue, pain, nausea/vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, insomnia, dyspnoea, loss of appetite) ranged between 4.00 (SD 8.58) to 20.7 (SD 30.6). Respondents role function significantly deteriorates with increasing stage of the disease (p=0.044). Females had worse symptoms of pain (p=0.022), fatigue (p=0.031) and dyspnoea (p=0.031). Mean insomnia (p=0.006) and diarrhea (p=0.024) demonstrated significant differences between age groups. Conclusion: QOL in CRC patients in this study was comparable to that in other studies done in developed countries. Pain, fatigue and dyspnoea are worse among female CRC patients. Given that functions deteriorates with advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis, a systematic screening programme to detect cases as early as possible is essential nationwide.

Evaluation of Extruded Rice Product as Alternative to Lactose on Growth Performance, Diarrhea Score, Fecal E.coli and VFA in Weaning Pigs (유당 대체제로서 쌀 가공품의 수준별 첨가가 이유자돈의 성장 능력, 설사빈도 및 분내 대장균과 휘발성 지방산에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kwang-Ho;Choi, Young-Hwan;Long, Hong-Feng;Ju, Won-Seok;Son, Seong-Hoon;Oh, Hee-Kyung;Kim, Yoo-Yong
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.819-830
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    • 2008
  • The object of this study was to investigate different levels of extruded rice product(Nutri-RS®) supplementation as an alternative to lactose on growth performance, diarrhea score, fecal E.coli and volatile fatty acid(VFA) in weaning pigs. Treatments were 1) Control(basal), L3(basal+3% extruded rice product), L6(basal+6% extruded rice product). The control diet in Phase I and Phase II contained 16 and 9% of lactose, respectively. For the feeding trial, a total of 81 crossbred pigs, averaging 7.56±1.18 kg body weight, were allotted to three treatments in three replicates with nine pigs per pen by RCBD. The experimental period was total 5 weeks. During the whole experimental period, there were no significant differences in growth performance, diarrhea score, fecal volatile fatty acid concentration among all treatments. Although there were no significant differences, pigs fed diet of L6 tended to show higher BW and ADG, ADFI, and fecal volatile fatty acid concentration compared to other treatments. Treatment L6 showed the lowest fecal E. coli count among all treatments(P<0.05). These results suggested that inclusion of extruded rice product has similar performance a with 6% of lactose in diet for weaning pigs and reduce approximately 9% production cost of weaning pig's diet. Therefore, extruded rice product could be utilized as an alternative feed ingredient to lactose in weaning pig’s diet.

Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs

  • Cho, J.H.;Zhang, S.;Kim, In-Ho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.11
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    • pp.1595-1604
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    • 2012
  • Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = $7.5{\pm}0.24$ kg, average age = $27{\pm}1$ d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg laquer tree extract. From wk 0 to 5, the JH, HCT and LE groups presented higher (p<0.05) ADFI, ADG and gain/feed ratio (G/F) than CON and DP groups. During wk 5 to 10, Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets indicated higher (p<0.05) ADG and ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. During the entire experimental period, a significant increase of ADG appeared in JH, HCT and LE (p<0.05). Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets got a higher (p<0.05) ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. Pigs fed diets with supplementations of herb additives revealled lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhea pigs during d 2 to d 6 compared with pigs fed CON diet. In Exp 2, 60 growing-finishing barrows and gilts (average BW = $54.10{\pm}1.20$ kg, average age = $54{\pm}3$ d) were allotted to three treatments: i) CON, basal diet; ii) YG, basal diet+1 g/kg yellow ginger and iii) HR, basal dietary+1 g/kg hoantchy root, respectively. From wk 0 to 5, Dietary supplementation of YG and HR enhanced (p<0.05) ADG. No difference was found between YG and HR treatments. During, wk 5 to 10, ADG also was observed higher in YG and HR treatments than CON group (p<0.05). Additional, YG had the highest ADG (p<0.05) among treatments. There was always an increase of ADG in YG and HR (p<0.05) through all periods. HR treatment showed a lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhoeal pigs on d 1and d 2 compared with CON treatment. Pigs fed YG and HR diets had a higher (p<0.05) longissimus muscle area (LMA) than pigs fed CON diet. In conclusion, anti-diarrhoeal herbs can improve growth performance, and prevent diarrhea incidence in pigs, it can also increase LMA in finishing pigs.

Development of Transgenic Carrot Oral Vaccine to Protect against Diarrhea of Piglets (자돈 설사병 방지를 위한 경구백신용 형질전환 당근 개발)

  • 이영선;황철호
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.287-293
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    • 2002
  • We are trying to develop a transgenic carrot with aims of production and delivery of oral vaccine against microbial enteropathogen using a K88ac pilin gene. A K88ac antigen (pilin) gene was isolated by PCR from the K88ac genomic DNA. The pilin gene was constructed in pGA748 and introduced via Agrobacterium tumefaciens to the explants of carrot hypocotyl and then 494 transgenic lines were established. The amounts of the K88ac antigen produced in each of the cell lines were determined by western and two elite cell lines (M1-17, Y14-1) were selected based on higher levels of expression of the antigens as well as rate of cell growth and efficiency of embryogenesis. In order to test an immunization induced by oral administration of the transgenic carrot, serum of the mice fed with the carrot vaccine were tested in ELISA. It tumed out that the mice fed with 3 g of transgenic carrot showed a similar level of antibody compared to those applied with 10 $\mu\textrm{g}$ of the purified recombinant pilin protein. Besides, various clinical responses were measured after challenging with ETEC K88ac strain to the piglets experiencing an oral immunization with the transgenic carrot. The piglets fed with carrot vaccine showed a lower level of diarrhea in fecal score compared to those fed with non-transgenic carrot. A higher level of increase in weight of the piglets fed with the transgenic carrot vaccine was observed comparing to those fed with non-transgenic carrot as control.

Comparing the Cause and Symptom Severity of Children with Acute Gastroenteritis (급성위장관염 소아에서 원인체의 분석과 임상증상의 중증도에 대한 연구)

  • Ahn, Seung Hee;Lim, Hyun Chul;Kim, Hwang Min;Uh, Young;Seok, Won Seok
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.138-145
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Acute gastroenteritis is a frequent childhood disease. The purpose of this study is to determine if certain pathogens are related to more severe clinical disease in children with acute gastroenteritis. Methods : Two hundred seventy one stool samples were obtained from pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis that was associated with virus, bacteria and protozoa infection between January 2006 and December 2006. The clinical severity was assessed by using the 24 point scale Clark score. We evaluate the Clark score according to the pathogens. Results : One hundred thirty seven children were noted to have virus, bacteria or protozoal infection. Rotavirus was the most common pathogen found in the children with gastroenteritis (20.6%). Other frequent pathogens were norovirus (10.7%) and E. coli (12.9%). Vomiting (P=0.049) and diarrhea (P=0.003) symptoms were more frequent in the rotavirus group than that in the rotavirus negative group. There were no statistical differences in the Clark score between the virus positive group and the virus negative group. Conclusion : We concluded that rotavirus was the most common pathogen in children with gastroenteritis, yet the clinical severity was not dependent on the presence of viral or bacterial pathogens.

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Evaluation of Probiotics as an Alternative to Antibiotic on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Occurrence of Diarrhea and Immune Response in Weaning Pigs (항생제 대체제로서 생균제가 이유자돈의 성장능력 및 영양소 이용률, 설사 빈도, 면역 반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Young-Dal;Oh, Hee-Kyung;Piao, Long-Guo;Choi, Hyun-Bong;Yun, Jin-Hyeon;Kim, Yoo-Yong
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotics supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, occurrence of diarrhea and immune response in weaning pigs. Treatments were 1) NC (basal diet), 2) PC (basal diet + 0.12% avilamycin) and 3) A (basal diet + 0.2% Aspergillus oryzae), 4) B (basal diet + 0.2% Lactobacillus casei), 5) C (basal diet + 0.2% Bacillus subtilis), 6) D (basal diet + 0.2% Lactobacillus crispatus). A total of 120 pigs ($7.16\pm0.01$ kg average body weight, weaned at $23\pm3$days of age) were assigned to 6 treatments, 5 replicates and 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. During the whole experimental period, body weight (P<0.01), average daily gain (ADG; P<0.01), and average daily feed intake (ADFI; P<0.05) of treatment PC were higher than other treatments. However, the probiotics treatments tended to increase ADG and G:F ratio compared to treatment NC. The G:F ratio in treatment A (Aspergillus oryzae) was similar to treatment PC during the whole experimental period (P<0.05). The supplementation of probiotics in the diet of weaning pig did not change nutrient digestibility (dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and ash) and nitrogen retention of weaning pigs. In blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, treatment B had lower value than other treatments at 2 and 4 weeks (P<0.05). Treatments PC and C tended to decrease diarrhea score than other treatments (P=0.18). At 3h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, treatments NC and PC had higher count of $CD^{4+}$ T-cells than probiotics treatments, and treatment C showed the lowest value (P<0.01). There were no differences on count of $CD^{8+}$ T-cells and $CD^{4+}:CD^{8+}$ ratio among all treatments (P>0.10). These results suggest that the dietary probiotics are likely able to improve the growth performance, occurrence of diarrhea and immune response although they do not have similar effects like antibiotics in weaning pigs.

Field evaluation of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-specific bacteriophage (ΦCJ19) as a feed additive (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli 특이 박테리오파지 (ΦCJ19)의 사료 첨가제로서의 사양 평가)

  • Yoo, Anna;Cha, Seung Bin;Shin, Min Kyoung;Park, Hong Tae;Seo, Hyo Sil;Kim, Jae Won;Yoo, Han Sang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2013
  • Field efficacy of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-specific phage (${\Phi}CJ19$) as a feed additive was evaluated in weaning piglets. Fifty-four piglets at 3-4 weeks old were allocated in three different groups and two of them were fed with bacteriophage at different concentrations ($10^6PFU/kg$ feed and $10^8PFU/kg$ feed, respectively) for 30 days. Body weight and feed intake were measured at 10 days interval and body condition and fecal score were inspected every day. Based on the measurement, feed conversion rate (FCR) and average daily gain (ADG) of each group during 30 days were analyzed. The analysis suggests that the bacteriophage may help the improvement of FCR and ADG at $10^8PFU/kg$ of bacteriophage feeding group in 30 days. A result from analysis of fecal score indicates that the bacteriophage also may help to relieve the intermittent diarrhea in post-weaning stage. Those results suggest that bacteriophage might help the growth of piglets in post-weaning stage.

Effects of Curcuma long gum preparation on the Blood Alcohol Level and Hangover (울금 검 제제가 알코올의 혈중농도와 숙취에 미치는 영향)

  • Chu, Li-Ying;Nam, Yun-Sung;Cho, Sung-In;Yim, Sung-Hyuk;Chung, Zoo-Chul;Bang, Joon-Seok;Sohn, Uy-Dong;Kim, Jin-Man;Kim, Min-Soo;Koo, Kyo-Hwan;Jeong, Ji-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2010
  • We conducted a single blind, randomized and crossover clinical trial in order to test the effect of curcuma longa herbal mixture on blood alcohol level and alcohol hangover in 19 healthy volunteers. The herbal mixture did not show a statistical significance in $C_{max}$, $T_{max}$ and AUC in alcohol disposition. The herbal mixture did not also ameliorate blood laboratory result after alcohol consumption. In contrast, the herbal mixture is shown effective on alcohol hangover. In behavior tests, the fewer subjects in the herbal mixture group were impaired with alcohol than in reference group. Moreover, the symptom severity score in the herbal mixture was lower than that in reference group. The symptom severity score was statistically especially in stomach pain, diarrhea, concentration disorder, memory and bad breath at drinking day and one day after drinking. These results indicate that the general symptoms seemed to be recovered as time goes on. From these results, it was suggested that the herbal mixture have a beneficial effect on modulating alcohol hangover.