• Title, Summary, Keyword: Diarrhea Score

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What is the 'objective' differential factor of diarrhea in infancy?: Normal state versus diarrheal illness in infants with chronic frequent and loose stool

  • Hwang, Jin-Bok;Kang, Kyung-Ji;Lee, Jung-Jeung;Kim, Ae-Suk
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.12
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    • pp.1006-1011
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study aimed to identify 'objective' differential factors for normal frequent loose stool (NFLS) and diarrheal illness with dehydration and nutritional deficiency (DIDN) among infants with chronic frequent loose stool (CFLS). Methods: Data were analyzed from infants under 2 years of age with CFLS who had been transferred from general pediatricians. These 46 patients were divided into 2 groups (NFLS versus DIDN). Nocturnal stool was defined as evacuation between 10 pm and 6 am. Maximal stool amount/day (measured using the mother's hand) was specified as the highest score during the period of CFLS obtained by adding up each evacuation's score (range, 0-2 points). Results: There were 36 cases of NFLS and 10 of DIDN. A failure to gain weight ($P$=0.0001), fever ($P$=0.0079), colic/abdominal pain ($P$=0.0014), gross blood in stool (except allergic proctocolitis) ($P$=0.0113), nocturnal stool ($P$=0.0001), and the score of stool amount ($P$=0.0001) were found to significantly differentiate the groups. A failure to gain weight was observed in 39% of even NFLS. The frequency, mucus content, and microbiological findings of stools, as well as diaper dermatitis were not found to significantly differentiate the groups. Conclusion: NFLS was more common than DIDN in infants with CFLS. The most 'objective' differential factors were nocturnal stool and the score of stool amount (${\geq}7$ points/day).

Effects of microencapsulated organic acids on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial counts, and blood profiles in weaning pigs

  • Lee, Jun Soeng;Kim, Tae Heon;Song, Min Ho;Oh, Han Jin;Yun, Won;Lee, Ji Hwan;Kim, Yong Ju;Lee, Byong Kon;Kim, Hyeun Bum;Cho, Jin Ho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.63 no.1
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    • pp.104-113
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    • 2021
  • This study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of a microencapsulated mixture of organic acids (MOA) with low protein in piglet feed on growth performance, diarrhea score, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial counts, and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 80 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; 6.8 ± 0.48 kg] were randomly assigned to four dietary treatment groups: high protein (HP); low protein (LP); MOA1, LP + 0.2% MOA; and MOA2, LP + 0.3% MOA. The MOA2 group had higher average daily weight gains (during days 0-14 and days 0-28), diarrhea score (during days 0-14, during days 14-28 and days 0-28) and greater digestibility of dry matter (days 14 and 28) compared to the LP group (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the pigs fed diets with the MOA1 and MOA2 in blood profiles and fecal microflora. In conclusion, this study indicates that piglets fed 0.3% MOA in low protein diets maintained similar growth performance and nutrient digestibility, but alleviated the incidence of diarrhea compared to piglets fed high protein diets.

Clinical Spectrum of Norovirus Gastroenteritis Compared to Rotavirus Gastroenteritis at a Single Center in Gwangju, Korea during 2005-2006 (2005-2006년 광주 지역에서 소아 Norovirus 장염의 임상적 고찰; Rotavirus 장염과 비교)

  • Lee, Yang Jin;Jeong, Seong Nam;Yoo, Ju Hee;Cho, Hyoung Min;Yoo, Eun Jung;Kim, Eun Young;Kim, Yong Wook;Kim, Kyoung Sim;Kim, Sun Hee
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.61-72
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : We evaluated the clinical features of Norovirus gastroenteritis compared with Rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children. Methods : We detected causative agents in 3,261 samples of children hospitalized with gastroenteritis symptoms at a single center of pediatrics between 2005 and 2006. Among 266 and 303 samples which tested positive for Norovirus and Rotavirus, we selected 73 and 182 samples of children with relatively pure gastroenteritis symptoms and retrospectively analyzed the corresponding medical records. Results : The male-to-female ratio of the Norovirus (+) and Rotavirus (+) groupswas 1.43:1 and 1.56:1 both groups were predominantly in males. The mean age of the Norovirus (+) and Rotavirus (+) groups was 36.7 and 24.4 months, respectively the children in the former group were older than the children in the latter group. The incidence in the Norovirus (+) group was more concentrated in the winter. The symptoms in the Norovirus (+), in decreasing order, included vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. The duration of vomiting, diarrhea, and fever was 2.1, 1.2, and 1.2 days. The maximum number of episodes of vomiting and diarrhea per day was 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. The severity score was 10.16. The symptoms inthe Rotavirus (+) group, in decreasing order, included diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. The duration of diarrhea, vomiting, and fever was 2.2, 4.3, and 2.2 days, respectively. The maximum number of episodes of vomiting and diarrhea per day was 3.3 and 6.5, respectively. The severity score was 11.9. The severity in the Norovirus (+) group was somewhat lower than the Rotavirus (+) group. The younger the child, the more severe the symptoms in the Norovirus (+) group. There was no difference between mono-and co-infection in severity and between the two groups regarding the hematologic findings. Conclusion : Based on the findings reported herein, additional studies about prophylaxis, as well as the epidemiology and clinical features of pediatric Norovirus gastroenteritis, are required.

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Sasang Constitutional Treatment in a Taeeumin Patient with Irritable Bowel Syndrome(IBS) accompanied by Allergic Reaction to Antibiotics : A case study (항생제 과민반응으로 인한 태음인 과민성대장증후군 환자 치험례)

  • Han, Suzy;Yu, Jun-Sang
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.50-57
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    • 2020
  • Objectives Allergic reaction to antibiotics is associated with increased use. And rate of Irritable Bowel Syndrome(IBS) is on the increase associated with stress, depression, anxiety, or previous intestinal problem. This case study reports significant improvement of patients with diarrhea accompanied by IBS who had suffered from allergic reaction to antibiotics after treatment with Sasang constitutional medicine. Methods This patient was diagnosed as Taeeumin type. Sasang constitutional medicine was taken by the patient, almost three times per day during treatment periods. We measured the degree of the main symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, insomnia, itching etc, using Visual Analogue Scale(VAS). Results The symptoms of diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, and insomnia were improved. VAS score was decreased from 4~5 to 0~1 for about two weeks. Conclusions This case shows that Sasang constitutional medicine treatment can contribute to improve main symptoms accompanied by IBS.

The Effect of Oriental Medical Treatment on Crohn's disease; 1 Case Report (항통을 주소로 내원(來院)한 크론병(Chron's disease) 호전 1례)

  • Park, Jong-Min;Kim, Ho-Jun;Keum, Dong-Ho;Park, Young-Hoi;Lee, Myeong-Jong
    • The Journal of Korea CHUNA Manual Medicine for Spine and Nerves
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.57-66
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    • 2010
  • Objective: This study evaluated the effects of Oriental treatments on one patient who was diagnosed to Crohn's disease. Methods: One patient was diagnosed as Crohn's disease by physician. We used acupuncture and moxibustion at 曲池(LI11), 天樞(S25), 足三里(ST36), 合谷(LI4) and (GL25), 2 times per week about one month. We analyzed the change symptom by Crohn's disease activity index(Harvey-Bradshaw index) before and after treatment. Results: After treating acupuncture and moxibustion in the case, We found out that the Crohn's disease activity index score was significantly improved after treatment. First the number of liquid or very soft stool was decreased to 2 times a day and the stools became more solid condition. The abdominal pain and use of anti-diarrhea medication score came to none. The well being score set slightly below poor condition. Conclusions: These result suggest acupuncture, moxibustion were effective to Crohn's disease clinical symptom. These could help patient ordinary life by reducing abdominal pain and diarrhea.

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Effect of supplementation oreganum aetheroleum essential oil on growth performance in sows and growth performance, fecal score in weanling pigs

  • Park, Jae Won;Yun, Hyeok Min;Park, Jae Hong;Lee, Il Seok;Kim, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.794-801
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation Oreganum aetheroleum essential oil on reproductive performance in sows and growth performance of their offspring of weaning pig. 12 sows ($Landrace{\times}Yorkshire$) were randomly assigned within parities to 1 of 3 dietary treatments to give 4 replicates per treatment. Dietary treatments were as follows: 1) CON (basal diet) 2) ANT (basal diet + Efrotomycin 0.08%) and 3) ORE (basal diet + Oreganum aetheroleum essential oil 0.05%), EXP. 1, diets were fed from d 107 of gestation to weanling. EXP. 2, diets were fed from after weaning to 3 weeks. In the Exp.1, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in sow's average parity, sow backfat thickness, the number of piglets, feed intake of sows, the average of piglet weight, and piglet survival ratio between CON, ANT, and ORE treatments. Besides, in the Exp. 2, the inclusion of efrotomycin and Oreganum aetheroleum essential oil in the diets significantly (p < 0.05) increased final body weight, ADG, ADFI, and G/F in weanling pigs. In addition, weanling pigs fed ANT and ORE diets led to decrease the number of weanling pigs with diarrhea as well as fecal score. In conclusion, supplementation of efrotomycin and Oreganum aetheroleum essential oil enhanced growth performance, and decreased the number of weanling pigs with diarrhea and fecal score. However, no significant effect on grow performance was observed in sow and piglet.

Effects of Extruded and Extruded-Pelleted Corn Products Partially Substituted for Unprocessed Corn of the Starter Diet on Growth Performance and Incidence of Diarrhea in Weanling Pigs

  • Park, Byung-Chul;Han, Jeong-Cheol;Ko, Young-Hyun;Ha, Duck-Min;Kim, Doo-Hwan;Jang, Insurk;Lee, C. Young
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.109-113
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    • 2013
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of partial substitution of an extruded or extruded-pelleted corn product for unprocessed corn of the starter diet on growth performance and incidence of diarrhea in weanling pigs. Seventy-two 21-day-old weanling pigs were allotted to 24 pens and provided ad libitum with one of the four experimental diets for 3 wk in two serial feeding trials during summer beginning from late June. The treatments were a milk product-soy-corn-based control diet containing 25% unprocessed corn and the other three diets only substituted with 12.5% extruded corn Suprex$^{(R)}$, Optigrain$^{(R)}$, an extruded mixture of wheat, rye and durum, or extruded-pelleted corn for an equal percentage of unprocessed corn of the control diet. All diets were supplemented with 100 ppm sulfathiazone, 50 ppm penicillin, and 100 ppm chlortetracycline for preventive medication. The initial and final weights as well as gain : feed were less in the second trial than in the first one (P<0.05). However, effects of the dietary treatments were not detected in any of the performance variables including final weight, ADG, ADFI, and gain : feed, nor were there any interactions between the trial and dietary treatment. In addition, almost all pigs exhibited normal firm feces in both trials and therefore there was no main effect in the fecal consistency score. Results suggest that partial substitution of the thermally processed corn for unprocessed corn of the milk product-corn-soy-based and medicated starter diet has no effect on growth performance or incidence of diarrhea in weanling pigs.

Effects of dietary supplementation of a lipid-coated zinc oxide product on the fecal consistency, growth, and morphology of the intestinal mucosa of weanling pigs

  • Byun, Young-Jin;Lee, Chul Young;Kim, Myeong Hyeon;Jung, Dae Yun;Han, Jeong Hee;Jang, Insurk;Song, Young Min;Park, Byung-Chul
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.60 no.1
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    • pp.29.1-29.6
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    • 2018
  • Background: Dietary supplementation of zinc oxide (ZnO) to 2000 to 4000 mg/kg is known to be effective for the prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhea in the pig. Such a 'pharmacological' supplementation, however, can potentially result in environmental pollution of the heavy metal, because dietary ZnO is mostly excreted unabsorbed. Two experiments (Exp.) were performed in the present study to determine the effects of a lipid-coated ZnO supplement Shield Zn (SZ) compared with those of ZnO. Methods: In Exp. 1, a total of 240 21-day-old weanling pigs were fed a diet supplemented with 100 mg Zn/kg as ZnO (ZnO-100), ZnO-2500, SZ-100, or SZ-200 in 24 pens for 14 days on a farm with its post-weaning pigs exhibiting a low incidence of diarrhea. Exp. 2 was performed using 192 24-day-old piglets as in Exp. 1 on a different farm, which exhibited a high incidence of diarrhea. Results: In Exp. 1, fecal consistency (diarrhea) score (FCS) was less for the ZnO-2500 and SZ-200 groups than for the SZ-100 group (P < 0.05), with no difference between the SZ-100 and ZnO-100 groups. Both average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed ratio were less for the SZ-200 group than for the ZnO-2500 group, with no difference between the ZnO-100 group and SZ-100 or SZ-200 group. The villus height (VH), crypt depth (CD), and VH:CD ratio of the intestinal mucosa were not influenced by the treatment. In Exp. 2, FCS was lowest for the ZnO-2500 group, with no difference among the other groups. However, neither the ADG nor gain:feed ratio was influenced by the treatment. Conclusion: Results suggest that physiological SZ supplementation has less beneficial effects than pharmacological ZnO for the alleviation of diarrhea irrespective of its severity and for promoting growth without influencing their integrity of the intestinal mucosal structures with little advantage over physiological ZnO in weanling pigs with a small pen size.

Effect of dietary supplementation of fermented Rhus verniciflua on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility, blood profile, and fecal microflora in weanling pigs

  • Balasubramanian, Balamuralikrishnan;Lee, Sang In;Shanmugam, Sureshkumar;Kathannan, Sankar;Lee, Il Seok;Kim, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.67-76
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    • 2017
  • Fermented Rhus verniciflua (FRV) as feed additives act as excellent anti-diarrheal drugs as they increase the intestinal absorption rate therefore being indirectly associated with enhancing growth performance and increasing digestibility in livestock. A total of 80 weaned pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of $6.82{\pm}1.11kg$ were used to evaluate a diet supplemented with FRV meal in a 6 week feeding trial with two dietary treatments [CON - basal diet; TRT - CON + 0.2% FRV] on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), blood profiles, fecal microflora, and fecal score. Our results showed that the dietary supplementation of FRV improved (p < 0.05) average daily gain and gain : feed (G : F) ratio during days 15 - 42 and the overall experiment period and also increased the ATTD of dry matter (p < 0.05) at days 14 and 42. On the contrary, there was no effect (p > 0.05) on average daily feed intake, ATTD of nitrogen and energy, and blood profiles during the entire experiment. Moreover, dietary inclusion of FRV significantly increased fecal Lactobacillus (p < 0.05) counts and reduced the diarrhea during days 22 - 42. Thus, the results suggest that FRV can be used as a potential additive to improve growth performance and dry matter and to reduce diarrhea while having beneficial effects on fecal microflora in weanling pigs.

Different Clinical Features and Lower Scores in Clinical Scoring Systems for Appendicitis in Preschool Children: Comparison with School Age Onset

  • Song, Chun Woo;Kang, Joon Won;Kim, Jae Young
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To clarify the clinical features of appendicitis in preschool children and to explore clinical appendicitis scoring systems in this age group. Methods: We retrospectively collected data on 142 children, aged 10 years or younger, with confirmed diagnosis of appendicitis based on surgical and pathologic findings. Enrolled subjects were divided into two groups: Group 1 (preschool children aged ${\leq}5$ years, n=41) and Group 2 (school children aged >5 to ${\leq}10$ years, n=101). Data analyzed included clinical presentation, laboratory findings, the pediatric appendicitis score (PAS), and the modified Alvarado score (MAS). Results: The most common presenting symptom was abdominal pain in both groups (92.7% vs. 97.0%). Other presenting symptoms were as follows: fever (65.9%), vomiting (68.3%), right lower quadrant (RLQ) localization (24.4%), anorexia (14.6%), and diarrhea (7.3%) in Group 1, and RLQ localization (74.3%), vomiting (71.3%), anorexia (52.5%), fever (47.5%), and diarrhea (11.9%) in Group 2. Perforation and abscess occurred more frequently in Group 1 than in Group 2 (43.9% vs. 12.9%, p<0.001; 34.1% vs. 5.0%, p<0.001; respectively). PAS and MAS were lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 ($4.09{\pm}1.97$ vs. $6.91{\pm}1.61$, p=0.048; $4.65{\pm}1.79$ vs. $6.51{\pm}1.39$, p=0.012; respectively). Conclusion: In preschool children, appendicitis often presents with atypical features, more rapid progression, and higher incidence of complications. This age group is more likely to have lower PAS and MAS than those of school children.