• Title, Summary, Keyword: Diabetes

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Overexpression and Activity Analysis of Cystathionine γ-Lyase Responsible for the Biogenesis of H2S Neurotransmitter (새로운 신경전달물질 H2S 발생 효소, cystathionine γ-lyase의 대량발현 조건과 활성측정)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Ran;Byun, Hae-Jung;Cho, Hyun-Nam;Kim, Jung-Hyun;Yang, Seun-Ah;Jhee, Kwang-Hwan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 2011
  • There is a growing recognition of the significance of $H_2S$ as a biological signaling molecule involved in vascular and nervous system functions. In mammals, two enzymes in the transsulfuration pathway, cystathionine ${\beta}$-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine ${\gamma}$-lyase (CGL), are believed to be chiefly responsible for $H_2S$ biogenesis. Genetic inborn error of CGL leads to human genetic disease, cystathioninuria, by accumulating cystathionine in the body. This disease is secondarily associated with a wide range of diseases including diabetes insipidus and Down's syndrome. Although the human CGL (hCGL) overexpression is essential for the investigation of its function, structure, reaction specificity, substrate specificity, and protein-protein interactions, there is no clear report concerning optimum overexpression conditions. In this study, we report a detailed analysis of the overexpression conditions of the hCGL using a bacterial system. Maximum overexpression was obtained in conditions of low culture temperature after inducer addition, performing low aeration during overexpression, and using a low concentration inducer (0.1 mM, IPTG) for induction. Expressed hCGL was purified by His-tag affinity column chromatography and confirmed by Western blot using hCGL antibody and enzyme activity analysis. We also report that the His tag with TEV site attached protein exhibits 76% activity for ${\alpha}-{\gamma}$ elimination reaction with L-cystathionine and 88% for ${\alpha}-{\beta}$ elimination reaction with L-cysteine compared to those of wild type hCGL, respectively. His tag with TEV site attached protein also exhibits a 420 nm absorption maximum, which is attributed to the binding cofactor, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP).

Sargassum sp. Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Suppresses Lipid Accumulation in vitro (모자반추출물의 항산화활성 및 지방세포 생성억제 효과)

  • Kim, Jung-Ae;Karadeniz, Fatih;Ahn, Byul-Nim;Kwon, Myeong Sook;Mun, Ok-Ju;Kim, Mihyang;Lee, Sang-Hyeon;Yu, Ki Hwan;Kim, Yuck Yong;Kong, Chang-Suk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.274-283
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    • 2014
  • Oxidative stress causes tissue damage and facilitates the progression of metabolic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular heart diseases, and obesity. Lipid accumulation and obesity-related complications have been observed in the presence of extensive oxidative stress. As part of an ongoing study to develop therapeutic supplements, Sargassum sp. were tested for their ability to scavenge free radicals and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as to suppress lipid accumulation. Three species, S. hemiphyllum, S. thunbergii, and Sargassum horneri, were shown to scavenge free radicals in a di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH) assay. In addition, Sargassum sp. was shown to scavenge intracellular ROS and to decrease nitric oxide (NO) production in $H_2O_2$ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages, respectively. Taken together, the results suggest that Sargassum sp. possess huge potential to relieve oxidative stress and related complications, as well as lipid-induced oxidation. They indicate that S. hemiphyllum, S. thunbergii, and S. horneri are potent functional supplements that can produce beneficial health effects through antioxidant and antiobesity activities, with S. hemiphyllum being the most potent among the Sargassum sp. tested. A potential mechanism for the effect of Sargassum sp. on the suppression of lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocytes through deactivation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ (PPAR ${\gamma}$) is presented.

The Effect of Extract Powder from Fresh and Black Garlic on Main Components in Serum and Organs of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (생마늘 및 흑마늘 추출분말이 Streptozotocin 유발 당뇨 흰쥐의 혈청 및 장기 내 주요성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Min-Jung;Lee, Soo Jung;Sung, Nak Ju;Shin, Jung-Hye
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.432-442
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we examined the biological activity and synergistic effects of an extract powder of 1% and 3%, each fresh (FGP) and black garlic (BGP) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose content was significantly lower in FGP and BGP groups than control group. Glycosylated Hb was significantly higher in streptozotocin induced diabetic control group than normal group, but significantly lower in FGP and BGP groups. Total cholesterol content of the FGP and BGP groups were lower than control group, but not shown the significant difference between garlic fed groups. HDL-cholesterol concentrations of the FGP and BGP fed groups were significantly higher than control group, except of 1% BGP group. LDL and VLDL-cholesterol contents were significantly lower in 3% FGP group, and the same tendency atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor. GOT, GPT, and ${\gamma}$-GTP activity of serum were lower in FGP and BGP fed groups than control group. Glycogen contents in liver significantly higher than control group, and has not significantly difference between normal group. TBARS content was no significantly difference in the liver and serum, but in the kidney, 3% FPG and BGP fed groups were significantly lower than other experimental group. DPPH radical scavenging activity of liver has not significant difference among experimental groups, but activity was higher garlic extract powder fed groups in serum and kidney. These results indicate that dietary supplements of fresh and black garlic extract powder was contributed to lower of blood glucose, loss prevention of glycogen in liver and improve of lipid metabolism.

Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Nuclear Factor-${\kappa}B$ Activation and Tumor Necrosis Factor-${\alpha}$ Production in RAW 264.7 Cells Exposed to High Concentration of Glucose (고농도의 당에 노출된 RAW 264.7 세포에서 conjugated linoleic acid의 TNF-${\alpha}$ 생산과 NF-${\kappa}B$의 활성 효과)

  • Lee, Minji;Kang, Byeong-Teck;Kang, Ji-Houn;Yang, Mhan-Pyo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.361-367
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    • 2012
  • Diabetes-related complications in human and veterinary medicine have been shown to be associated with hyperglycemia-induced inflammation. It has been recently suggested that the onset of insulin resistance may be caused by over-production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$ from immune cells. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) regulates inflammatory response through modulation of TNF-${\alpha}$ expression. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of CLA on nuclear factor kappaB (NF-${\kappa}B$) p65 binding activity, inhibitory kappaB ($I{\kappa}B$)-${\alpha}$ expression, and TNF-${\alpha}$ production from high glucose-treated RAW 264.7 cells. CLA was added to RAW cells that had been previously cultured with low or high concentration of glucose. The levels of TNF-${\alpha}$ protein in the culture supernatant of RAW cells exposed to high concentrations of glucose were higher than those of cells exposed to low concentrations of glucose. The treatment with the high concentration of glucose in RAW cells increased levels of NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 binding activity and the decreased $I{\kappa}B-{\alpha}$ expression when compared with those of low glucose. The treatments in combination with CLA and glucose (low and high) glucose in RAW cells increased TNF-${\alpha}$ production when compared with that glucose alone. These treatments with CLA increased TNF-${\alpha}$ production in high glucose-treated RAW cells than those with low glucose. These treatments of CLA also showed higher NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 binding activity and lower $I{\kappa}B-{\alpha}$ expression in high glucose than those in low glucose condition. This suggests that CLA can increase NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 binding activity and TNF-${\alpha}$ production from high glucose-treated RAW 264.7 cells and is likely to promote hyperglycemia-induced inflammation.

Prevalence and Management of Dyslipidemia Among Korean Adults: KNHANES 2010-2012 (한국 성인의 이상지질혈증 유병률과 관리: 국민건강영양조사 2010-2012)

  • Jang, Sungok;Lee, Jongseok
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.7978-7989
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    • 2015
  • Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardio-cerebrovascular disease. Although the prevalence among Korean adults is very high, its management is known to be poor. The aim of this study was to access the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates of dyslipidemia according to treatment guideline rather than diagnostic criteria. The risk factors for cardio-cerebrovascular disease were evaluated to apply the appropriate risk-based threshold of the lipid treatment targets according to risk category. Analysis was done using nationally representative data (n = 16,263) collected from adults aged 20 years and older participating the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANS) 2010-2012. The age-standardized prevalence rate of dyslipidemia according to treatment criteria was 34.1%. Of these prevalent cases, however, only 19.2% were aware; 9.5% treated; and 8.7% controlled. The age-standardized control rate among treated persons was 47.5%. Men had a significantly higher prevalence than women (39.7% vs. 28.8%), but a significantly lower rate of awareness, treatment, and control (16.0% vs. 22.3%, 7.7% vs. 11.3%, and 6.1% vs. 11.2%, respectively). As the higher risk category, the prevalence rate was higher but the control rate was lower. The prevalence of patients with diabetes was 82.5% when applying the treatment criteria (LDL-cholesterol level of ${\geq}100mg/dL$ and triglyceride level of ${\geq}200mg/dL$). However, only 11.9 % of these were controlled, whose LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were lower than the treatment goals. Our findings suggest that effective strategies are required to decrease the gap between the prevalence of dyslipidemia and the following treatment. It would be worthwhile to strengthen the follow-up management of patients with dyslipidemia in the National Health Screening Program, especially in the high risk group of cardio-cerebrovascular disease.

Anti-inflammatory properties of chloroform extracts from GW10-45, a new cultivar derived from Pleurotus ferulae, in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. (아위느타리 신품종 GW10-45 클로로포름 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Choi, Hyung-Wook;Kim, Eun-Joo;Kim, Keun-Ki;Shin, Pyung-Gyun;Kim, Gun-Do
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.220-224
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    • 2016
  • Chronic inflammation, which results from continuous exposure to antigens, is one of major reasons for tissue damage and diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of extracts (hexane, $CHCl_3$, MeOH, $MeOH/H_2O$, and $H_2O$) from GW10-45, which is our new cultivar of an edible mushroom Pleurotus ferulae (ASI 2803 and ASI 2778), in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. None of the extracts showed cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells and the hexane, CHCl and H extracts reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, an important inflammatory marker, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Particularly, the extract (CG45) inhibited NO production more than the other extracts did. To elucidate the effects of CG45 on molecular targets involved in pro-inflammatory responses, we performed western blot analysis. Expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) significantly decreased in LPS and CG45 co-incubated cells compared to that in LPS only-treated cells. Additionally, another protein thatplays a critical role in inflammation, was down-regulated in cells treated with both LPS and CG45. In the nuclear factor $(NF)-{\kappa}B$ pathway, phosphorylation of $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ decreased in RAW264.7 cells treated with both LPS and CG45. Furthermore, CG45 inhibited the phosphorylation of $NF-{\kappa}B$ in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Conclusively, CG45 could suppress pro-inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by down-regulating not only the phosphorylation of $NF-{\kappa}B$ and $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ but also the expression of iNOS and COX-2 without any cytotoxicity.

Association of Serum Vitamin D with Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function in Korean Health Checkup Examinees (건강검진 수검자에서 혈청 Vitamin D 수준과 인슐린저항성 및 β-세포 기능과의 관련성)

  • Kim, Han-soo;Ryu, So Yeon;Park, Jong;Han, Mi-Ah;Choi, Seong-Woo;Shin, Min-Ho
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.18-30
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the association of serum Vitamin D with insulin resistance and ${\beta}-cell$ function in Korean health checkup examinees. Methods: This study subjects were 374 healthy adults (199 males, 175 females) over the age of 20, who visited a general hospital medical center located in Haenam-gun, Jeollanam-do. To find the association of Vitamin D with HOMA-IR and $HOMA-{\beta}$, the used statistical analysis were ANOVA and ANCOVA. Results: Of the study subjects, the level of serum Vitamin D defined by deficient group, insufficient group and sufficient group was 38.5%, 48.1% and 13.4%, respectively. According to the level of serum Vitamin D, the mean values of HOMA-IR were $1.92{\pm}1.08$ in sufficient group, $1.99{\pm}1.04$ in the insufficient group and $2.91{\pm}1.05$ in deficient group and there were statistically significant different(p<0.001). The mean values of $HOMA-{\beta}$ were $84.69{\pm}1.07$ in sufficient group, $78.41{\pm}1.04$ in the insufficient group and $80.48{\pm}1.04$ in deficient group, and there were not significant. As a result of ANCOVA, adjusted mean of HOMA-IR were statistically significant different (p<0.001), but those of $HOMA-{\beta}$ were not statistically significant according to the level of serum Vitamin D. Conclusion: The insufficient level of serum Vitamin D was relatively high in healthy adults who live in rural area, and it was found that HOMA-IR significantly increased when Vitamin D was deficient. To prevent insulin resistance or diabetes, it is necessary to provide sufficient information related to sufficient production of Vitamin D such as Vitamin D supplement, sun exposure, food intake and etc.

Memory improvement effect of Artemisia argyi H. fermented with Monascus purpureus on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice (스트렙토조토신으로 유도된 당뇨 마우스에서 Monascus purpureus을 이용한 발효 쑥의 기억력 개선 효과)

  • Lee, Chang Jun;Lee, Du Sang;Kang, Jin Yong;Kim, Jong Min;Park, Seon Kyeong;Kang, Jeong Eun;Kwon, Bong Seok;Park, Sang Hyun;Park, Su Bin;Ha, Gi-Jeong;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.550-558
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    • 2017
  • The effect of Artemisia argyi H. under liquid-state fermentation by Monascus purpureus (AAFM) on cognitive impairments has been studied in a mice model of diabetes-associated cognitive decline induced by streptozotocin (STZ). C57BL/6 mice (9 weeks of age, male) were separated into four groups: a normal control, STZ-induced diabetic mouse group (STZ group), Artemisia argyi H. (AA) 10 group (diabetic mouse+AA 10 mg/kg/day), AAFM 10 group (diabetic mouse+AAFM 10 mg/kg/day). Administration of AA and AAFM significantly improved glucose tolerance, as shown by the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), and ameliorated cognitive deficit, as shown by the behavioral tests including passive avoidance, Morris water maze, and Y-maze tests. After behavioral tests, the cholinergic system was examined by assessment of the acetylcholine (ACh) level and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, and the antioxidant system was also assessed by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the brain and liver.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Allium hookeri Root on Hepatic Enzyme Contents in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats (삼채 보충식이가 당뇨흰쥐 간의 항산화효소 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Myung-Wha
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.399-407
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Allium hookeri (AH) root on hepatic antioxidative enzyme contents in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats through injection of STZ dissolved in citrate buffer into tail veins at a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an AIN-93 recommended diet, and the experimental groups were fed a modified diet containing 5% and 10% of AH root powder for 4 weeks. The experimental groups were divided into four groups: a normal control (N-control), STZ-control, STZ-AH 5%, and STZ-AH 10% supplemented groups. The STZ-AH 5% group showed a significant increase in liver glycogen compared to the STZ-control group. Muscle glycogen and liver protein contents significantly increased in the AH-supplemented groups compared to the STZ-control group. The liver malondialdehyde content of the AH-supplemented group was significantly lower than that of the STZ-control group. Xanthine oxidase content was significantly reduced in all experimental groups. Glutathione-S-transferase content was significantly elevated in the AH-treated groups compared to the STZ-control group. Superoxide dismutase content was not significantly different among the experimental groups. Catalase content was significantly higher in the STZ-AH 10% group compared to the STZ-control group. These results show that supplementation with AH root may be useful for diabetic therapy and damage from oxidative stress.

Effect of Fermented Yacon (Smallanthus Sonchifolius) Leaves Tea on Blood Glucose Levels and Glucose Metabolism in High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Mice (야콘잎 발효차가 고지방식이와 스트렙토조토신으로 유도한 제2형 당뇨마우스의 혈당 및 당대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, In-Sook;Lee, Jin;Lee, Jeom-Sook;Shin, Dong-Young;Kim, Myung-Joo;Lee, Mi-Kyung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.333-341
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the hypolgycemic activity of water extract of fermented yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves tea (Yacon LWE) in high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Male ICR mice were fed with a HFD (37% calories from fat) for 4 weeks prior to intraperitoneal injection with STZ (100 mg/kg body weight). Diabetic mice were supplemented with two doses of Yacon LWE (0.16% and 0.8%, wt/wt) for 6 weeks. The supplementation of high-dose Yacon LWE significantly lowered blood glucose levels and plasma ALT and AST activities compared with the control group. High-dose Yacon LWE also improved the insulin tolerance without any changes in plasma and pancreatic insulin concentrations in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice. Yacon LWE supplementation increased the insulin staining of pancreatic $\beta$-cells in a dose-dependent manner. Both 0.16% and 0.8% of Yacon LWE significantly elevated plasma leptin concentration, hepatic glucokinase activity and glucokinase/glucose-6-phosphatase ratio compared with the control group. However, glycosylated hemoglobin concentration was not different among the groups. These results suggest that high-dose Yacon LWE lowers the blood glucose level partly by enhancing insulin sensitivity and hepatic glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic mice.