• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cropping system

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Effect of Paddy-upland Rotation System on Soil Chemical Properties and Rice Yield (답전윤환형태별(畓田輪換形態別) 토양화학성(土壤化學性)과 수도생산성(水稻生産性) 변화(變化)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Ahn, Sang-Bae;Motomatsu, T.
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 1993
  • The effects of paddy-upland rotation and cropping system on the mineralization of soil organic nitrigen, on the change of organic matter and available phosphorus content in the soil, and on the rice yield and nutrients absorption were studied in Seokcheon fine-sandy loam soil. 1. In the incubation test mineralzed soil nitrogen and the nitrogen extracted by pH 7 phosphate buffer solutions were higher in the soils from every and two year rotation systems than continuous rice cultivation. In terms of cropping system potato-chiness cabbage-rice increased them more than soybean-rice system. 2. The change of soil organic matter and available phosphorus contents were not much in continuous rice cultivation, while in rotation system they decreased as the paddy-upland rotation frequency decreased. In terms of cropping system they decresed more in potato-Chinese cabbage-rice system compared with soybean-rice systems. 3. The rice yield was higher in the paddy-upland rotation system than that of continuous rice cultivation. However, the effects were decreased gradually every year, as shown by 26~20, 17~5, and 5~4% yield increase for first, second, and third year, respectively, in potato-Chinese cabbage-rice and soybean-rice system compared with continuous rice cultivation. 4. All the absorbed nutrient contents increased in every and two year rotation system compared with continuous rice cultivation. In terms of cropping system potato-Chiness cabbage-rice system increased them more compared with soybean-rice system.

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Practices of Sustainable Agriculture in Korea With References for the Development of Sustainable Rice Production Systems (한반도에서 지속농업의 실천방안 지속적 벼 생산체계 개발을 중심으로)

  • Choe Zhin Ryong;Kim Jeong Bu;Cho Yong Son
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.288-312
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    • 1998
  • In Korea, chemical fertilizers and agricultural chemicals have had a significant impact on food production and these are today thought to be an indispensable part of modern agriculture. On the other hand, socioeconomical and IMF and WTO status in Korea are constant reminders of the vulnerability of our fossil fuel dependent agriculture. A new crop production system to improve economic, environmental and production efficiency must be exploited. Our particular concern has been given to an integrated cropping system involving recycling of crop residues, soil and N management, biological N fixation and multipurpose legumes. As a new integrated crop production system, a no-till direct-sown rice-vetch relaying cropping system has been proposed in this paper. The formulation of this system is based on the conception that N fertilizers being neither limitlessly available nor affordable, the current high-input crop production systems have produced troubled results severe labour shortage ill rural areas, balance of payment, environmental degradation and reduction of human health far exceed economic concerns. A natural and logical consequence is that long-term sustainability of agricultural systems must rely on the use and effective management of internal resources. Based on the information obtained throughout a series of experiments last years we have proved that the no-till direct-sown rice-vetch relaying cropping system dictates biological alternative which can augment, and in some cases replace, N fertilizers. Comprehensive discussions were made for the proposed system and it concluded that the system can offer an economically attractive and ecologically sound means of reducing external nitrogen input and improving the quality and quantity of internal resources, and consequently improving the farmers as well as the national returns.

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Food-Feed Systems in Asia - Review -

  • Devendra, C.;Sevilla, C.;Pezo, D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.733-745
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    • 2001
  • This review paper discusses the relevance and potential importance of food-feed systems in Asian agricultural systems, and in particular the role and contribution of legumes to these systems. A food-feed system is one that maintains, if not increases, the yield of food crops, sustains soil fertility, and provides dietary nutrients for animals. It involves a cropping pattern within which the feed crop has many beneficial effects without competing for land, soil nutrients and water with the food crops. The agricultural environment is described with reference to the priority agro-ecological zones and prevailing mixed farming systems in Asia. Within these systems, animal production is severely hampered by critical feed shortages which can however, be alleviated by the integration of suitable leguminous forages into the cropping systems. The review also focuses on the role and potential importance of leguminous forages in terms of biodiversity, their uses in farming systems, beneficial effects on animal performance, and draws attention to six case studies in different countries that clearly demonstrate many benefits of developing such food-feed systems. Considerable opportunities exist for widening the use of forage legumes in the development of systems with several complementary advantages (e.g. fenceline, cover crops, fodder banks, forage source and erosion control) to improve the development of sustainable crop-animal systems in Asia.

Emission of Green House Gases in the Agricultural Environment -1. The Cropping System and Emission of the Green House Gases-CO2, CH4, N2O)-under Different Cropping System (농작물(農作物) 재배환경(栽培環境)과 지구온난화(地球溫暖化) 원인(原因)가스 발생(發生) -1. 답전전환시(畓田轉換時) 작부체계(作付體系)와 지구온난원인기체(地球溫暖原因氣體) -이산화탄소(二酸化炭素), 메탄, 아산화질소(亞酸化窒素)- 발생(發生))

  • Lee, Sang-Kyu;Suh, Jang-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 1993
  • The net flux of global green house gases such as carbon dioxide($CO_2$), methane($CH_4$), and nitrous oxide($N_2O$) emitted from the rotation of paddy-upland soil during growing sesaon under different cropping system was determined. The results obtained were summarized as follows : 1. The net flux of $CO_2$ during the growing season was the highest from continuous cultivation of rice but the lowest from rotation cultivation of rice-soybean. Under the different cropping system the highst emission was from soil of continuous cultivation of rice, but the lowest from converted system. 2. The net emission of methane was the highest from the sold of continuous cultivation of rice, but the flux was remarkably decreased by differing the cropping system. 3. $N_2O$ was emitted greatly from the every two year rotation of potato-chinese cabbage and the next rank was from continuous cultivation of rice, but was decreased notably from rotation cultivation of rice-soybean and potato-chinese cabbage under rotation of paddy-upland cropping system. 4. The ratio of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the soil air was much different with glowing season, the ratio was varied with 4~10 percents for oxygen and 1~22 percents for carbon dioxide. The ratio of carbon dioxide was dozens or hundreds times to that of air, and the variation was very high also. 5. The emission of global green house gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide was affected by the moisture, temperature and nutrients of soils and the growth period of crops.

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Yield and Quality of Forage Produced by Mixed Planting of Soybean and Corn (옥수수와 사료용 콩 혼작에 의한 조사료 수량 및 품질)

  • Seo, Jin-Dong;Chae, Jong-Hyun;Park, Ji-Ho;Kim, Min-Su;Kwon, Chan-Ho;Lee, Jeong-Dong
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.105-109
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    • 2014
  • The soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], an edible legume, has a high protein content in both its hay and grain, so it is often used as a supplement for other forages that have a deficient protein concentration. Therefore, this study investigated the forage quality and yield in the case of mixed planting of soybean and corn. The forage yield and quality were assessed for three cropping patterns: soybean mono planting, corn mono planting, and mixed planting of soybean and corn. For planting, this study used a forage corn cultivar, Kwangpyeongok, and three recombinant inbreed lines, W2, W4, and W11, selected from Glycine soja (PI483463)${\times}$G. max (Hutcheson). The mixed planting of soybean and corn produced a higher forage yield than the corn mono cropping. The crude protein and crude fat content were also increased with the mixed planting of soybean and corn when compared with the corn mono cropping. Some decrease of ADF and NDF, and increase for RFV in mixed planting of soybean and corn than corn mono cropping. Therefore, the results show that mixed planting of soybean and corn is an effective cropping system to improve the forage quality.

Contents of Soil Microbial Phospholipid Fatty Acids as Affected by Continuous Cropping of Pepper under Upland (노지 고추 연작 토양의 미생물 인지질 지방산 함량)

  • Hwang, Jae-Moon;Park, Kee-Choon;Kim, Su-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.1012-1017
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of continuous cropping of pepper on soil microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) under upland applied without any pesticides and chemical herbicides from 2000 to 2009. Microbial PLFAs were analysed from soils sampled in 2009. Soil microbial diversities showed PLFAs of monoplanting of pepper were distinct from those of monoplanting of garlic and interplanting of garlic and pepper by principle component 2 (PC2). Furthermore, soil microbial activity of monoplanting of pepper significantly decreased PLFAs representing as VAM-fungi, whereas it significantly increased in actinomycetes and saturated/monounsaturated PLFAs' ratio. The results drove continuous cropping of pepper would vary the microbial community and their specific activity. Soil microbial activities in continuous cropping system would depend on crop root systems.

Impacts of Cropping Systems on the Distribution of Soil Microorganisms in Mid-mountainous Paddy

  • Kang, Ui-Gum;Shin, Woon-Chul;Choi, Jong-Seo;Lee, Yong-Bok;Lee, Young-Han
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.480-488
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    • 2016
  • Soil microbes are widely well known to play an important role for sustainable agriculture in terms of crop healthy cultivation and environmental conservation. In this context, the distributional characteristics of soil microbes according to cropping systems were investigated under rice (R)-rice (R), rice (R)-barley (B)-rice (R), and soybean (S)-barley (B)-soybean (S) cropping condition to get basic informations for sustainable agriculture, where barley was grown for winter, in mid-mountainous loam paddy located at the altitude of 285 m above sea level in Sangju area from 2014 to 2015. Estimating from microbial communities by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) method, a total biomass of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in R-B-R plot was 37% and 40% higher than that in S-B-S and R-R plots, respectively (p < 0.05). In especial, bacteria and fungi were more in R-B-R plot than those in any other ones. B. japonicum, AMF, and mesophilic Bacillus sp. were also greater in S-B-S plot than those. In the community distribution, however, bacteria and actinomycetes showed comparatively high values in S-B-S plot relative to either R-R or R-B-R plot including rice, in which fungi outstanding. In the correlation between microbial biomass and soil properties changed by the cropping, bacteria was positively correlated with C:N ratio; actinomycetes with exchangeable Ca; fungi with available $P_2O_5$ (p < 0.05). While these microbes showed negative response to water stable aggregates of soil.

Analysis of Soil Erosion Vulnerability at Alpine Agricultural Fields of HongCheon County (홍천군 산지농업지대의 토양침식취약성 분석)

  • Kim, Ki-Sung;Heo, Sung-Gu;Jung, Yeoug-Sang;Kim, Ji-Man;Lim, Kyoung-Jae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 2005
  • It has been well known that soil erosion and sediments from alpine agricultural fields are causing severe water quality and turbidity problems in receiving waters. Also these result in the loss of money because farmers have to buy top soils to provide enough root zone in the following year. Thus, there have been needs to reduce soil erosion and sediment discharge into the stream networks. To accomplish this end, an effective erosion control plans should be developed based on scientific research, not by rule of thumb. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) has been widely used to estimate the soil erosion in many countries over the years. In this study, the USLE was used to estimate soil erosion potential under different cropping scenarios in HongCheon County, Kangwon. The soil erosion potential for continuous corn cropping was the highest compared with those from continuous potato find average cropping scenarios. This indicates the soil erosion plans need to be established considering cropping system in the field. The Unit Stream Power Erosion-Deposition (USPED) was applied for HongCheon County to estimate soil erosion and deposition areas. The USPED estimated results can be used to complement USLE results in developing effective erosion control plans.

Effects of Rice-Winter Cover Crops Cropping Systems on the Rice Yield and Quality in No-tillage Paddy Field

  • Lee, Young-Han;Son, Daniel;Choe, Zhin-Ryong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 2009
  • The propose of this study was to find out optimum conditions for no-tillage rice-winter cover crops cropping system. A field research was conducted to evaluate productivity and quality of rice cultivars (Dongjinbyeo and Junambybyeo) in rice-winter cover cropping systems at Doo-ryangmyeon., Sacheon, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea from January 2005 to October 2006. The experimental soil was Juggog series (fine silty, mesic family of Fluvaquentic Eutrndepts). The rice cultivars were experimented under some different high residue farming systems, i.e. no-tillage no treatment (NTNT), no-tillage amended with rice straw (NTRS), no-tillage amended with rye (NTR), no-tillage amended with Chinese milkvetch (NTCMV), tillage no treatment (TNT), and conventional cropping system (Control). The miss-planted rate was 8.8% in 2005 and range of 10.8% to 13.3% in 2006 at NTR, and the other treatments were carried out at miss-planted rate ranging from 1.2% to 5.0%. Tiller numbers of Junambyeo, and Dongjinbyeo in both of years were the highest in Control, and decreased nearly in NTCMV, NTR, NTRS, NTNT, and TNT in that order. The lowest grain yield was observed in TNT both cultivars due to the lower tiller numbers per area, and spikelet numbers per panicle. Also, no-tillage treatments were lower grain yield than control. On the other hand, 1,000-grain weight was lowest in control due to higher tiller numbers per area, and spikelet numbers per panicle. Ripened grain ratio was a similar aspect in all treatments. The palatability score of milled rice was lowest in control while protein content of milled rice was highest in control. The NTCMV was considered an effective sustainable farming practice for rice yield and quality.