• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cropping system

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Selection of Promising Forage Crops and Variety for Forage Production in Paddy Field 3. Yeongnam region (Milyang) (권역별 답리작 사료작물 최대 생산을 위한 적작목(품종) 선발 3. 영남지방(밀양)을 중심으로)

  • Seo, Sung;Kim, Won-Ho;Kim, Jong-Guen;Choi, Gi-Jun;Ko, Jong-Min;Lim, Si-Gyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to select the promising forage crops fer forage production in paddy field of YARI, RDA, Milyang from 1999 to 2001. The species of forage crop used in this experiment were barley(5 varieties), wheat(2), rye(3) and Italian ryegrass(IRG, 3). Stages of heading, milk and yellow ripe of barley were $20{\sim}24$ April, $6{\sim}10$ May and $21{\sim}24$ May, respectively. In milk to yellow ripe stage, dry matter(DM) yield of barley was $7.89{\sim}9.66$ MT per ha, and averaged ADF and NDF contents were $26.9{\sim}33.3%\;and\;53.1{\sim}59.2%$, respectively. Albori and Naehanssalbori were the most promising varieties among the barley. The growth of wheat was a little late compared to that of barley, but it seemed to be crop having higher forage yield and nutritive value. In milk to yellow stage, DM yield of wheat was $9.13{\sim}10.38$ MT per ha, and nutritive value of wheat was very good(ADF $25.9{\sim}31.7%$ and NDF $53.3{\sim}55.8%$). Heading stage of rye was $20{\sim}24$ April, and it seemed to be suitable far harvest at heading to flowering stage because of heavy lodging after flowering. In flowering stage, DM yield of rye was 13.64 MT per ha, and nutritive value of rye was the lowest among 4 species(ADF $33.1{\sim}38.0%$ and NDF $56.4{\sim}65.0%$). Heading stage of early maturing IRG was 2 May and it seemed to be suitable for harvest at flowering stage of middle May in cropping system. In flowering stage, DM yield of early type IRG was 5.51 MT per ha, and averaged ADF and NDF contents were $30.1{\sim}34.7%\;and\;59.7{\sim}60.5%$, respectively. The results demonstrated that the promising forage crops far forage production in paddy field were rye, barley, early maturing IRG and wheat in Yeongnam region. In Southern region, rye harvesting at early May was recommended when considered middle May of rice transplanting period, and barley(Albori and Naehanssalbori) and early maturing IRG harvesting at middle May were recommended when considered late May of rice planting period. And also, wheat with high nutritive value and possibility for harvesting at late May were recommended in case of transplanting period at early June.

Growth and Quality of Two Melon Cultivars in Hydroponics Affected by Mixing Ratio of Coir Substrate and Different Irrigation Amount on Spring Season (멜론 봄 재배 시 코이어 배지경에서 배지 혼합 비율과 급액량에 따른 생육 및 품질)

  • Choi, Su hyun;Lim, Mi Yeong;Choi, Gyeong Lee;Kim, So Hui;Jeong, Ho Jeong
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.376-387
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    • 2019
  • Melons are mostly grown in soil, but it is susceptible to damage due to injury by continuous cropping such as Fusarium wilt and root rot. Hydroponic cultivation system can overcome the disadvantages of soil cultivation with precise nutrition management and a clean environment. When using the coir substrate, the most environmentally friendly organic substrate used for hydroponics, it is analyzed how the growth and fruit quality of the melon depends on the ratio of chips and dust and the amount of irrigation. The purpose of this study was to provide the basic data of melon hydroponics when cultivated in spring. The two types of the coir substrates used in the experiments were chip and dust ratios of 3 :7 and 5 : 5 respectively. The substrate with high dust ratios had excellent physical characteristics, such as container capacity and total porosity, and the drainage EC level showed a high value of $3.0-6.8dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$. When the amount of irrigation is provided based on the drainage rate, the group provided the nutrient solution on the basis of 10% drainage supplied 91 L per plant, which was reduced by about 30% compared to the group with the highest water supply. In addition, the total drainage showed less than 10 L per plant with a minimum water supply and was reduced by 30 - 70% in substrate with a high dust rates. In substrate with high water supply and high dust ratio, leaf growth and fruit enlargement were good, and the soluble solids content varies greatly from cultivar to cultivar. If you provided the amount of irrigation based on 10% drainage rate, the fruit weight will be decreased, but the amount of irrigation can be reduced. Therefore, it is considered that managing the water & nutrient properly taking into account the characteristics of coir substrate and cultivar can produce melon of uniform quality using hydroponics.

Germination Characteristics of Chinese Milk Vetch(Astragalus sinicus L.) Seeds Produced in China and Korea (수입 및 국내 채종 자운영 종자의 발아 특성)

  • Kim, Sang-Yeol;Oh, Seong-Hwan;Choi, Kyung-Jin;Park, Sung-Tae;Kim, Jeong-Il;Yeo, Un-Sang;Kang, Hang-Won
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.384-389
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    • 2009
  • Germination characteristics of Chinese milk vetch(CMV) seeds produced from Hanam Province, China and Milyang, Korea were investigated to give basic information on the stability of seedling establishment in the CMV cultivation. The germination percentage of the imported CMV seed from China varied according to importation year and seed collection site ranging from 79~95%. The germination of black colored seed coat was lower than the light green colored ones and germination by seed weight was not significantly different. Although the seed germination was lower under dark than in the presence of light, it was not significantly different. The germination of the imported CMV seed slightly declined to only less than 6% after one-year of storage under natural environment conditions but it significantly decreased after two years. However, when the seed was stored at the $5^{\circ}C$, the seed germination was the same as after two years of storage. On the other hand, fresh CMV seed produced in Milyang, Korea had only 8% germination due to seed coat dormancy but the germination increased to 73~85% after breaking seed dormancy after a year of storage. The high germination percentage of 72~82% was still maintained even after 27 months of seed storage unlike the CMV seed produced from China. These results indicate that CMV seeds do not require light for germination and the seed from China should be used within one-year after importation while the seeds produced from Korea can be used even after two years from harvest for stable CMV seedling establishment in the CMV-rice cropping system.

A New Short Growth-Duration Rice Cultivar, "Keumo 3" (소득작물 전후작용 단기성 벼 품종 "금오3호")

  • Kang, Jong-Rae;Lee, Jong-Hee;Kwack, Do-Yeon;Lee, Jeom-Sik;Park, No-Bong;Ha, Woon-Gu;Park, Dong-Soo;Yeo, Un-Sang;Lim, Sang-Jong;Oh, Byeong-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.292-298
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    • 2009
  • A new rice cultivar "Keumo 3" was developed for adopting under double cropping system with after or before cash crop cultivation. It was selected from the cross-combination between YR17202 $F_2$/Shinkeumobyeo//YR15727-B-B-B-102. The parent, YR17202 $F_2$ individual plant, was used for tolerance to lodging, it derived from a cross between Nonganbyeo/Shinkeumobyeo. Nonganbyeo is well known to lodging tolerance cultivar, as well as biotic stress, because it was developed by crossing with Tongil type. And the YR15727-B-B-B-102 line used as another parent with short growth duration, likewise highly resistance to rice blast disease. The pedigree derived from the cross-combination YR17202 $F_2$/Shinkeumobyeo//YR15727-B-B-B-102 were generated to $F_7$, and a best line among them named as Milyang 201. After a series of yield trials, including local adaptability test conducted throughout the peninsular of Korea, Milyang 201 was registered with the name of "Keumo 3" in 2005. The cultivar belongs to a early maturing group and heads 4 days earlier than Keumobyeo, a standard cultivar. It has short culm, and less spikelet number per panicle than Keumobyeo. However, its milled rice yield grown under extremely late transplanting time, 10. July, over the 3 local sites for 2003-2005 years, averaged 4,48 MT/ha, which is 6% higher than the standard, Keumobyeo. "Keumo 3" has showed a durable resistance to leaf blast disease during fourteen blast nurseries screening covered from south to north in Korea for 2003-2007 years. And it was confirmed harbours pi-zt, a durable blast resistance gene. Moreover it was incompatible with 19 blast isolates under artificial inoculation, except one isolate, K1101. Additionally, "Keumo 3" exhibits resistance to $K_1$, $K_2$ and $K_3$ of bacterial blight pathogen, as well as strip virus disease resistance, and moderate resistance to dwarf virus disease. Consequently, the new rice cultivar "Keumo 3" would be well adopted where a bio stress makes a big problem annually.

A New Early Maturing Rice Cultivar "Junamjosaeng" with Multiple Disease Resistance and High Grain Quality Traits (고품질 복합내병성 조생종 벼 신품종 "주남조생")

  • Lee, Jong-Hee;Yeo, Un-Sang;Lee, Jeom-Sik;Kang, Jong-Rae;Kwak, Do-Yeon;Park, Dong Soo;Cho, Jun-Hyeon;Song, You-Chun;Park, No-Bong;Kim, Choon-Song;Yi, Gi-Hwan;Lim, Sang-Jong;Oh, Byeong-Geun;Shin, Mun-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.149-153
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    • 2009
  • Junamjosaeng is a new japonica rice cultivar developed in 2006 from a cross between Milyang165*3 and Koshihikari at the Department of Functional Crop Science, NICS, RDA. This cultivar is suitable for the double cropping system (i. e., before and after the cash crop). Heading date of Junamjosaeng is 6 days earlier than Keumobyeo under the late transplanting cultivation on July 10. It has a high grain fertility under cold conditions and low premature heading. One of the distinguishing characteristics of this variety is its resistance to major diseases like leaf blast, bacterial blight races ($K_1$, $K_2$, $K_3$) and rice stripe virus disease. However, it showed susceptibility to major insect pests. Milled rice kernels are translucent with non glutinous endosperm and have 6.7% protein and 19.8% amylose contents. Milling recovery of head rice is 75.7%. The palatability of cooked rice is better than Keumobyeo. The milled rice yield of Junamjosaeng in local adaptability tests after harvest of the cash crop was $4.43\;tons\;ha^{-1}$. This cultivar is suitable for planting in the plain paddy fields of Honam and Yeonnam regions in Korea.

Changes in Feed Value of Barley and Pea by Different Seeding Rates and Cutting Dates in Mixed Sowing Cultivation (보리와 완두의 혼파재배에서 혼파비율과 예취시기에 따른 사료가치의 변화)

  • Oh, Tae-Seok;Kim, Chang-Ho;Lee, Hyo-Won
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 2009
  • This study carried out to find out feed value of barley plus pea mixture with different ratio and cutting date to got basic information when introduced the mixture as new cropping system in middle part of Korean peninsular. Dry matter (DM) yield increased as barley seeding rate was higher and showed the highest yield in the plots with barley 85% plus 15% ratio when harvested on May 16. There was no different in crude protein, available protein and digestible protein cutting on April 25 in every mixture, but the content increased with higher pea mixture rate after May 2. The content of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) increase coincided with higher barley rate and late cutting dates. But relative feed value (RFV) resulted in opposite trend. Higher pea ratio influenced increased content of total digestible nuterients (TDN), but decreased before May 9 cutting and increased after the next cutting regime. There was no statistical difference in P and Mg between sowing rate, but Ca increased at higher pea ratio and P, Ca, K decreased in all plots as harvests were delayed. The content of estimated net energy (ENE), net energy maintenance (NEM) and net energy gain (NEG) significantly increased with higher pea rate and earlier cutting. But net energy lactation (NEL) was no significant differences between seeding rates and cutting dates. In conclusion, mineral yield such as P, Ca, K and Mg showed the highest yield at barley plus pea ratio of 75 : 25 and energy yield of ENE, NEL, NEM, NEG and TDN was the highest at 85 to 15 mixture plots and DM yield, TDN yield, mineral yield such as P, Ca, K and Mg and energy yield of ENE, NEL, NEM, NEG were the highest on each treatment cutting on May 16.

No-tillage Agriculture of Korean-Type on Recycled Ridge I. Changes in Physical Properties : Soil Crack, Penetration Resistance, Drainage, and Capacity to Retain Water at Plastic Film Greenhouse Soil by Different Tillage System (두둑을 재활용한 한국형 무경운 농업 I. 경운방법에 따른 시설재배 토양의 물리적 특성: 균열, 관입저항, 배수, 보수력 변화)

  • Yang, Seung-Koo;Jung, Woo-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.699-717
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of no-tillage on sequential cropping supported from recycling of first crop ridge on the growth of pepper plant and physical properties of soil under green house condition. 1. Degree of crack on soil by tillage and no-tillage Soil cracks found in ridge and not found in row. At five months of tillage, crack number and crack length in length ridge were 3 and 37~51 cm in tillage. Maximum width and maximum depth in length ridge were 30 mm and 15.3cm in tillage. Crack number and crack length in width ridge were 7.5 and 7~28 cm in tillage. Maximum width and maximum depth in width ridge were 29 mm and 15.3 cm in tillage. At a year of no-tillage, crack number and crack length in length ridge were 1.0 and 140~200 cm in tillage. Maximum width and maximum depth in length ridge were 18 mm and 30 cm in a year of no-tillage. Crack number and crack length in width ridge were 11 and 6~22 cm in a year of no-tillage. Maximum width and maximum depth in width ridge were 22 mm and 18.5 cm in a year of no-tillage. Soil crack was not found at 2 years of no-tillage in sandy Jungdong series (jd) soil. Soil crack was found at 7 years of no-tillage in clayish Jisan series (ji) soil. 2. Penetration resistance on soil Penetration resistance was increased significantly at no-tillage in Jungdong series (jd). Depth of cultivation layer was extended at no-tillage soil compared with tillage soil. Penetration resistance of plow pan was decreased at 1 year of no-tillage compared with than tillage soil. Penetration resistance was linearly increased with increasing soil depth at tillage in Jisan series (ji). Penetration resistance on top soil was remarkably increased and then maintained continuously at no-tillage soil. 3. Drainage and moisture content of soil Moisture content of ridge in top soil was not significant difference at both tillage and no-tillage. Moisture content of ridge in 20 cm soil was 14% at no-tillage soil and 25% at tillage soil. 4. Change of capacity to retain water in soil Capacity to retain water in top soil was not significant difference at 1 bar both tillage and no-tillage. Capacity to retain water in soil was slightly higher tendency in 1 year and 2 years of no-tillage soil than tillage soil. Capacity to retain water in soil was increased at 15 bar both tillage and no-tillage. Capacity to retain water in subsoil was slightly higher tendency at 1 bar and 3 bar in 2 years of no-tillage than tillage soil and a year of no-tillage soil.

Germination and Viability of Green Manure Crop Seeds Produced from Domestic and Foreign Countries (국내 채종 및 수입 녹비작물 종자의 발아 및 활력 특성 구명)

  • Kim, Sang-Yeol;Oh, Seong-Hwan;Han, Sang-Ik;Seo, Woo-Duck;Jang, Ki-Chang;Na, Ji-Eun;Lee, Jong-Hee;Cho, Jun-Hyeon;Lee, Ji-Yoon;Choi, Kyung-Jin;Song, You-Chun;Yeo, Un-Sang;Kang, Hang-Won
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.308-314
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    • 2011
  • Seed germination and dormancy of three green manure seeds such as hairy vetch, crimson clover and narrow-leaved vetch (Vicia angustifolia L.) produced in Milyang, southern part of Korea were investigated to provide a basic information on the stability of seedling establishment in green manure seeds. In addition, the effect of seed storage duration on the germinability of imported hairy vetch and crimson seeds was also investigated. To determine the seed maturity time of three green manure seeds, the seeds were harvested manually at May 25, May 30, and June 4, and the 100-seed weight, germinability and percentage of hard seed were evaluated. Freshly harvested seeds of three green manure crops were strongly dormant because of hard seed coat. Germination percentage of the three green manure crops varied depending on the seed harvest time ranging from 30 - 52% in hairy vetch, 16 - 35% in crimson clover and 2 - 61% in V. angustifolia, respectively. Of the three crops, crimson clover and V. angustifolia matured early on May 30 to June 4 (around 35 to 40 days after flower) but hairy vetch seed did not mature until June 4 based on the seed germinability. The matured seed of crimson clover and V. angustifolia germinated less than 20% while scarification on seed coat significantly overcome the innate dormancy. On the other hand, the seed germination of hairy vetch and crimson clover was lower under dark than in the presence of light. The germination percentage of the imported hairy vetch and crimson clover seeds showed high with 77 - 79%, 94 - 95%, respectively, but the seed germination significantly declined by 21 - 32%, 30 - 40% after one-year of storage under natural conditions. The seeds germinated only 8 - 13% for hairy vetch but crimson clover did not germinate at all after two years storage. These results indicate V. angustifolia and crimson clover mature at May 30 to June 4 but hairy vetch did not. The imported hairy vetch and crimson clover seeds should be used within one-year after import for stable seedling establishment in green manure-rice cultivation cropping system.

Changes of Weed Community in Lowland Rice Field in Korea (한국(韓國)의 논 잡초분포(雜草分布) 현황(現況))

  • Park, K.H.;Oh, Y.J.;Ku, Y.C.;Kim, H.D.;Sa, J.K.;Park, J.S.;Kim, H.H.;Kwon, S.J.;Shin, H.R.;Kim, S.J.;Lee, B.J.;Ko, M.S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.254-261
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    • 1995
  • The nationwide weed survey was conducted in lowland rice fields over whole country of Korea in 1992 in order to determine a change of weed community and to identify a major dominant weed species and/or problem weed. Based on morphological characteristics of weeds, population ratio of broad leaf weed was 42.6%, grasses weed-9.0%, sedges-33.4% and others were 15.0%. Annual weed was 33.4% while perennial weed was 66.6% in terms of life cycle of weeds. Meanwhile, there was different weed occurrence as affected by planting method of the rice plant. In hand transplanted paddy fields predominant weed species was Sagittaria trifolia L., Monochoria vaginalis Presl., and Aneilema japonica Kunth. In machine transplanted rice fields of infant and young rice seedling Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi. and S. trifolia L. were more predominant. There was high occurrence of M. vaginalis, Echinochloa crus-galli L., and Leesia japonica Makino in water seeding while E. crus-galli and Cyperus serotinus Rottb. were predominant weed species in dry seeded rice. Monoculture of the rice plant would cause to high occurrence of E. kuroguwai, S. trifolia, M. vaginalis, E. crus-galli, and Sagittaria pygmaea Miq and there was higher population of S. trifolia, S. pygmaea, M. vaginalis, E crus-galli, and E. kuroguwai in double cropping system based on rice culture. In particular, there was high different weed occurrence under different transplanting times. E. kuroguwai, S. trifolia, S. pygmaea, M. vaginalis, and C. serotinus were higher population at the transplanting of 25 May and S. trifolia, E crus-galli, C. serotinus, and M. vaginalis at 10 June and S. pygmaea, E. kuroguwai, M. vaginalis, S. trifolia, and E. crusgalli at 25 June in Korea, respectively. Autumn tillage in terms of tillage time would cause more predominant weed species such as S. trifolia, E. kuroguwai, M. vaginalis, and S. pygmaea while spring tillage was higher population of E. kuroguwai, S. trifolia, E. crusgalli, M. vaginalis, and S. pygmaea. In plain area of paddy field there was higher occurrence of E. kuroguwai, S. trifolia, M. vaginalis, E. crus-galli, and S. pygmaea and in mid-mountainous area S. trifolia, E. kuroguwai, M. vaginalis, E. crus-galli, and Ludwigia prostrate Roxb. while in mountainous area S. trifolia, M. vaginalis, Potamogeton distinctus Ben., E. kuroguwai, and E. crus-galli were. In 1992 the most ten predominant weed species at the rice field of Korea based on summed dominant ratio(SDR) were E. kuroguwai > S. trifolia > E. crus-galli > M. vaginalis > S. pygmaea > C. serotinus > L. prostrate > P. distinctus > A. japonica > Scirpus juncoides Roxb.

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Wind and Flooding Damages of Rice Plants in Korea (한국의 도작과 풍수해)

  • 강양순
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.34 no.s02
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    • pp.45-65
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    • 1989
  • The Korean peninsular having the complexity of the photography and variability of climate is located within passing area of a lots of typhoon occurring from the southern islands of Philippines. So, there are various patterns of wind and flooding damages in paddy field occuring by the strong wind and the heavy rain concentrated during the summer season of rice growing period in Korea. The wind damages to rice plants in Korea were mainly caused by saline wind, dry wind and strong wind when typhoon occurred. The saline wind damage having symptom of white head or dried leaves occurred by 1.1 to 17.2 mg of salt per dry weight stuck on the plant which was located at 2. 5km away from seashore of southern coastal area during the period(from 27th to 29th, August, 1986) of typhoon &Vera& accompanying 62-96% of relative humidity, more than 6 m per second of wind velocity and 22.5 to 26.4$^{\circ}C$ of air temperature without rain. Most of the typhoons accompanying 4.0 to 8. 5m per second of wind and low humidity (lesp an 60%) with high temperature in the east coastal area and southen area of Korea. were changed to dry and hot wind by the foehn phenomenon. The dry wind damages with the symptom of the white head or the discolored brownish grain occurred at the rice heading stage. The strong wind caused the severe damages such as the broken leaves, cut-leaves and dried leaves before heading stage, lodging and shattering of grain at ripening stage mechanically during typhoon. To reduce the wind damages to rice plant, cultivation of resistant varieties to wind damages such as Sangpoongbyeo and Cheongcheongbyeo and the escape of heading stage during period of typhoon by accelerating of heading within 15th, August are effective. Though the flood disasters to rice plant such as earring away of field, burying of field, submerging and lodging damage are getting low by the construction of dam for multiple purpose and river bank, they are occasionally occurred by the regional heavy rain and water filled out in bank around the river. Paddy field were submerged for 2 to 4 days when typhoon and heavy rain occurred about the end of August. At this time, the rice plants that was in younger growing stage in the late transplanting field of southern area of Korea had the severe damages. Although panicles of rice plant which was in the meiotic growing stage and heading stage were died when flooded, they had 66% of yield compensating ability by the upper tilling panicle produced from tiller with dead panicle in ordinary transplanting paddy field. It is effective for reduction of flooding damages to cultivate the resistant variety to flooding having the resistance to bacterial leaf blight, lodging and small brown planthopper simultaneously. Especially, Tongil type rice varieties are relatively resistant to flooding, compared to Japonica rice varieties. Tongil type rice varieties had high survivals, low elongation ability of leaf sheath and blade, high recovering ability by the high root activity and photosynthesis and high yield compensating ability by the upper tillering panicle when flooded. To minimize the flooding and wind damage to rice plants in future, following research have to be carried out; 1. Data analysis by telemetering and computerization of climate, actual conditions and growing diagnosis of crops damaged by disasters. 2. Development of tolerant varieties to poor natural conditions related to flooding and wind damages. 3. Improvement of the reasonable cropping system by introduction of other crops compensating the loss of the damaged rice. 4. Increament of utilization of rice plant which was damaged.

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