• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cropping system

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Growth and Yield Components Responses to Delayed Planting of Soybean in Southern Region of Korea (남부지역 콩 만파에 따른 품종별 생육 및 수량반응)

  • Park, Hyeon-Jin;Han, Won-Young;Oh, Ki-Won;Kim, Hyun-Tae;Shin, Sang-Ouk;Lee, Byong-Won;Ko, Jong-Min;Baek, In Youl
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.483-491
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    • 2014
  • Double cropping system including paddy field soybean is widely adopted nationwide, due to rise in market price and its higher income than paddy field rice. Sowing date of soybean as a second crop is being delayed depending on first crop's growth period and harvesting time. Due to the increased temperature in October and delayed first frost date, soybean could be harvested without frost damage even in late-plating. Therefore, selection of soybean cultivar which is appropriate for this environment is very important. The effect of sowing date and genotype of soybean on growth and yield was investigated for three planting dates (June 20, July 5, and July 20) with ten cultivars developed for soy-pate production, to figure out plant development and yield pattern in delayed planting. As planting date is delayed, plant height and pod number was decreased and this pattern was more clearly detected in mid-late maturity cultivars. Hundred-seed weight did not show significant changes even in late planting, due to compensations between yield components. Yield reduction of July 20 in contrast to that of June 20 showed that Nampung (9.6%) showed the least yield decline. Maximum yield was achieved from Daepung, Taekwang, and Uram among other soybean cultivars in late planting. Shortening of growth period was strongly detected in reproductive stage while length of vegetative stage was regularly maintained in both early and mid-late maturity cultivars.

Effects of Hairy Vetch and Rye Cover on Weed Occurrences and Minor Cereal Growth (피복작물처리에 따른 잡곡의 생육과 잡초발생)

  • Jeon, Seung-Ho;Lee, Se-Hun;Oh, Se-Yun;Kim, Young-Ju;Kim, Kyung-Moon;Kim, Seok-Hyun;Hwang, Jae-Bok;Yoon, Seong-Tak;Shim, Sang- In
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.134-139
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the weed suppressing effects of two winter cover crops, hairy vetch and rye in foxtail millet and sorghum fields in 2010. Crop growth and development and weed occurrences in the fields were examined to know the efficiency of proposed cropping system. In hairy vetch treated plots, heading of minor cereals occurred early. The heading date was earlier by 1 day and 2 days in sorghum and foxtail millet, respectively. However, rye treatment delayed heading by 12 days and 8 days in sorghum and foxtail millet, respectively. Besides he effect of cover crop on ear emergence of crops, the Besides changed growth-related characteristics. Plant height, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence of sorghum ere increased in hairy vetch treatment by 46.4% 88.7% and 7.9%, respectively. In foxtail millet, the characteristics ere also increased by 45.6%, 50.9% and 37.8%, respectively, s compared to control. Yields of sorghum and foxtail millet were increased by 105.1% and 135% as compared o control by hairy vetch treatment, respectively. However, he yields of cereal crops were decreased by rye cover crop treatment, the yields of sorghum and foxtail millet were decreased by 25.8% and 119.1%, respectively. Rye cover crop treatment inhibited crop growth suggesting nitrogen starvation in rye treated plots. In rye treatment, plant height, chlorophyll contents and chlorophyll fluorescence of sorghum ere slightly decreased by 7.1%, 10.8% and 10.8%, respectively, as compared to control whereas the inhibitory effects were greater in foxtail millet. Weed occurrences based n weed number in hairy vetch and rye plots were reduced n weed number in hairy vetch and rye plots were reduced y 27% and 20%, respectively. The smothering effect was weakened or disappeared after heading of crops. Weed number and dry weight in hairy vetch plot were increased by 159% and 55.2%, respectively, as compared to control. The results implied that weed suppressing of cover crops could be reduced drastically after heading of crops.

Effect of Barley Green Manure on Rice Growth and Yield According to Tillage Date in Spring (녹비보리의 환원시기가 후작물 벼 생육 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Min-Tae;Ku, Ja-Hwan;Jeon, Weon-Tai;Seong, Ki-Yeong;Park, Chang-Young;Ryu, Jin-Hee;Cho, Hyeoun-Suk;Oh, In-Seok;Lee, Yong-Hwan;Lee, Jong-Ki;Park, Man;Kang, Ui-Gum
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.119-123
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    • 2011
  • To use barley as a green manure crop, this study has been conducted in Suwon, Gyeonggi-do to establish the barley green manure (BGM)-rice cropping system with emphasis on soil incorporation date and BGM density. The nitrogen (N) contents of rye and barley, grass green manure crops, were 1.4~2.4% at early growth stage and decreased rapidly to 0.6~1.0% at late growth stage. The biomass of barley was 449 kg/l0a at heading stage (HS) and increased to 421 kg/10a at 10 days after heading stage (DAH), 473 kg/10a at 20 DAH. C/N ratio of BGM was the lowest 26.3 at HS. The N contents of BGM was in the range of 0.9~1.5%, the highest at HS and gradually decreased, and the output of N were 4.3-6.3 kg/10a. The total amount of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium of BGM showed the highest level at 10 DAH. Culm length of rice was relatively longer as the BGM application time was delayed. The application of BGM into soil increased plant height of rice by 7.2~7.7 em as compared to the plants treated with commercial fertilizer at recommended rate. but panicle length of rice showed a similar tendency in both the soil-applied of BGM and commercial fertilizer. N contents of unhulled rice was the highest at HS of BGM and followed by 10 DAH of BGM and 20 DAH of BGM. This trend could also be seen in rice straw. The yield of rice in the soil-applied of BGM was 10~15% lower than in the soil-applied of commercial fertilizer. Based on this study, application of BGM made it possible to save 30~50% of application amount of nitrogen fertilizer for following crops.

Selection of Promising Forage Crops and Variety for Forage Production in Paddy Field 1. Middle region(Suwon) (권역별 답리작 사료작물 최대 생산을 위한 적작목(품종) 선발 1. 중부지방(수원)을 중심으로)

  • Seo, Sung;Kim, W.H.;Kim, J.G.;Choi, G.J.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.207-216
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to select the promising forage crops for forage production in paddy field of NLRI, RDA, Suwon from 1999 to 2001. The species of forage crop used in this experiment were barley(3 varieties), wheat(2), rye(3) and Italian ryegrass(IRG, 3). Stages of heading, milk and yellow ripe of barley were 1 May, middle May and late May, respectively. In milk to yellow ripe stage, dry matter(DM) and total digestible nutrient(TDN) yield of barley were $7.30{\sim}9.58$ MT and $4.75{\sim}6.24$ MT per ha, and Albori was the most promising variety among the barley. The growth of wheat was a little late compared to that of barley. but it seemed to be crop having higher forage yield and nutritive value. In milk to yellow stage, DM and TDN yield of wheat were $8.17{\sim}10.82$ MT and $5.33{\sim}7.31$ MT per ha. Heading stage of rye was 27 to 29 April, and it seemed to be suitable for harvest at heading to flowering stage because of heavy lodging after flowering. In flowering stage, DM and TDN yield of rye were 10.18 and 6.03 MT per ha. Heading stage of early maturing IRG was 7 May and it seemed to be good for harvest at flowering stage of middle May in cropping system. In flowering stage, DM and TDN yield of early type IRG were 4.48 and 2.96 MT per ha. The results demonstrated that the promising forage crops for forage production in paddy. field were rye and barley(Albori) in Middle region, and rye harvesting at early May was recommended when considered middle May of rice transplanting period, and rye and barley considered late May of rice planting period. Also early maturing and high yielding IRG variety was strongly needed.

Selection of Promising Forage Crops and Variety for Forage Production in Paddy Field 2. Honam region(Iksan) (권역별 답리작 사료작물 최대 생산을 위한 적작목(품종) 선발 2. 호남지방(익산)을 중심으로)

  • Seo, Sung;Kim, W.H.;Lee, J.H.;Park, T.I.;Chun, C.K.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to select the promising forage crops for forage production in paddy field of HARI, RDA, Iksan from 1999 to 2001. The species of forage crop used in this experiment were barley(5 varieties), wheat(2), rye(3) and Italian ryegrass(IRG, 3). Stage of heading, milk and yellow ripe of barley were 26 $April{\sim}l$ May, middle May and late May, respectively. In milk to yellow ripe stage, dry matter(DM) yield of barley was $6.64{\sim}10.47$ MT per ha, and averaged ADF and NDF contents were $31.6\%\;and\;62.2\%$ respectively. Albori was the most promising variety among the barley). The growth of wheat was a little late compared to that of barley, but it seemed to be crop having higher forage yield md nutritive value. In milk to yellow stage, DM yield of wheat was $7.51{\sim}11.96$ MT per ha, and nutritive value of wheat was high(ADF $30.6\%$ and NDF $60.1\%$). Heading stage of rye was $25{\sim}27$ April, and it seemed to be suitable to harvest at heading to flowering stage because of heavy lodging after flowering. In flowering stage, DM yield of rye was 17.26 MT per ha, and nutritive value of rye was the lowest among 4 species(ADF $38.6\%$ and NDF $65.5\%$). Heading stage of early maturing IRG was 30 April and it seemed to be suitable for harvest at flowering stage of middle May in cropping system. In flowering stage, DM yield of early type IRG was 10.77 MT per ha, and averaged ADF and NDF contents were $31.6\%\;and\;59.2\%$, respectively. The results demonstrated that the promising forage crops for forage production in paddy field were rye, barley, early maturing IRG and wheat in Honam region. In Southern region, rye harvesting at early May was recommended when considered middle May of rice transplanting period, and barley(Albori) and early maturing IRG harvesting at middle May were recommended when considered late May of rice planting period. And also, wheat with high nutritive value and possibility for harvesting at late May were recommended in case of transplanting period at early June.

A New High Quality and Yielding Barley Variety "Geungangbori" with Lodging Resistance (겉보리 단간 내도복 다수성 일시 출수형 "건강보리")

  • Hyun, Jong-Nae;Kweon, Soon-Jong;Park, Dong-Su;Ko, Jong-Min;Han, Sang-Ik;Lim, Sea-Gye;Suh, Se-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.474-478
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    • 2008
  • A new covered barley variety, "Geungangbori" was developed from the cross between Milyang 55 which have lodging tolerance and easy brittleness and Suweon 260 with good quality by barley breeding team in the Yeongnam Agricultural Research Institute (YARI) in 2002. A promising line, YMB3855-3B-14-1-1-1, was selected in 1999. It was designated as the name of Milyang 110. It was prominent and had good result from regional adaptation yield trials (RAT) for three years from 2000 to 2002 and released as the name of "Geungangbori". Geungangbori is resistant to barley yellow mosaic virus and moderately resistant to powdery mildow. The average maturing date was same with Olbori on paddy field in regional adaptation yield trials for 2000-2002. Its culm length is 17 cm shorter than that of Olbori and the spike length is 4.4cm, it's longer than olbori. The 1,000 grain weight of Geungangbori was 34 g, same as Olbori, but the number of spikes per $m^2$ and test weight ware lower than those of Olbori. The yield potential of Geungangbori was 4.22 MT/ha on paddy in regional adaptation yield trials for 2000-2002. which was 7% higher than that of Olbori. The cooking quality of Geungangbori were similar to Olbori such as water absorption rate and expansion rate. But the crude protein content is lower than Olbori. This variety is suitable for double cropping system with rice in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.

A New Rice Cultivar "Jogwang" with RSV Resistance and Short Growth Duration (벼줄무늬잎마름병 저항성 단기성 벼 신품종 "조광")

  • Lee, Jong-Hee;Kang, Jong-Rae;Park, Dong-Soo;Yeo, Un-Sang;Kwak, Do-Yeon;Shin, Mun-Sik;Song, You-Chun;Ha, Woon-Goo;Cho, Jun-Hyeon;Kim, Chun-Song;Jeon, Myeong-Gi;Lee, Gi-Yun;Yi, Gi-Hwan;Nam, Min-Hee;Ku, Yeon-Chung;Oh, Byeong-Geun;Kim, Myeong-Ki;Yang, Sae-Jun;Kim, Jae-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.163-167
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    • 2009
  • Jogwang is a new early maturing japonica rice developed in 2007 from a cross between Milyang187 and YR21113-B-B at the Department of Functional Crop Science, NICS, RDA. This cultivar is very suitable to the rice-cash crop double cropping system. Heading date of Jogwang is 2 days earlier than Keumobyeo under the late transplanting cultivation on July 10 at the Yeongnam plain. The tolerance level of this variety to leaf discoloration at seedling stage is very similar to Keumobyeo. It showed slightly lower viviparous germination and premature heading. This cultivar showed resistant reactions to leaf blast and rice stripe virus disease but susceptible to bacterial blight disease and major insect pests. The ratio of milling and head rice recovery of Jogwang is 76.5% and 64.5%, respectively. The milled kernels are translucent with non glutinous endosperm. This cultivar has 7.3% protein and 18.5% amylose content. In local adaptability test, showed that the milled rice yield of Jogwang is $4.90\;MT\;ha^{-1}$. This cultivar is suitable for planting in the plain paddy fields of Honam and Yeonnam regions in Korea.

Growth Responses of Soybean in Paddy Field Depending on Soil and Cultivation Methods (콩의 논 재배시 토성 및 재배 방법에 따른 콩의 생장분석)

  • Cho, Joon-Hyeong
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.385-397
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to establish the environment-friendly cropping system of soybean in paddy field with different soil textures. When the soybean was cultivated in paddy fields, growth responses of testing cultivars varied depending on soil texture and cultivation method. Growth responses of soybean in sandy loam tended to be better than those in clay, however the effect of high ridged cultivation was distinguished in clay loam. Especially, formation of rhizome nodule was significantly different depending on soils ; more numerous rhizome nodules were formed in sandy loam compared to that in clay. Plant heights of Taekwangkong and Eunhakong were highest in clay and sandy loam, respectively, while the number of pods and branches of Eunhakong were most in both soils. In clay paddy field, growth responses of Eunhakong were best among the testing cultivars, however high ridged cultivation was more appropriate to the cultivar compared to level row cultivation regardless of soils. Taekwangkong showed the highest leaf area indexes during whole growth stages. Leaf development of Daewonkong was suppressed in clay at early growth stage, while it significantly increased as growth stages progressed. Most retard leaf development was observed in early maturity cultivar, Hwaseongputkong, since it seemed to be seriously damaged by excess-moisture injury in both soils. Comparing the dry weight of top plants and roots, plant growth was more affected by soil texture than cultivation methods at early vegetative growth stage, via verses at R2 or R5 stages. In yield characters and yields at R8 maturity stage, pods number of Eunhakong was significantly higher than those of Daewonkong and Taekwangkong estimating to 107 and 124 in clay and sandy loam, respectively. The ratio of ripened seeds was highest in sandy loam in combination with high ridged cultivation, while the lowest in clay with level row. The yields of Deawonkong and Eunhakong were higher compared to other testing cultivars ranged from $l82{\sim}286kg/ha$ depending on soils and cultivation methods. In results, growth responses and yields of testing cultivars tended to be higher in sandy loam in combination with high ridge compared to clay with level row.

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Effect of Harvest Stage on Forage Yield and Quality of Silage Corn at Late Planting (만기파종에서 수확시 숙기가 사일리지용 옥수수의 사초수량과 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, J.D.;Kwon, C.H.;Kim, S.G.;Park, H.S.;Ko, H.J.;Kim, J.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.251-260
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    • 2002
  • The corn (Zea mays L) planting date in a double-cropping system is delayed until mid-May due to delayed rye harvest on May. This experiment was conducted to determine the optimum harvesting time for high yield and the best quality of silage corn at late planting date after harvesting winter rye. Corns were planted on 21 May and harvested at eight different maturity stage at Seoul National University Experimental Livestock Farm, Suwon in 1997. Maturities were B (blister; 16 days after silking), M (milk; 20 days), LM (late milk; 24 days), SD (soft dough; 28 days), ED (early dent; 33 days), FD (full dent; 38 days), LD (late dent; 44 days) and PM (physiological maturity; 53 days) stages. The percentage of whole plant dry matter (DM) showed optimum range for silage making (29.0 to 38.5%) when corn plant was harvested at between ED and LD stages. Maximum whole plant DM (14,831 kg/ha) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields (10,675 kg/ha) reached at full dent stage. The percentage of whole plant acid detergent fiber (ADF) was decreased from 35.4 to 22.1%, and that of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was also decreased from 63.8 to 46.0% as harvest stage progressed. These changes in chemical compositions were associated with changes in plant part composition. A progressive increase in total ear, and the decrease in stover portion in the plant were observed with advance in harvest stage. Calculated on net energy for lactation (NEL) and TDN values based on ADF percentage of stover plant decreased by ED stage and then increased by PM stage. But NEL and TDN values of ear and whole plant increased as harvest stage progressed. While in vitro dry matter digestibility of stover was decreased from 61.1 to 49.7%, whole plant was increased from 58.3 to 65.7% as maturity advanced (P$<$0.05). The results of this study indicate that corn can be harvested for silage at full (1/2 milkline) and late dent (2/3 milkline) stages for maximum yield and optimum quality at late planting. And days after silking at late planting was 38 and 44 days.

Fertility Status in Northeastern Alpine Soils of South Korea with Cultivation of Vegetable Crops (강원도 고랭지 채소 재배지의 토양 비옥도관리 현황과 전망)

  • Yang, Jae-E.;Cho, Byong-Ok;Shin, Young-Oh;Kim, Jeong-Je
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2001
  • Total upland area for cultivating the vegetable crops in the Alpine soils of Northeastern South Korea has been extending its limit to meet the increasing demand of vegetable food in recent decades. About 70% of these alpine soils are located in over 7% of the slope and most of vegetable crops have been cultivated intensively without practicing the best management systems. Thus, soil erosion and continuous cropping system have degenerated the soil fertility and shown detrimental effects on water quality. We initiated an intensive and extensive investigation to characterize the fertility problems encountered in these uplands. Objectives of this paper were to characterize the fertility status in the Alpine soils cultivated with vegetable crops for many years and to provide the recommendations for adequate soil management measures including fertilization and erosion control. Soils in general have good drainage with textural classes of loam or sandy loam. Their topographical characteristics tended to lead them to shallow plow layers, and the steepness of the terrain created erosion hazard. Of the soils examined, about 11% of uplands over 30% gradient was found in need of an urgent reforestation. A high content of gravel and firm hardness of soil attributed to inhibit the utilization of farm machinery and plant-root development. The average soil pH 5.6 was slightly low relative to pH 5.70 of the national average. Organic matter content was high compared with 2.0% of national average, but decreased with the prolonged cultivation periods. Available $P_2O_5$ concentration was unusually high due to the consequence of over dose application with chemical and organic fertilizers. Exchangeable cations as Ca, Mg, and K were appeared to be decreased in these regions with prolonging the cultivation periods. There were no significant differences in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and electrical conductivity (EC) among locations. Heavy metal contents were mostly lower than the threshold of danger level designated by Soil Environment Conservation Law of South Korea. Results indicated that a proper countermeasure and the best management practice should be immediately implemented to conserve the top soil and fertility in the Alpine regions.

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