• Title/Summary/Keyword: Cropping system

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Studies on the Improvement of the Cropping System (I) (작부체계(作付體系) 개선(改善)에 관(關)한 조사연구(調査硏究)(I))

  • Choi, Chang Yeol
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.61-73
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    • 1983
  • This study was conducted to obtain fundamental informations on the improvement of cropping system to increase in land utilization rate and crop production. In order to group the characteristics of areas, Chungnam province was classified into 4 classes: Suburb (Daedeog Gun, Cheonwon Gun), Plain (Nonsan Gun, Dangjin Gun) Coastal (Seosan Gun, Boryeong Gun) and Hilly region (Gongju Gun, Cheongyang Gun). 100 farm households were sampled from each region, and cropping system and utilization state of paddy and upland in 1982 were surveyed. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. Average utilization rate of upland was 161.9 % The utilization rate of upland at plain was highest (188.9 %), and that at suburb showed lowest value (152.0%). 2. Number of crops cultivated at upland was 32 kinds. Among the rate of planting area of each crop. soybean showed highest rate of 18.8%, barley 15.4%, red-pepper 13.1% and chinese' cabbage 10.1% respectively, but the red pepper showed highest rate of planting area at suburb, the barley at hilly region and the soybean at plain and coastal region. 3. Average utilization rate of paddy was 115.6% and the utilization rate of paddy at suburb showed the highest value (140.0%) and that at coastal region the lowest value (108.2%). 4. 12 kinds of crops were cultivated at paddy before or after rice cultivation. Among the crops cultivated at paddy before or after rice cultivation, barley showed the highest area rate (5.0%) of cultivation and strawberry the next but the strawberry showed the highest area rate of cultivation at suburb and barley at other regions. 5. The cropping systems at upland were divided into single cropping and double cropping. Types of double cropping at upland were classified into 38 types by the combinations of crops. Among the types of double cropping, the rate of cultivation area of soybean after barley combination was 35.0%, but at suburb the rate of this type of cropping system was low and the double cropping of vegetable combinations showed high rate. 6. Types of double cropping at paddy were classified into 6 types. As a whole, double cropping of barley after rice combination showed highest rate of cultivation area (42.8%) among crop combinations but at suburb, the area rate of this type cropping was low and cultivation of fruit vegetable after rice showed highest rate. The area rate of post - cropping to rice was 76.3% of whole double cropping area at paddy and significantly higher than the rate of precropping to rice. 7. Some kinds of crop combinations were consisted of same family or closely related crops and the characteristics of the crop rotation between those crops are almost same. The area cultivated those unreasonable crop combinations were 19.09 ha. 8. At upland, planting area of the cereal crops, vegetale crops and industrial crops crops and industrial crops was 88.92ha, 93.70ha and 21.80ha respectively. The Planting area of cereal crops was significantly less than that of vegetable crops. 9. Most of all the research reports on the cropping system from 1910 to 1980 were about the post cropping after rice harvest. The objectives of researches could be classified into 14 kinds and the important objectives of researches were the planting time, the amounting of manuring, the quantity of seeding, the transplanting time, the ridging method, the sowing method and the variety test.

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Selection of Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonas spp. That Enhanced Productivity of Soybean-Wheat Cropping System in Central India

  • Sharma, Sushil K.;Johri, Bhavdish Narayan;Ramesh, Aketi;Joshi, Om Prakash;Sai Prasad, S.V.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1127-1142
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    • 2011
  • The aim of this investigation was to select effective Pseudomonas sp. strains that can enhance the productivity of soybean-wheat cropping systems in Vertisols of Central India. Out of 13 strains of Pseudomonas species tested in vitro, only five strains displayed plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties. All the strains significantly increased soil enzyme activities, except acid phosphatase, total system productivity, and nutrient uptake in field evaluation; soil nutrient status was not significantly influenced. Available data indicated that six strains were better than the others. Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled cluster analysis of yield and nutrient data separated these strains into five distinct clusters with only two effective strains, GRP3 and HHRE81 in cluster IV. In spite of single cluster formation by strains GRP3 and HHRE81, they were diverse owing to greater intracluster distance (4.42) between each other. These results suggest that the GRP3 and HHRE81 strains may be used to increase the productivity efficiency of soybean-wheat cropping systems in Vertisols of Central India. Moreover, the PCA coupled cluster analysis tool may help in the selection of other such strains.

Growth, Rice Yield and Edible Quality of Rice under Naturally Reseeded Chinese Milk Vetch Cropping System (자운영 지속재배시 벼 생육, 수량 및 미질)

  • Kim, Sang-Yeol;Oh, Seong-Hwan;Hwang, Woon-Ha;Choi, Kyung-Jin;Park, Sung-Tae;Kim, Jeong-Il;Yeo, Un-Sang;Kang, Hang-Won
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.351-356
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    • 2009
  • Growth, milled rice yield and edible quality of rice in naturally reseeded Chinese milk vetch(CMV)-rice cropping system was compared with those in rice mono cropping on silty loam soil in Milyang from 2006-2008. Practicing natural reseeding technology recorded high CMV reseeding stand ranging from 565-805 plants $m^{-2}$ and resulting in the production of 13.0-17.0 kg N/10a from the CMV plant biomass which is greater than the recommendation rate of 9 kgN/10a. The plant height of rice plant grown in natural reseeding field is shorter at tillering stage but it was similar to the rice mono cropping at later stage. Dry matter production had similar trend to plant height. On the other hand, the leaf color in naturally reseeded CMV-rice cropping system was similar to the rice mono cropping up to panicle heading stage but it was high at mature stage, indicating that the nitrogen was provided by the CMV decomposition until later stage of rice. The yield components such as culm number $m^{-2}$ was greater and 1,000-brown rice weight was heavier than those of rice mono cropping but the ripened grain ratio was lower in naturally reseeded CMV-rice cropping system. Milled rice yield of naturally reseeded CMV-rice cropping system was similar to that of rice mono cropping. However, head rice percentage of milled rice was lower due to low ripened grain ratio. This result indicates that natural CMV reseeding technology can completely replace chemical fertilizer in CMV-rice cropping system.

Effect of Cultivars, Sowing Date and Cropping System on the Development of Soybean Bacterial Pustule in the Field (콩 품종, 파종시기 및 작부체계가 콩 불마름병 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Sung-Jun;Kim, Yong-Ki;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Min-Jeong;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;Jee, Hyeong-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.773-787
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    • 2014
  • Bacterial pustule of soybean caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines is one of the most prevalent bacterial diseases in many areas where soybeans are grown. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of cultivars, sowing date and cropping system on the suppression of soybean bacterial pustule in the field. One hundred soybean cultivars were screened for disease resistance against bacterial pustule in naturally infested field. Among them, fourteen cultivars including 'Pureun' were found to be high resistant. And thirty cultivars showed to be moderate resistant(less than 3% of diseased leaf area). When Soybean cultivar 'Taekwang' were sown in four different dates, May 25, June 5, June 15, and June 25, at 10 day-interval in Milyang, the diseased leaf area of bacterial pustule was 23.3%-25.7%, 14.7%-18.0%, 10.7%-12.8%, and 1.0%-2.7%, respectively. The lowest percentage of diseased leaf area was recorded in the plots sown on June 25, whereas the highest percentage of diseased leaf area was recorded in the plot sown on May 25. As sowing time was delayed, incidence of soybean bacterial pustule found to be comparatively reduced. From December in 2006 to June in 2007, we surveyed the pathogen population of soybean bacterial pustule in five cropping upland soils where soybean was cultivated. The survey result showed the bacterial pustule pathogens were detected from the all cropping soils. The pathogen populations of soybean bacterial pustule in soybean-barley and soybean-garlic cropping soil were significantly lower than that of the other cropping soils. In addition, the incidence of soybean bacterial pustule was decreased under the two cropping systems.

Prospects of Stable Production Technologies for Food Crops (식량 안정생산기술의 전망)

  • Chae Je Cheon;Gang Yang Sun;Lee Yeong Ho;Nam Jung Hyeon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.102-144
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    • 1999
  • The major problems of food crop cultivation in Korea are low yield of most crops except rice. inefficient cultivation techniques for aged farmers. and low international competibility. Therefore, development of cultivation techniques of food crops should aim the yield. quality improvement, labor reduction and production cost. The primary issue for increasing the yield of soybean, barely and wheat is to reduce the yield gap between the farmer's yield and recommended ones of experiment station. More advanced cultivation techniques needs to be developed. and/or the conventional breeding methods to be reconsidered. The newly developed labor-saving mechanized technique needs to reduce labor hours , and the cost of agricultural implements and machineries. In other words the labor-saving mechanized technique should be developed based on the improvement of total farming system as well as systemic fundamental innovation of cultural methods. The efficiency of solar energy use in food production of Korea in 1997 is as low as $0.52{\%}$ so there is much room to increase yield. It is recommendable that the concept of food Production should be changed to energy Producing efficiency Per unit area basis from volume and weight of food materials. Moreover, introduction of resonable cropping system is needed to increase yield of main crops, farmer's income, solar energy use efficiency, and decrease of land service expenditure. Current cropping system emphasized on economic crops. especially in vegetables , is not desirable for resonable use of arable land. stability of agricultural management and staple food crop self-sufficiency ratio. It is desirable to increase food crops . that are energy of carbohydrate and protein rich and land dependent crops. in cropping system. And the agronomist should develop the cultural methods to replace food crops for food self-sufficiency and stable farming management instead of economic crops in current cropping system. Low-input and environmentally-sound crop cultivation techniques, especially nitrogen-reducing culture technique which is directly related to food crop quality, also needs to be developed urgently. The extended cultivation of corn in upland and barely and wheat in lowland as a feed stuffs is recommended to prevent further decrease of food self-sufficiency ratio, which is mainly caused by the high reliance on imported feed grain. It is also considered that the calculation and presentation methods of standard agricultural income needs to be improved. The current calculation method uses unit land area of 10a regardless of crop kinds , characteristics of agricultural management and cultivation scale. So, it is apt to lead misunderstanding of farm income value. Therefore. it should show an income of average farmers for certain number of years. Research and developing system for food producing is not desirable because they are conducted currently individual crop and mono-culture basis. But actual agricultural income is usually earned by cropping system including upland and lowland. For example. the barley and wheat is usually cultivated in double cropping system. The cooperation among research institutes such as university agribusiness. government and farmers is indispensible. The public information and education on importance and consumption habit of food crops is necessary in Korean society to increase food self-sufficiency through nationwide cooperation.

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A Study on the Preparation Method of Fruit Cropping Distribution Map using Satellite Images and GIS (위성영상과 GIS를 이용한 과수재배 분포도 작성 기법에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Myung-Hee;Bu, Ki-Dong;Lee, Jung-Hyoup;Lee, Kwang-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.73-86
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    • 2000
  • This study focused on extracting an efficient method in the fruit cropping distribution mapping with various classification methods using multi-temporal satellite images and Geographic Information Systems(GIS). For this study, multi-temporal Landsat TM images, in observation data and existing fruit cropping area statistics were used to compare and analyze the properties of fruit cropping and seasonal distribution per classification method. As a result, this study concludes that Maximum Likelihood Method with earlier autumn satellite image was most efficient for the fruit cropping mapping using Landsat TM image. In addition, it was clarified that cropping area per administrative boundary was prepared and distribution pattern was identified efficiently using GIS spatial analysis.

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Vetch Effects for the Low-input No-till Direct-Seeding Rice-Vetch Cropping System

  • Cho, Young Son;Choe, Zhin Ryong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.221-224
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    • 1999
  • A field experiment was carried out to observe the weed control effects of vetch and to evaluate vetch characteristics on clay loam soil in no-till direct-sown rice-vetch cropping systems. The effects of weed control, forage productivity, and N content of vetch plants were investigated. With the progress of plant growth, density of Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) gradually decreased, but densities of foxtail and other weeds decreased steeply due to the depression by the over-shaded vetch canopy in a no-till direct-sown rice-vetch cropping paddy field. The vetch density in tillage systems was lower than in notillage cropping systems. Lower vetch density occurred with an increase in foxtail density and other weeds. Weed control effect increased by the progress of vetch growth, which indicated that the vetch canopy over-shaded the weeds. Vetch straw was degraded rapidly submergence after with water at the time of wet sowing of rice. Early harvesting of vetch seed resulted in lower seed germination. To acquire enough seedlings without re-sowing, the harvesting of seed should be delayed at least 28 days after the flowering stage in order to ensure the vetch population is sustainable in a no-till direct-sown rice-vetch cropping system. In order to improve the survival of vetch plants, vetch seeds should germinate from the heading .stage to before the full-ripening stage of rice plants. To enhance the percent of over-wintering survival, vetch seeds should germinate no later than the end of October in southern Korea. The dry weight of vetch plants increased with the progress of vetch growth until the flowering stage but N content decreased for 30 days from before the flowering stage (2.9%) until the ripening stage (1.8%). We concluded that Chinese milk vetch could have an effect on weed control before the flowering stage, sustainability without re-sowing of seed annually, and effective green manure for rice pre-crop in no-till direct-sown rice-vetch relay cropping systems.

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Studies on Corn-Legume Intercropping System Ⅱ. Effect of corn-cowpea intercropping system on chemical composition and yield (Silage용 옥수수와 荳科作物의 間作에 關한 硏究 Ⅱ. Silage용 옥수수 (Zea mays L.)와 동부 (Vigna sinensis King)의 間作이 營養成分含量 및 收量에 미치는 影響)

  • Lee, Seung-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.128-134
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    • 1988
  • This experiment was carried out to compare chemical composition of corn-cowpea inter cropping and corn monocropping plants at different harvestion time and obtained the following results. 1. In both cropping systems, the contents of crude fat and nitrogen free extract (NFE) were significantly increased (P<0.01), while that of crude protein crude fiber and crude ash were decreased (P<0.01) with each harvesting time. 2. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and crude fiber contents were decreased same patterns in growing period, however, according to maturing of corn ears the difference between ADF and crude fiber contents reduced. 3. At mature stage, crude protein yields per 10a in corn monocropping and corn-cowpea intercropping system were 127.6kg and 152.1kg, respectively. The difference of crude protein content between corn-cowpea intercropping and corn monocropping system was 19.2%. 4. TDN yields of each cropping system, at mature stage, obtained similar results and TDN yields per 10a of corn monocropping and corn-cowpea intercropping system were 1006.1kg and 990.1, respectively. 5. Conseqently, corn-cowpea intercropping system could be increased protein yield without decreasing of dry matter yield in comparison with corn monocropping system.

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Development of sweet potato double cropping system in the southern island area of Korea

  • Moon, Jin-Young;Shin, Jung-Ho;Song, Jae-Ki;Choi, Yong-Jo;Hong, Kwang-Pyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.267-267
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    • 2017
  • In Korea, the average air temperature has been elevated twice faster than the average global warming. And the climate warming is characterized by the smaller rise of air temperature in summer and the greater rise of air temperature in spring and winter. Therefore, the number of frost-free days to determine the cultivation ability of crops has increased by more than 15 days in 10 years according to climate warming. This climate warming trend has extended and is projected to extend not only the sweet potato growing season but also the sweet potato early cultivating area to higher altitude and latitude region. This study was carried out to evaluate the possibility of sweet potato double cropping in the southern island area of Korea by assessing the growth and yield performance of sweet potato cultivated at extremely-early and -late time. We had performed at Yokji Island Yokji Island($E128^{\circ}$ 18' $N34^{\circ}$ 36'), a representative specified complex area of sweet potato cultivation in southern Korea. As the test varieties, the major cultivars of the this region, Shinyulmi and early hypertrophic cultivars, Dahomi were used. The prior cropping were planted with PE film mulching on March 30 and April 10, and harvested after 110 days. So the succeeding cropping were planted without PE film mulching on July 25 and August 5 according to the harvesting time of the prior sweet potato and harvested after 120 days. As a control, it was harvested on September 15, 120 days after planted on May 15. Each experimental plot had an area of 12 square meters consisting of 4 beds, and was planted one at a time at intervals of 25cm. We had investigated growth characteristics - main vine length, node number, branch number, total vine yield, and tuberous root characteristics - tuberous root number, average weight, starch value, and etc. After harvesting, we analyzed the economic effects by examining the postharvest quantity, the input labor, the management cost, and the income. The total yield of marketable products in prior and succeeding cropping was 46~70% higher than that of control. The average unit price of sweet potato was 36% higher than the conventional culture, and the gross income increased by 98%, but the operating cost increased by 83%, and the farm income increased by 103%. There are considerations such as the difficulty of enlargement of cultivation area due to lack of labor in limited space and the need for watering measures due to spring drought. However, if the area of application for sweet potatoes double system is increased by 10%, it can be used as a new cropping system.

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Development of sweet potato double cropping system in the southern island area of Korea

  • Moon, Jin-young;Shin, Jung-ho;Song, Jae-ki;Choi, Yong-jo;Hong, Kwang-pyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.280-280
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    • 2017
  • In Korea, the average air temperature has been elevated twice faster than the average global warming. And the climate warming is characterized by the smaller rise of air temperature in summer and the greater rise of air temperature in spring and winter. Therefore, the number of frost-free days to determine the cultivation ability of crops has increased by more than 15 days in 10 years according to climate warming. This climate warming trend has extended and is projected to extend not only the sweet potato growing season but also the sweet potato early cultivating area to higher altitude and latitude region. This study was carried out to evaluate the possibility of sweet potato double cropping in the southern island area of Korea by assessing the growth and yield performance of sweet potato cultivated at extremely-early and -late time. We had performed at Yokji Island Yokji Island($E128^{\circ}$ 18' $N34^{\circ}$ 36'), a representative specified complex area of sweet potato cultivation in southern Korea. As the test varieties, the major cultivars of the this region, Shinyulmi and early hypertrophic cultivars, Dahomi were used. The prior cropping were planted with PE film mulching on March 30 and April 10, and harvested after 110 days. So the succeeding cropping were planted without PE film mulching on July 25 and August 5 according to the harvesting time of the prior sweet potato and harvested after 120 days. As a control, it was harvested on September 15, 120 days after planted on May 15. Each experimental plot had an area of 12 square meters consisting of 4 beds, and was planted one at a time at intervals of 25cm. We had investigated growth characteristics - main vine length, node number, branch number, total vine yield, and tuberous root characteristics - tuberous root number, average weight, starch value, and etc. After harvesting, we analyzed the economic effects by examining the postharvest quantity, the input labor, the management cost, and the income. The total yield of marketable products in prior and succeeding cropping was 46~70% higher than that of control. The average unit price of sweet potato was 36% higher than the conventional culture, and the gross income increased by 98%, but the operating cost increased by 83%, and the farm income increased by 103%. There are considerations such as the difficulty of enlargement of cultivation area due to lack of labor in limited space and the need for watering measures due to spring drought. However, if the area of application for sweet potatoes double system is increased by 10%, it can be used as a new cropping system.

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