• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cropping system

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Estimating Soil Losses from Saemangeum Watershed based on Cropping Systems (작부체계를 고려한 새만금유역의 토양유실량 추정)

  • Lee, Eun-Jeong;Cho, Young-Kyoung;Park, Seung-Woo;Kim, Hak-Kwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.101-112
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    • 2006
  • A Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed to estimate basin-wide soil losses using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). It was applied to estimate the annual average soil losses from the Saemangeum watershed. The USLE factors for each subarea of uniform land use and treatments were estimated from the GIS routines from digital topographic maps, land cover and detailed soil maps. A routine was developed to estimate the averaged cropping management factors (C) of USLE for multi-cropping farmlands, based on cropping system records from the district offices. The resulting C factors ranged from 0.28 to 0.35 for multi-cropping areas. The estimated annual average soil loss was approximately 2.9 million tonnes. Typical soil losses from different land uses were 0.8 t/ha at paddies, 33.7 t/ha at uplands and 1.1 t/ha from forested mountains. It was also found that 6.0% of the arable land of the watershed possessed high risks of soil losses, and conservation measures were needed to reduce soil losses.

Effect of Cropping System on Disease Incidence by Soil-borne Bymovirus in Barley and on Density of the Vector, Polymyxa graminis (작부형태가 보리의 토양전염성 Bymovirus 발생과 매개균(Polymyxa graminis)의 밀도 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jong-Chul;Noh, Tae-Hwan;Kim, Mi-Jung;Lee, Sang-Bok;Park, Chul-Soo;Kang, Chun-Sik;Lee, Jung-Joon;Kim, Tae-Soo
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 2010
  • In this study, changes in virus disease occurrence and yield were monitored in conventional cropping system(rice-barley) and soybean-barley double cropping system in virus-prone area for 5 years. Also, changes in the density of Polymyxa graminis, a fungal vector, was investigated. In assay tests, mixed infection of Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV) was observed. Disease severity was in the range of 7~9 in conventional cropping system. In continuous cropping of soybean-barley and 3-yearfallow land, disease severity also was around 7. However, disease severity was reduced to medium level (5) when barley cultivation was paused for one or two years in soybean-barley cropping. When barley cultivation was paused for a year, the density of P. graminis, a fungal vector for BaYMV and BaMMV, reduced in barley root and soil. Similarly, barley growth was also enhanced by adopting fallow seasons. Compared with the fifth year of conventional cropping, the number of tillers per $m^2$ was increased by 158 when barley cultivation was paused for an year in soybean-barley cropping. When soybean and barley were cultivated continuously or complete fallow period was extended to three years, plant height and the number of tillers of barley were decreased. Yield components of barley in soybean-barley cropping were superior to those in rice-barley cropping. Compared with the fifth year of conventional cropping and soybean-barley cropping, culm length of barley was 1.3~2.3 cm higher and the number of tillers per $m^2$ was 36~90 higher when barley cultivation was paused for one or two years. However, those in continuous cropping of soybean-barley and 3-year-fallow land were lower compared with conventional cropping. Similarly, yield was increased when barley cultivation was paused for one or two years in the third, forth, and fifth years when compared with conventional cropping.

The Application of Early-maturing Corn to Cropping System of Forrage Crop I. The late-sowing adaptability of corn varieties requiring the short period to maturing (조숙 옥수수에 의한 사료작물 작부체계 구성 I. 조숙 옥수수 품종의 만파적응성)

  • 임근발;양종석;한흥전;최영원
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 1991
  • For the constitution of forage cropping system including the double-cropping of corn, attention has been directed towards the early and short maturing varieties of corn such as Comet 80, Comet 85 and Linda as a component forage crop of forage cropping system. Four corn varieties, Comet 80, Comet 85, Linda and Suwon 19 were planted delayedly by each of 45, 55 and 65 days from the recommended sowing date of suwon 19. Under these condition, growth characteristics and late-sowing adaptability of 4 corn varieties were investigated, and the results are summarized as follows; 1. The variety of suwon 19 did not reach the stage of silking in the occasion of late sowing by 50 days from the optimum sowing time for mono cropping of suwon 19. However early varieties such as Comet 80, Comet 85 and Linda silked under the condition of 65 days-delayed sowing from the recommended sowing time of Suwon 19 for mono-cropping. 2. Early varieties of Comet 80, Comet 85 and Linda were so grown by approximately 92% in plant height, 66% in ear height, 88% in stem diameter and 81% in leaf number respectively compared to Suwon 19 at each of three delayed sowing time that exhibited the dwarfish appearance of canopy. 3. Days from sowing to silking decreased as the sowing time was delayed and the average days from sowing to silking in the sowing treatments of 55 days-delayed of Suwon 19, Comet 80, Comet 85 and Linda were 61, 46, 47 and 51 days, respectively. 4. The size of variations of plant height and ear height influenced by delayed-sowing time was comparatively larger in the varieties of Suwon 19 and Linda than in those of Comet 80 and Comet 85. 5. As sowing time was delayed from the optimum sowing time of Suwon 19 for mono-cropping, ear content decreased from 0% of Suwon 19 at 55 day-delayed sowing treatment to 3540% of Comet 80 and Comet 85 at 65 days-delayed sowing treatment.

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Studies of Organic Forage Production System for Animal Production in Korea (한국의 가축 생산성 향상을 위한 유기조사료 생산체계에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Kim, Jong-Kwan;Kwon, Chan-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.155-166
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    • 2014
  • Organic forage production system is one of the most important aspects in organic livestock production. Animals in the organic farming system are also essential for manure to be used for organic forage production. Both organic forage and animals are essential to maintain the cycle of organic agriculture system. In this paper we introduce the organic forage production system in Korea. Summer and winter crops are getting popular in Korea because of their high forage yield and cultivation in double cropping systems. Common cropping system for forage production in Korea is the double cropping system with legume and grass mixture. Forage sorghum and sudangrass are the most popular ones of annual summer forage corps because of their high production with low cost in the double cropping systems. In the mixture of forage crops, inter cropping is more suitable in the corn and sorghum cropping system because of high lodging resistance and forage yield, and low weed population. Forage sorghum and sudangrass are difficult to preserve as direct-cut silage due to the fact that its high moisture content causes excessive fermentation during ensiling. Corn grain addition to sorghum silage could be recommended as the most effective treatment for increasing quality and reducing production cost. It is recommended that corn grain could be added up to 10% of total amount of silage. And agriculture by-products also can be added at the time of ensiling to minimize losses of effluent and have the additional advantage of increasing quality. Agriculture by-products as silage supplements increased DM content and quality, and decreased the production cost of sorghum silage. Field pre-wilting treatment of forage crops also increased DM content and quality of the silage. Wilting sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid before ensiling was the effective method for reducing effluent and increasing pH and forage quality more than direct cut silage. Optimum prewilting period of sudangrass silage was 1 or 2 days. In organic forage, the most important factor is the enhancement of organic forage sufficiency in relation to the environmental-friendly and organic livestock. Consequently, there are many possibilities for animal production and organic forage production in Korea. No forages no cattle concept should be emphasized in organic farming system.

Case studies for estimation nitrogen and phosphorous balance with different cropping systems in upland (현장사례를 통한 밭 작부의 질소와 인산양분 수지 평가)

  • Yun, Hong-Bae;Lee, Sang-Min;Kim, Myung-Sook;Lee, Ye-Jin;Lee, Yeoun;Lee, Jong-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.762-766
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    • 2011
  • Cropping system is very important for environment conservation and improvement of nutrient recovery rates in agricultural land. This case study was conducted to identify the nutrient balance of major upland cropping types with different districts. Typical cropping systems at MuAn and HaeNam located in the south coast district were cultivated with soybean-chinese cabbage or garlic and garlic-soybean-chinese cabbage-hot pepper. Alpine district, PyeongChang was cultivated with double cropping of chinese cabbage and potato-radish or chinese cabbage for one year. Typical cropping type of AnDong, YeongYang where are well known for hot pepper cultivation was hot pepper's mono cropping and hot pepper-soybean or hot pepper-sesame for one year. But SeoSan and HongSeong, where are located in mid-west coast had variety cropping system compareed to other districts. Double cropping of chinese cabbage, a heavy fertilizing crop, caused higher nutrient balance in the field when it was cultivated consistently. Experiment showed that heavy fertilizing crops, such as chinese cabbage, garlic and onion, need to be rotated with soybean and sesame cultivation which need smaller fertilizer level. Alpine arable land has shown higher nutrient balance than other areas, and the introduction of rotation crops are needed to reduce nutrient balance and environmental protection.

Establishment of Optimum Pattern of Farm Machinery for Forage Production (조사료 생산을 위한 농업기계의 적정모형 설정)

  • 김건엽;김정갑;한민수
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.222-230
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    • 1995
  • This study was canied out to ddermine optimum areas for various sizes of land coverage of the farm machinery utilization in 1993-1994. A kind of machinery size and work systems were classed as the power tiller of 10HP+man power, the tractor of 35~46HP (tractor of 64~86HP and attachment were leased to harvest work), 64-86HP+ attachment and 90- 105HP+ attachment, respectively. \ulcornerhe results are summarized as follows: 1. The optimum areas of tractors of 90~105HP, 64~86HP and the power tiller of lOHP were estimated as 21.9 (corn-rye cropping system)- 26.9ha (sorghum $\times$ sudangrass - rye cropping system), 14.7 - 22.8ha and 1.2 - 1.61ha, respectively. The break-even-point areas of the tractors of 90-105HP. 64-86HP and the power tiller of lOHP were 16.6 (corn-rye cropping system)- 19.9ha (sorghum $\times$ sudangrass - rye cropping system), 12.5 - 16.lha and 0.12-0.13ha, respectively. 2. The optimum areas (land sizes, annual field capacity) for 50 cows by feeding rate(%) of roughage to concentrate were 6.8ha, 13.6ha in the 4060, 8.5ha, 17.0ha in the 5050 and 10.2ha, 20.4ha in the 60:40, and in case of 30 cows, it were 4.lha, 8.2ha in the 40:60, respectively. In the former case for the form of work system was the trador of 90-105HP+attachment and 64~86HP+ attachment, and the latter was the tractor of 35~46HP (tractor of 64~86HP and attachment were leased to harvest work) and 64-86HP+ attachment. 3. Productiori cost for corn-rye cropping system reducted to 51.8% in 102.9 wonkg dry matter the tractor of 90~ 105HP+ attachment with 213.4 wonkg dry matter the power tiller of 10HP+ man power.

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Effect of Winter Crop Cultivation on Soil Organic Carbon and Physico-chemical Properties Under Different Rice-forage Cropping Systems in Paddy Soil

  • Yun, Sun-Gang;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Ko, Byong-Gu;Park, Seong-Jin;Kim, Myung-Sook;Kim, Ki-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2016
  • Soil organic carbon plays an important role on soil physico-chemical properties and crop yields in paddy soil. However, there is little information on the soil organic carbon under different forage cultivation during winter season in rice paddy. In this study, we investigated the soil organic carbon and physico-chemical properties in 87 fields of paddy soil cultivated with Barley, rye, and Italian ryegrass (IRG) as animal feedstock during winter season. Organic carbon was 12.9, 14.3, and $16.9g\;C\;kg^{-1}$ in soil with barley, rye, and IRG cultivation, respectively. Among rice-forage cultivation systems, the rice+IRG cropping system was 19.5% higher than in the mono-rice cultivation. Bulk density ranged from 1.17 to $1.28g\;cm^{-3}$ irrespective of cropping systems, and had strongly negative correlation with the soil organic carbon in the rice+IRG cropping system. Carbon storage in rice+IRG cropping systems was average $29.6Mg\;ha^{-1}$ at 15 cm of soil depth, which was 20.4 and 10.3% higher than those of barley and rye cultivation. Increasing carbon storage in paddy soil contributed to the fertility for following rice cultivation. This results indicated that IRG cultivation during winter season could be an alternative and promising way to enhance soil organic carbon content and fertility of paddy soil.

A Study on the Regional Variation of Tenancy System in Later Yi-Dynasty in Korea (조선(朝鮮) 후기소작(後期小作) 형태(形態)의 지역적(地域的).차이(差異)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Ki-Hyuk
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study is to analyse the regional variation of tenancy system in later Yi-Dynasty in Korea. Materials for the analysis are acquired through materials(韓國土地農産調査報告), published in 1905 and agricultural census published in 1912. For the identification of difference of tenancy system between agricultural region, regionalization are conducted through by crop combination. Crop combination structure, using rank of LQ index, was clustered into five generic lesions through cluster analysis. In these contexts, this study has come to following conclusions. There are three types of tenancy system in materials; (1) Doji(賭地) system of which landrent was 1/3 agricultural products. Tenant healed the land tax and seeds. (2) Byoengjak(竝作) system of which landrent was 1/2 agricultural products. Landlords healed the land tax and seeds (3) Jeongaek(定額法) system of which landrent was fixed without relation to annual products. But through the analysis of relationship between agricultural region and tenancy system, a new tenancy system could be identified : Byeongjak(竝作) II system. In this system, landrent was 1/2 of agricultural products, but landlord and tenant shared the landtax and seed in common. In the distribution of these systems, relationship between tenancy system and agricultural regions could be identified. Doji system was distributed in the regions where rice and double cropping was specialized. But Byoeongjak(竝作) system was distributed in the regions where upland crops are specialized and ratio of Paddy field is comparatively low. Especially new types were emenged where ratio of paddy field was very low. These show that increase of productivity of land didn't induce the development of the right of ownership in land. The development of ownership was emerged only on the rice paddy fields. Barley cultivated through double-cropping passed into tenant's possessions. So nominal landrent in paddy field seemed to be raised, but actual landrent was maintained about 1/3 of Products through double cropping. On the contrary, rights of cultivation is developed through double cropping. As double cropping is developed, competition on paddy field between tenants was intensified. Consequently nominal land rent of Paddy fields should be raised.

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Studies on the Improvement of the Cropping System (I) (작부체계(作付體系) 개선(改善)에 관(關)한 조사연구(調査硏究)(I))

  • Choi, Chang Yeol
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.61-73
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    • 1983
  • This study was conducted to obtain fundamental informations on the improvement of cropping system to increase in land utilization rate and crop production. In order to group the characteristics of areas, Chungnam province was classified into 4 classes: Suburb (Daedeog Gun, Cheonwon Gun), Plain (Nonsan Gun, Dangjin Gun) Coastal (Seosan Gun, Boryeong Gun) and Hilly region (Gongju Gun, Cheongyang Gun). 100 farm households were sampled from each region, and cropping system and utilization state of paddy and upland in 1982 were surveyed. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. Average utilization rate of upland was 161.9 % The utilization rate of upland at plain was highest (188.9 %), and that at suburb showed lowest value (152.0%). 2. Number of crops cultivated at upland was 32 kinds. Among the rate of planting area of each crop. soybean showed highest rate of 18.8%, barley 15.4%, red-pepper 13.1% and chinese' cabbage 10.1% respectively, but the red pepper showed highest rate of planting area at suburb, the barley at hilly region and the soybean at plain and coastal region. 3. Average utilization rate of paddy was 115.6% and the utilization rate of paddy at suburb showed the highest value (140.0%) and that at coastal region the lowest value (108.2%). 4. 12 kinds of crops were cultivated at paddy before or after rice cultivation. Among the crops cultivated at paddy before or after rice cultivation, barley showed the highest area rate (5.0%) of cultivation and strawberry the next but the strawberry showed the highest area rate of cultivation at suburb and barley at other regions. 5. The cropping systems at upland were divided into single cropping and double cropping. Types of double cropping at upland were classified into 38 types by the combinations of crops. Among the types of double cropping, the rate of cultivation area of soybean after barley combination was 35.0%, but at suburb the rate of this type of cropping system was low and the double cropping of vegetable combinations showed high rate. 6. Types of double cropping at paddy were classified into 6 types. As a whole, double cropping of barley after rice combination showed highest rate of cultivation area (42.8%) among crop combinations but at suburb, the area rate of this type cropping was low and cultivation of fruit vegetable after rice showed highest rate. The area rate of post - cropping to rice was 76.3% of whole double cropping area at paddy and significantly higher than the rate of precropping to rice. 7. Some kinds of crop combinations were consisted of same family or closely related crops and the characteristics of the crop rotation between those crops are almost same. The area cultivated those unreasonable crop combinations were 19.09 ha. 8. At upland, planting area of the cereal crops, vegetale crops and industrial crops crops and industrial crops was 88.92ha, 93.70ha and 21.80ha respectively. The Planting area of cereal crops was significantly less than that of vegetable crops. 9. Most of all the research reports on the cropping system from 1910 to 1980 were about the post cropping after rice harvest. The objectives of researches could be classified into 14 kinds and the important objectives of researches were the planting time, the amounting of manuring, the quantity of seeding, the transplanting time, the ridging method, the sowing method and the variety test.

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Selection of Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonas spp. That Enhanced Productivity of Soybean-Wheat Cropping System in Central India

  • Sharma, Sushil K.;Johri, Bhavdish Narayan;Ramesh, Aketi;Joshi, Om Prakash;Sai Prasad, S.V.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1127-1142
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    • 2011
  • The aim of this investigation was to select effective Pseudomonas sp. strains that can enhance the productivity of soybean-wheat cropping systems in Vertisols of Central India. Out of 13 strains of Pseudomonas species tested in vitro, only five strains displayed plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties. All the strains significantly increased soil enzyme activities, except acid phosphatase, total system productivity, and nutrient uptake in field evaluation; soil nutrient status was not significantly influenced. Available data indicated that six strains were better than the others. Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled cluster analysis of yield and nutrient data separated these strains into five distinct clusters with only two effective strains, GRP3 and HHRE81 in cluster IV. In spite of single cluster formation by strains GRP3 and HHRE81, they were diverse owing to greater intracluster distance (4.42) between each other. These results suggest that the GRP3 and HHRE81 strains may be used to increase the productivity efficiency of soybean-wheat cropping systems in Vertisols of Central India. Moreover, the PCA coupled cluster analysis tool may help in the selection of other such strains.