• Title/Summary/Keyword: Cropping system

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Effects of Green Manure Crop and Cattle Slurry as Fertilizer Sources on Productivity and Nutritive Value of Sorghum X Sudangrass hybrid, and Soil Properties in Kimje, Chunlabukdo (김제지역에서 비료원으로써 녹비작물과 액상우분이 수수 X 수단그라스 교잡종의 생산성, 사료가치 및 토양성질에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Ki-Choon;Na, Sang-Pil;Jo, Nam-Chul;Jung, Min-Woong;Kim, Jong-Geun;Park, Hyung-Soo;Yoon, Chang;Lim, Young-Chul;Yook, Wan-Bang
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.337-344
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of various cropping system applied with cattle slurry on productivity of sorghum $\times$ sudangrass hybrid (SSH) and environmental pollution in paddy land. cropping systems used in this study were consisted of two designs, such as double-cropping sorghum $\times$ sudangrass hybrid followed by whole crop barley applied with cattle slurry (DSSCS) and mono-cropping sorghum $\times$ sudangrass hybrid followed by hairy vetch used as green manure (MSSGM). The field experiments were conducted on the clay loam at Backsanmyun, Kimje, Chunlabukdo province in Korea for three years (May 2006 to Apr. 2009). This study was arranged in completely randomized design with three replicates. The yield of dry matter (DM) of SSH in DSSCS increased significantly as compared with that of MSSGM (P<0.05). The contents of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) of SSH were not influenced by cattle slurry and green manure. The pH, and contents of OM, T-N and $P_2O_5$ in soil samples collected from DSSCS after the end of experiment were higher than those of MSSGM. The pH, and contents of OM in DSSCS treatment were remarkably higher than those at the beginning of the experiment (p<0.05). However, The pH, and contents of OM in MSSGM treatment were hardly influenced, as compared with those at the beginning of the experiment. The contents of T-N in soil samples collected both from DSSCS snd MSSGM treatments were remarkably higher than those at the beginning of the experiment (p<0.05). In addition, the concentrations of CEC in soil samples collected at the end of the experiment were remarkably higher than those at the beginning of the experiment (p<0.05). The concentrations of $NO_3$-N, $NH_3$-N and $PO_4$-P in leaching water were hardly influenced by the cropping system and application of cattle slurry.

Studies on Cropping System for Year-Round Cultivation of Forage Crops in Gyeongnam Province (경남지방에서 조사료 주년생산 작부체계에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Dal-Soon;Kim, Dae-Ho;Shin, Hyun-Yul;Son, Gil-Man;Rho, Chi-Woong;Kim, Jung-Gon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.137-152
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    • 2009
  • Present experiment was conducted at the field of Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services in Jinju city for two continuous cropping seasons to develop several adaptable and valuable year-round forage-producing system for elevating self-sufficiency and dollar-saving by reduced importing of crude forage. Twenty cropping systems were tested in experiment using whole crop barley (WCB), oat, rye, Italian ryegrass (IRG), and triticale in winter season and com, sorghum, sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid, and oat in summer time. Sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid showed highest fresh forage yield among experimented summer season crops, and followed com. Com produced the most dry matter yield, and followed sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid, sorghum and oat in order. There was no significant effect of former winter crops on fresh and dry matter production succeeding summer time crops. Among winter season forage crops tested, oat showed the highest fresh and dry matter when clipped on mid-May, and followed triticale, IRG, rye and WCB. Winter-time cultivated crops showed no clear effect on the growth and forage (fresh and dry matter) producing ability of following summer crops. There was the most protein content in oat plant among summer season planted crops, and in sorghum for acid detergent fiber (ADF) and in sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), respectively. While, com showed highest value of relative feed value (RFV) and total digestive nutrients (TDN) among those crops. Among winter crops, the highest crude protein was in oat plant showing no significant differences of ADF and NDF, while, relatively higher value of RFV was recognized with rye and triticale. Also, triticale contained more TDN as compare to other forage crops. The cropping combinations such as com followed by (fb) rye and maize fb triticale were regarded as promising systems having higher dry matter producing ability among tested combinations. Considering TDN producing potential, the combinations with sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid fb triticale andlor rye were would be suitable ones, coincidently. There was a tendency which elevating pH, electric conductivity (EC) and organic matter (OM) contents in soil after experiment comparing to before planting. More crude protein content in plant was shown at mid-May clipping as compared to the forage at April cut in all winter season grown crops. ADF and NDF contents were increased by delayed clipping showing decreased tendency of RFV and TDN in plant. In conclusion, many cropping systems would be available using above mentioned forage crops according to farmer's conditions and scale, etc.

Effect of Ridging System and Mulch Types on Growth, Yield, and Profitability of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Spring Cropping (감자(Solanum tuberosum L.) 봄재배 시 작휴와 멀칭이 생육, 수량 및 경제성에 미치는 영향)

  • Im, Ju Sung;Cho, Ji Hong;Cho, Kwang Soo;Chang, Dong Chil;Jin, Yong Ik;Yu, Hong Seob;Lee, Jong Nam
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.202-210
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine effects of ridging systems and plastic film mulch types on growth, yield, and profitability of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in spring cropping using paddy field and to suggest profitable ridging system and plastic mulch type.METHODS AND RESULTS: Two potato cultivars ('Goun', and 'Atlantic') were grown at paddy field located in Gangneung in spring. For treatments, ridging systems were one-row ridge (OR) and two-row ridge (TR). Mulch types were no-mulch (NM), black plastic film mulch (BPM), and transparent plastic film mulch (TPM). Emergence of sprout was affected by the mulch types and the fastest level was shown at TPM treatment. Accumulative soil temperature during sprouting was 16.2℃ higher at TR than at OR and also higher at TPM than at BPM or NM. Stem length was not affected by ridging systems or mulch types. Leaf area index (LAI) was influenced by mulch types, while not by ridging systems. The highest LAI was shown at TR with TPM and OR of BPM. There was no significant difference in specific gravity or dry matter rate by ridging systems and mulch types. Tuber yield was significantly influenced by ridging systems and mulch types. Mean tuber weight was heavier at OR treatment than at TR and also the heaviest at TPM among mulch types. The highest marketable yield was found at OR with BPM. Based on marketable tuber yield and market price, the highest income ratio in two cultivars was found at OR with BPM and it was 20~82% higher than the ratio at TR with TPM.CONCLUSION: In spring potato cropping using paddy field, OR with BPM is better for high yield and is more profitable for farmer's income than the conventional cultivation method, TR with TPM.

Differences of Soil Carbon by Green Manure Crops in Rotated Cropping System (윤작지 녹비작물종류에 따른 토양탄소 함량 변화)

  • Kim, Kyeong-Mok;Lee, Byeong-Jin;Cho, Young-Son
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1027-1031
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    • 2012
  • This experiment was conducted to select winter-adaptable crop system or cropping systems for an enhanced carbon (C) fixation amount in plant biomass and soil. Single or mixed cropping systems of green manure crops, rye (R), triticale (TC), hairy vetch (HV), TC+HV, and control (fallow) were investigated during winter and spring. The amount and content of C and N in the above-ground biomass and soil C content by soil depth were measured under different green manure crops. The above-ground biomass was highest in TC+HV followed by R and TC with 664, 585, and 545 kg $10a^{-1}$, which exceeded the biomass of control by 181, 160, and 149%, respectively. The amount of C accumulation was higher in soil surface than deep soil. which was a similar pattern to the above-ground biomass. Therefore, green manure cropping in winter and spring seasons will be very helpful of improve soil organic matter.

Cost Analysis of Wrap Silage Production in the Paddy Field for Forage Crop Cropping System (답리작 사료작물의 랩사일리지 생산비 분석)

  • Ha, Yu-Shin;Park, Kyung-Kyoo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.75-84
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    • 2012
  • Mechanized operation model and mechanical cultivation technology for winter barley, rye, Italian ryegrass and sudan grass wrap silage production system at the paddy field for cropping system was developed. Also, a series of experiment were performed and lots of data were collected and analyzed to develope mechanical technology, coverage area, and optimum size of the farm (break-even point) for wrap silage production system. The coverage area for winter barley or rye wrap-silage production system is determined around 61.9, 73.4, 77.5, 88.2 ha in the case of drill seeding and different ripening species by tractor power 50, 75, 100, 130 ps, respectably. The break-even point of the farming size is analyzed as 20 ha and its production cost is estimated around 367, 383, 430, 443 won/TDN-kg in the case of winter barley wrap-silage by tractor power 50, 75, 100, 130 ps, respectably. The break-even point of the farming size is analyzed as coverage area and its production cost is estimated around 237, 215 won/TDN-kg in the case of winter barley wrap silage and sudan grass by the tractor power 50, 100 ps, respectably.

Utilization of Liquid Pig Manure as a Substitute for Chemical Fertilizer in Double Cropping system of Rice Followed by Onion (벼·양파 작부체계에서 화학비료 절감을 위한 돈분뇨액비의 활용)

  • Lee, Jong-Tae;Lee, Chan-Jung;Kim, Hee-Dae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the availability of liquid pig manure (LPM) as a substitute for chemical fertilizer (CF) in double cropping system of rice followed by onion. The LPM applied for rice in silty clay loam soil cultivated in the double cropping system with onion contained $3.8g\;N\;kg^{-1}$, $1.8g\;P_2O_5\;kg^{-1}$ and $2.7g\;K_2O\;kg^{-1}$. The LPM applied for onion after rice contained $4.9g\;N\;kg^{-1}$, $1.4g\;P_2O_5\;kg^{-1}$ and $2.1g\;K_2O\;kg^{-1}$. Soil pH increased after rice culture irrespective of treatments. The rice growth and grain yield among CF and LPM applications were not significantly different. The application of LPM without top dressing of CF delayed onion growth at mid and late stage. But when the LPM was applied as basal fertilizer and CF was added for top dressing, onion growth was maintained until late growth stage. The nutrient uptake of LPM and top-dressing by CF (rice)/LPM and top-dressing by CF (onion) were similar to CF (rice)/CF (onion). The highest yield of onion bulb was 58.5 Mg ha-1 at CF (rice)/LPM and top-dressing by CF (onion) treatment, but showed no significant difference with other treatments except CF (rice)/LPM only (onion) and no fertilization (rice)/no fertilization (onion) treatments. In conclusion, in double cropping system of rice followed by onion, rice was capable of being grown by only liquid pig manure but additive chemical fertilizer was needed for optimal onion growth.

Development of cutting length control systems for crop loss minimization of head end in wire rolling process (선재압연공정에서의 선단부 crop loss최소화를 위한 절사량 제어시스템 개발)

  • 이상호;손붕호
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.1493-1495
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    • 1997
  • Cropping of head and tail ends of rod in wire Rolling Process is required to aviod roll damage, and prevent cobbles. In order to reduce the crop loss, the new crop control system for rotary shear of Wire rolling Process has been developed. Performance shows the developed system cut precisely within setting length. As a result, it is expected to increase the yield ratio of products about 0.2 percent and stabilize the operantional condition.

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A Study on the Development of Digital Watermarking for Copyright Protector of Original Image Data (디지털 이미지 데이터의 저작권 보호를 위한 디지털 워터마킹 개발에 관한 연구)

  • 조정석;유세근;김종원;최종욱
    • Proceedings of the Korea Inteligent Information System Society Conference
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    • pp.519-523
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    • 1999
  • 본 연구는 디지털 이미지 데이터에 대한 창작자의 저작권 보호 기술인 watermarking 기술을 연구하였다. 저작권 보호를 위한 정보를 invisible watermark로 삽입하였고, watermarking된 칼라 이미지를 데이터 압축, Filtering, cropping 등과 같은 여러 가지 외부 공격에 대한 내구성을 실험하였다. Invisible watermark를 삽입하기 위하여 변형된 주파수 변환기법을 이용하였으며, 기존의 PRN(pseudo random number)방법보다 가시성이 뛰어난 이미지 형태의 로고를 삽입하여 저작권에 대한 확증성을 제고하였다.

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MANACING SALINITY PROBLEMS IN RICE FIELDS

  • Sanil, K.;Daham, M.D.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.556-564
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    • 1993
  • The response of salt affected rice soils to salinity reclaimation by flushings and chemical amelioration by lime and gypsum were evaluated . Soils with good drainage system responded well to simple reclimation . The effects of seawater intrusion were reduced efficiently in a very short time. Yields of rice crops recovered to their potential level within one to two seasons of cropping. Soil profile strength was also improved under well drained areas. However, when drainage system was ineffective the problems of salinity and soil strength remained unsolved. Under both condition, water depth management played important role in the survival of rice crop under the sline soil conditions.

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Effect of Green Manure Biomass and Rice Yield on Continuous Cropping by different Seeding rate of Hairy vetch in Paddy

  • Jeon, W.T.;Seong, K.Y.;Oh, I.S.;Jeong, K.H.;Lee, J.K.;Choi, B.S.;Kim, C.G.;Lee, Y.H.;Kang, U.G.
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.174-177
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    • 2011
  • Green manure crops play an important role in organic farming. Field experiment was conducted at paddy soil (fine loamy, mixed, nonacid, mesic family of Aeric Fluvaquentic Endoquepts) in 2008/2009 to 2009/2010 at the National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), RDA, Suwon, Gyeonggi province, Korea. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the biomass of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and growth of rice (Oryza sativa) by different seeding rates. Seeding rates of hairy vetch consisted of 30, 60, and 90 kg $ha^{-1}$ by broadcasting before rice harvesting. The biomass and nitrogen production of hairy vetch were not significantly different between 60 kg $ha^{-1}$ and 90 kg $ha^{-1}$ of seedinq rates. Also, rice yield was not significantly different between seeding rate 60 kg $ha^{-1}$ of hairy vetch and conventional practice for two years. Therefore, we suggested that seeding rate of hairy vetch should be reduced by continuous cropping and incorporation of hairy vetch under rice-based cropping system.