• Title/Summary/Keyword: Cropping system

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Estimation of Regional Agricultural Water Demand over the Jeju Island (제주도 권역별 농업용수 수요량 산정에 대한 고찰)

  • Choi, Kwang-Jun;Song, Sung-Ho;Kim, Jin-Sung;Lim, Chan-Woo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.639-649
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    • 2013
  • Over 96.2% of the agricultural water in Jeju Island is obtained from groundwater and there are quite distinct characteristics of agricultural water demand/supply spatially because of regional and seasonal differences in cropping system and rainfall amount. Land use for cultivating crops is expected to decrease 7.4% (4,215 ha) in 2020 compared to 2010, while market garden including various vegetable crop types having high water demand is increasing over the Island, especially western area having lower rainfall amount compared to southern area. On the other hand, land use for fruit including citrus and mandarin having low water demand is widely distributed over southern and northern part having higher rainfall amount. The agricultural water demand of $1,214{\times}10^3\;m^3/day$ in 2020 is estimated about 1.39 times compared to groundwater supply capacity of $874{\times}10^3\;m^3/day$ in 2010 with 42.4% of eastern, 103.1% of western, 61.9% of southern, and 77.0% of northern region. Moreover, net secured amount of agricultural groundwater would be expected to be much smaller due to regional disparity of water demand/supply, the lack of linkage system between the agricultural water supply facilities, and high percentage of private wells. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure the total net secured amount of agricultural groundwater to overcome the expected regional discrepancy of water demand and supply by establishing policy alternative of regional water supply plan over the Island, including linkage system between wells, water tank enlargement, private wells maintenance and public wells development, and continuous enlargement of rainwater utilization facilities.

Effect of Agricultural Land Use on Abundance, Community Structure and Biodiversity of Epigeic Arthropods (농경지의 이용형태가 토양성 절지동물 군집 및 다양성에 미치는 영향)

  • Eo, Jin U;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Nam, Hyung kyu;Song, Young Ju
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.139-144
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND: Epigeic arthropods participate in ecological functions as predators, decomposers and herbivores. The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of some dominant arthropods in rice fields to different forms of agricultural land management. METHODS AND RESULTS: The abundance of microarthropods was compared between rice fields and uplands in the non-growing season. Collembola, Oribatida and Mesostigmata were more abundant in the upland fields than in the paddy fields. The community composition and diversity of epigeic arthropods were compared between fallow and rice fields. The total abundance and species richness of spiders and ground beetles were not significantly different in the two types of agricultural fields. The abundance of Arctosa kwangreungensis was greater in fallow fields than in cultivated fields. The community structure of arthropods was compared between paddy fields with and without barley. The cropping system altered the community composition of spiders but not their biodiversity. Barley cultivation increased the abundance of ground beetles but decreased that of spiders. We suggest that this contrast was partly due to the availability of plants that provided shelter and food for ground beetles. CONCLUSION: These results show that soil use intensity and cropping system alter the community composition of epigeic spiders and ground beetles. This could result in ecosystem-level alterations with respect to the control of pests and weeds. Our results also suggest that biodiversity of ground-dwelling arthropods may not increase during short fallow periods.

Climatic Influence on the Water Requirement of Wheat-Rice Cropping System in UCC Command Area of Pakistan (파키스탄 UCC 관개지역 밀·쌀 재배 필요수량에 대한 기후변화 영향)

  • Ahmad, Mirza Junaid;Choi, Kyung Sook
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.60 no.5
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    • pp.69-80
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    • 2018
  • This study investigated climate change influences over crop water requirement (CWR) and irrigation water requirement (IWR) of the wheat-rice cropping system of Upper Chenab Canal (UCC) command in Punjab Province, Pakistan. PRECIS simulated delta-change climate projections under the A1B scenario were used to project future climate during two-time slices: 2030s (2021-2050) and 2060s (2051-2080) against baseline climatology (1980-2010). CROPWAT model was used to simulate future CWRs and IWRs of the crops. Projections suggested that future climate of the study area would be much hotter than the baseline period with minor rainfall increments. The probable temperature rise increased CWRs and IWRs for both the crops. Wheat CWR was more sensitive to climate-induced temperature variations than rice. However, projected winter/wheat seasonal rainfall increments were satisfactorily higher to compensate for the elevated wheat CWRs; but predicted increments in summer/rice seasonal rainfalls were not enough to complement change rate of the rice CWRs. Thus, predicted wheat IWRs displayed a marginal and rice IWRs displayed a substantial rise. This suggested that future wheat production might withstand the climatic influences by end of the 2030s, but would not sustain the 2060s climatic conditions; whereas, the rice might not be able to bear the future climate-change impacts even by end of the 2030s. In conclusion, the temperature during the winter season and rainfall during the summer season were important climate variables controlling water requirements and crop production in the study area.

Effect of Agricultural Practice and Soil Chemical Properties on Community-level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) of Soil Bacteria in Rice Fields During the Non-growing Season (논의 휴한기 이용형태와 토양화학성이 토양세균의 탄소원 이용에 미치는 영향)

  • Eo, Jinu;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Song, Young Ju
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.219-224
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND: Soil bacteria play important roles in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling during the non-growing season. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of soil management and chemical properties on the utilization of carbon sources by soil bacteria in paddy fields. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Biolog EcoPlate was used for analyzing community-level carbon substrate utilization profiles of soil bacteria. Soils were collected from the following three types of areas: plain, interface and mountain areas, which were tested to investigate the topology effect. The results of canonical correspondence analysis and Kendall rank correlation analysis showed that soil C/N ratio and NH4+ influenced utilization of carbon sources by bacteria. The utilization of carbohydrates and complex carbon sources were positively correlated with NH4+ concentration. Cultivated paddy fields were compared with adjacent abandoned fields to investigate the impact of cultivation cessation. The level of utilization of putrescine was lower in abandoned fields than in cultivated fields. Monoculture fields were compared with double cropping fields cultivated with barley to investigate the impact of winter crop cultivation. Cropping system altered bacterial use of carbon sources, as reflected by the enhanced utilization of 2-hydroxy benzoic acid under monoculture conditions. CONCLUSION: These results show that soil use intensity and topological characteristics have a minimal impact on soil bacterial functioning in relation to carbon substrate utilization. Moreover, soil chemical properties were found to be important factors determining the physiological profile of the soil bacterial community in paddy fields.

Feed Value of Whole-Crop Silage Rice by Cultivars and Plant Parts at Different Transplanting and Harvest Dates

  • Lee, Jihyun;Ku, Bon-Il;Shim, Kang-Bo;Shin, Myeong-Na;Jeon, Weon-Tai
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.138-148
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    • 2020
  • This study was carried out to find out the changes in the growth characteristics and feed value of the three different whole-crop silage rice cultivars of whole-crop silage rice such as Jonong, Yeongwoo and Mogwoo to develop an efficient double cropping system. This study showed that there were significant differences biomass and feed values among cultivars but no clear difference among transplanting dates. Dry weight and height were in order of Mogwoo, Yeongwoo, Jonong (p<0.05). Dry weight and feed value of Jonong showed no significant difference after 21 days after heading (DAH), it was expected to be harvested before DAH 30 days. Yeongwoo showed a lower dry weight than Mogwoo, but heading date was earlier than Mogwoo, so one can expect a higher feed value than Mogwoo. Mogwoo had lower crude protein and total digestible nutrient than the other two cultivars but relative feed value in stem was higher than that of the other cultivars, but had higher dry weight than other cultivars so it was considered to take an advantage as a silage rice. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that the selection of whole-crop silage rice on the cropping system be made comprehensively by considering the heading characteristics of the cultivars and the feed value.

Effects of Animal Slurry Application on Nitrogen Uptake of Hairy Vetch and Growth of Chinese Cabbage (가축액상분뇨 사용이 헤어리베치 질소흡수와 후작 배추 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryoo, Jong-Won
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.211-221
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    • 2005
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of animal slurry on nitrogen uptake of hairy vetch and growth of chinese cabbage in cropping system. Hairy vetch was seeded on September 20 in 2003 . We examined the effect of cover crop(hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) and slurry application(0, l00, 200kg N/ha) on yield and N uptake. Dry matter yield and nitrogen uptake of hairy vetch were measured. The chinese cabbage succeeding cover crop was harvested in 2004. The nitrogen uptake of hairy vetch was 84, 121, 148kg N/ha respectively, when the slurry application was 0, 100 and 200kg N/ha. In addition. N uptake of hairy vetch at the plot of 100kg and 200 kg N/ha slurry were 44% and 76% higher than that of the plot without slurry application respectively. Slurry application of hairy vetch could increase nitrogen uptake by application of green manure at the harvesting time. the content of organic matter and P-content of soil with hairy vetch plot was higher than that of fallow plot due to inhibition of soil erosion. The organic matter levels tend to improve with the addition of hairy vetch. Hairy vetch could improve soil quality by reducing erosion compared with bare fallow. The green manure of hairy vetch with animal slurry maintained soil nutrient and reduced nitrogen fertilizer of chinese cabbage. The hairy vetch residues decomposed rapidly releasing half of their residues within 40 days after burial. The yield of chinese cabbage was 90% in the plot of manure of hairy vetch compared with chemical fertilizer. The yield in the plot treated with green manure of hairy vetch and 50% of chemical fertilizer was reduced 5% less than that of chemical fertilizer. Therefore, it was estimated that the green manure of hairy vetch-chinese cabbage cropping system could reduce nitrogen chemical fertilizer as much as 84~148kgN/ha. the green manure of hairy vetch with animal slurry maintained soil nutrient and reduced nitrogen fertilizer of chinese cabbage.

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Studies on Change of Organic Farming in Korea from ($1907{\sim}2007$) (한국 유기농업 100년($1907{\sim}2007$)의 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hyo-Won;Yun, Jin-Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.399-411
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    • 2007
  • Korean organic farming has been well developed over the last two decades. It demonstrates that the number of certificated farm for organic agriculture and products have been drastically increased in recent year. However, the organic farmers have thought that organic farming rely only on organic fertilizer and they don't keep organic farming principle in which organic farmer should enhance biological activity and crop rotation. This study was to compare nutrient input, recommendation, cropping system and organic product circulation between the early $20^{th}$ century and beginning of the $21^{st}$ century. The population of Korea has increased 7.3 times more than that of a century ago but cultivated land has been decreased during 100 years. The rice production in 2002 was 4.2 times higher than that of production in 1912. The input of N, P and K in 1907 on the basis of King's suggestion was 95.6kg/ha, 15.9kg/ha and 3.0kg/ha, respectively. Nitrogen came from excreta (40%), green manure (55%) and compost (5%) in the early 20th century. On the other hand, organic farmer input organic resources such as wood chip (30.1%), compost (27.8%), rice straw (14%) and others (25%) these days. In terms of nutrient balance calculated nutrient and absorption by plants, organic rice farmer apply excessive nitrogen and phosphorus to the soil. They was used to put $7{\sim}10$ times more nitrogen than that of a century ago. Nutrient recommendation was similar in N and P between early 20th century and early $21^{st}$ century. Farmers in both century did not rotate crops in the field. Today, organic farmers engaged in more continuous cultivation than in early 20th century. Farmers in the early $20^{th}$ century produced locally, consumed locally the agricultural products, but organic farmers in the $21^{st}$ century produce the organic product in the local farmland and consumed in the large city and also a lot of foreign organic products have been imported in recent year.

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Vetch Effects for the Low-input No-till Direct-Seeding Rice-Vetch Cropping System

  • Cho, Young Son;Choe, Zhin Ryong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.221-224
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    • 1999
  • A field experiment was carried out to observe the weed control effects of vetch and to evaluate vetch characteristics on clay loam soil in no-till direct-sown rice-vetch cropping systems. The effects of weed control, forage productivity, and N content of vetch plants were investigated. With the progress of plant growth, density of Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) gradually decreased, but densities of foxtail and other weeds decreased steeply due to the depression by the over-shaded vetch canopy in a no-till direct-sown rice-vetch cropping paddy field. The vetch density in tillage systems was lower than in notillage cropping systems. Lower vetch density occurred with an increase in foxtail density and other weeds. Weed control effect increased by the progress of vetch growth, which indicated that the vetch canopy over-shaded the weeds. Vetch straw was degraded rapidly submergence after with water at the time of wet sowing of rice. Early harvesting of vetch seed resulted in lower seed germination. To acquire enough seedlings without re-sowing, the harvesting of seed should be delayed at least 28 days after the flowering stage in order to ensure the vetch population is sustainable in a no-till direct-sown rice-vetch cropping system. In order to improve the survival of vetch plants, vetch seeds should germinate from the heading .stage to before the full-ripening stage of rice plants. To enhance the percent of over-wintering survival, vetch seeds should germinate no later than the end of October in southern Korea. The dry weight of vetch plants increased with the progress of vetch growth until the flowering stage but N content decreased for 30 days from before the flowering stage (2.9%) until the ripening stage (1.8%). We concluded that Chinese milk vetch could have an effect on weed control before the flowering stage, sustainability without re-sowing of seed annually, and effective green manure for rice pre-crop in no-till direct-sown rice-vetch relay cropping systems.

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Effects of Rice-Winter Cover Crops Cropping Systems on the Rice Yield and Quality in No-tillage Paddy Field

  • Lee, Young-Han;Son, Daniel;Choe, Zhin-Ryong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 2009
  • The propose of this study was to find out optimum conditions for no-tillage rice-winter cover crops cropping system. A field research was conducted to evaluate productivity and quality of rice cultivars (Dongjinbyeo and Junambybyeo) in rice-winter cover cropping systems at Doo-ryangmyeon., Sacheon, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea from January 2005 to October 2006. The experimental soil was Juggog series (fine silty, mesic family of Fluvaquentic Eutrndepts). The rice cultivars were experimented under some different high residue farming systems, i.e. no-tillage no treatment (NTNT), no-tillage amended with rice straw (NTRS), no-tillage amended with rye (NTR), no-tillage amended with Chinese milkvetch (NTCMV), tillage no treatment (TNT), and conventional cropping system (Control). The miss-planted rate was 8.8% in 2005 and range of 10.8% to 13.3% in 2006 at NTR, and the other treatments were carried out at miss-planted rate ranging from 1.2% to 5.0%. Tiller numbers of Junambyeo, and Dongjinbyeo in both of years were the highest in Control, and decreased nearly in NTCMV, NTR, NTRS, NTNT, and TNT in that order. The lowest grain yield was observed in TNT both cultivars due to the lower tiller numbers per area, and spikelet numbers per panicle. Also, no-tillage treatments were lower grain yield than control. On the other hand, 1,000-grain weight was lowest in control due to higher tiller numbers per area, and spikelet numbers per panicle. Ripened grain ratio was a similar aspect in all treatments. The palatability score of milled rice was lowest in control while protein content of milled rice was highest in control. The NTCMV was considered an effective sustainable farming practice for rice yield and quality.

Effect of Cropping System and Application of Cattle Slurry on Forage Production and Environmental Pollution in Paddy Land (논에서 경작형태와 우분액비 시용이 사초생산성 및 환경오염에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Ki-Choon;Na, Sang-Pil;Kim, Won-Ho;Choi, Gi-Jun;Kim, Young-Chul;Kim, Myeong-Hwa;Lee, Sang-Lak;Kim, Da-Hye;Yook, Wan-Bang
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.309-316
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to investigate the effects of forage cropping system and cattle slurry on productivity of whole crop rice, whole crop barley and Sorghum-Sudangrass hybrid and environmental pollution in paddy land. Forage cropping system used in this study was consisted of double-cropping whole crop barley followed by whole crop rice applied with cattle slurry (DWBRC) and double-cropping whole crop barley followed by Sorghum-Sudangrass hybrid applied with cattle slurry (DSSBC). The field experiments were conducted on the clay loam at Backsanmyun, Kimje, Chunlabukdo province in Korea for three years (May 2006 to Apr. 2009). This study was arranged in completely randomized design with three replicates. The field had been sown with whole crop rice 'Nampyung', Sorghum-Sudangrass hybrid 'Sordan79' and whole crop barley 'Younyang'. The yields of whole crop barley in DWBRC and DSSBC were 7,515 kg/ha and 8,515 kg/ha, respectively. The yields of whole crop barley in DSSBC significantly increased as compared with that of DWBRC (p<0.05). The contents of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), total digestible nutrient (TDN) of whole crop barley in DWBRC were not difference as compared with those of DSSBC. The pH, and contents of total nitrogen and organic matter in soil samples collected at the end of the experiment increased as compared with those at the beginning of the experiment (p<0.05). However, The content of phosphate in DWBRC was no difference as compared with DSSBC. In addition, after the end of experiment, the concentrations of exchangeable cations (Ca, Na, Mg and K) in soil samples collected at the end of the experiment were remarkably higher than those at the beginning of the experiment (p<0.05). The concentrations of $NH_4$-N, $NO_3$-N, $PO_4$-P, Cl, Ca, K, Mg and Na in leaching water were hardly influenced by the cropping system and application of cattle slurry.