• Title/Summary/Keyword: Cowpea

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Studies on Physicochemical Properties of Cowpea and Rheological Properties of Cowpea Starch Gel (동부의 이화학적 특성과 동부묵의 Rheology에 대하여)

  • 조연화;장정옥;구성자
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.54-63
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    • 1987
  • The amino acids ana fatty acids of cowpea were determined and physicochemical properties of cowpea starch and rheological properties of cowpea starch gel were investigated. The results were as following: The proteins of cowpea were particularly rich in glutamic acid (20.02%) and aspartic acid (12.21%) and contained considerable amount of leucine (8.99%), lysine (7.20%) and tryptophan (1.81%), whereas were poor in sulpho-containing amino acids. The lipids of cowpea were mainly composed of 31,43% linoleic acid, 28.34% linolenic acid, 22.9% palmitic acid and 7.63% oleic acid and the small amount of myristic, arachidonic and behenic acid was contained. The ratio of the saturated to the unsaturated in cowpea oil was 32~33/67~68. Cowpea starch gel showed lower values for hardness and brittleness than mung been starch gel, whereas a higher value for cohesiveness than mung bean starch gel, Cowpea starch gel showed lower values for $E_H$, $E_V$ than mung bean starch gel, whereas higher values for $n_V$, $n_N$ than mung bean starch gel. Cowpea starch gel had a lower value for elasticity than mung bean starch gel and had a higher value for viscosity than mung bean starch gel.

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Cowpea Starch Extraction Process using Microparticulation/Air classification Technology (미분쇄/공기분급을 이용한 동부전분의 추출)

  • Ku, Kyung-Hyung;Park, Dong-June
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.118-124
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    • 1998
  • Dehulled cowpea was microparticulated and coarse fractions and fine fractions were collected by air classification at air classifying wheel speed (ACWS) of 15,000 rpm, 12,000 rpm and 9,000 rpm, respectively. Protein content in fine fraction after air classification was 2 times higher than that of microparticulated cowpea, emulsion capacity was about 3 times than coarse fraction. The coarse fraction of the highest viscosity on the gelatinization properties were detected by amylograph, was C-3 (9,000 rpm coarse)fraction. The majority of microparticulated cowpea particles were oval shaped starch and the rest of them were indeterminate minute particles which had some sharp corners. As an application test, microparticulated cowpea and coarse fraction (C-3) were used for mook (Korea traditional starch jelly) preparation and the wet milled cowpea starch was compared as a control. Some impurities induced discoloring was detected by sensory evaluation but after washing, it made no difference in sensory scores between washed starch and the control cowpea mook. And also syneresis of washed cowpea was less than control. At the above result, it can be to recovery about 85% of cowpea starch using microparticulation/air classification technology.

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Rheological Properties of Cowpea and Mung Bean starch Gels and Pastes (동부와 녹두전분 Gel 및 Paste의 Rheological Properties)

  • 손경희
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.93-102
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    • 1988
  • Rheological properties of cowpea and mung bean starch gels and pastes were investigated and compared with Instron Universal Testing machine and Brabender Viscometer. As the result of puncture test of gels, yield point force of mung bean starch gel was higher than that of cowpea starch gel. Compression coefficient of cowpea starch gel calculated by Bourne's equation was lower than that of mung bean starch gel. the stress relaxation test showed that viscoelastic properties of cowpea and mung bean starch gels may be represented by six element Maxwell model consisting of three Maxwell element in parallel. Cowpea and mung bean starch pastes showed bingham pseudoplastic behavior in 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8%. The consistency index in 7∼8% of cowpea starch paste were lower than those of mung bean starch paste. concentration dependence on consistency index and yield stress in mung bean starch were higher than those of cowpea starch. The yield stress of starch pastes was significantly correlated with yield point force by puncture test (r=0.996).

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Comparison of Physicochemical Prolperties of Cowpea and Mung Bean Starches (동부와 녹두전분의 이화학적 특성비교)

  • 윤계순
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 1989
  • Mung bean starch gel (Mook) and gel made from starch of cowpea are similar properties in texture. In order to elucidate the similarity between these two starch gels, some physicochemical properties of cowpea starch were compared with those of mung bean starch. Water bildings capacity of cowpea starch (183.6%) was a little low than that of mung bean starch (184.2%). The solobility, swelling power and optical transmitance of the cowpea starch showed a smiliar pattern to mung bean starch, but cowpea starch had a little lower solubility than mung bean starch. Amylogram of mung bean strach (4, 5, 6, 7%) shoved no peak viscosity but cowpea starch (4, 5, 6%) showed peak viscosity and both starches showed high viscosities when cooling. Cowpea and mung bean starches had the blue value of 0.41 and 0.47, the alkali number of 8.4 and 8.0, the amylose content of 30.5 and 32.1%, the molecular weight of amylose of 30,000 adn 29,258 and glucose unit per segment of amylopectin of 27.6 and 26.8 respectively. The shape of cowpea and mung bean strach granules were round and elliptical, and the mean vlalue of major axis, minor axis and the ratio of these were 20.7 and 21.8 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$, 14.6 and 14.4 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ and 1.42 and 1.51, respectively. The extent of retrogradation determined by the glucoamylase digestion method and syneresis showed that cowpea starch gel was larger than that syneresis showed than cowpea starch gel was larger than that of mung bean starch gel. The redults of X-ray diffraction studies showed A pattern for two starches, Diffraction peak of gels disappeared with gelatinization of starches but that of two starch gels storaged for 2 days at 5$^{\circ}C$ showed a similar patterm.

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Influence of Maize and Cowpea Intercropping on Fodder Production and Characteristics of Silage

  • Azim, A.;Khan, A.G.;Nadeem, M.A.;Muhammad, D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.781-784
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    • 2000
  • A study was conducted to examine the influence of maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguniculata) intercropping on fodder biomass production and silage characteristics. Maize fodder was cultivated alone and intercropped with cowpea at seed ratio of 85:15 and 70:30. Fodder was harvested at heading stage (at about 35% dry matter). The data indicated significant increase in biomass and crude protein production of maize intercropped with cowpea at seed ratio 70:30 followed by seed ratio 85:15 as compared to maize alone. However, no (p>0.05) difference was observed in TDN production among the three treatments. Four types of silages from, I) maize alone, II) maize and cowpea (85:15), III) maize and cowpea (70:30) and IV) maize supplemented with 2.5% urea were prepared. After 60 days of ensiling period, silage samples were analysed for proximate composition and fermentation characteristics. Crude protein and lactic acid values of silages I, II, III and IV were 8.52, 9.82, 14.90 and 13.96% and 9.00, 9.38, 10.86 and 7.43%; respectively. In situ dry matter digestibility was maximum in silage III followed by silages II, IV and I. The results suggested that intercropping of maize and cowpea at seed ratio 70:30 increased fodder production and produced quality silage.

Severity of Cowpea mosaic virus and Putkong Disease Monitoring and Purification of Cowpea mosaic virus (석량풋콩재배지에서의 동부모자이크바이러스병의 발생도 및 풋콩병해모니터링과 동부모자이크 바이러스의 순화)

  • Cho, Eui-Kyoo
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.30-33
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    • 2007
  • One hundred and eighty-six leaves of soybean cv. Seokryangputkong that showed mild mosaic symptoms were collected randomly and ELISA tests were conducted with those leaf samples to screen the presence of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). Ninety-three out of 186 samples reacted positively to CPMV, but those samples did negatively to Soybean mosaic virus (SMV). At least, 55 leaf samples revealed higher values than that of positive control. The results strongly confirmed that CPMV occurred severely in soybean cv. Seokryangputkong. However, a question is raised on the primary reservoir and vector for transmission of this virus. Since the farmer changes seeds every year, seed transmission is excluded. The virus was also purified, the analysis of coat protein conformed the virus of cowpea mosaic virus and UV absorption pattern confirmed that the causal virus of mosaic disease in soybean putkong was cowpea mosaic virus.

Effect of Cowpea Precipitate Flour Protein on Characteristics of Gel (동부앙금의 단백질 함량이 Gel화 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김경애;이선영;정난희;전은례
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.627-634
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of protein content on the physicochemical properties, gelatinized characteristics and textural properties of cowpea precipitate gels stored for 24 hrs and 48 hrs at room temperature. The contents of protein, total fat, and ash ranged from 0.35%∼1.38%, 0.54%∼0.64%, and 0.21%∼0.25%, respectively. The X-ray diffraction patterns were all Ca-type, showing no difference according to the protein content. Protein content did not make any difference in the blue values of cowpea precipitate. The blue value of cowpea precipitate powder as protein content was decreased. The water-binding capacity of cowpea precipitate powder increased as the protein content increased. Swelling power and solubility of cowpea precipitate powder increased as protein content decreased. The transmittance of cowpea precipitate powder was not different according to the protein content. The initial pasting temperature of cowpea precipitate powder by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rapid visco analyser (RVA) showed no differences according to the protein content. In sensory evaluation, the color and clarity of cowpea precipitate gels stored for 24 hrs and 48 hrs at room temperature as the protein content increased, and the hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, acceptability were greater when the gels were stored for 48 hrs. Instrumental analyses using a rheometer showed that the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of cowpea precipitate gels stored for 24 hrs, which was increased as the high protein content increased. For the gels stored for 48 hrs, all other factors are significantly different except cohesiveness as the protein content increased.

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Textural Properties of Cowpea Mook as Affected by Heating Conditions (가열조건에 따른 동부묵의 텍스쳐 특성)

  • 김성곤;이애랑
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.659-663
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    • 1998
  • Mook is a traditional Korean food made from the sediment of mungbean, cowpea, buckwheat or acorn. The air-dried sediment of cowpea(6~9%, dry basis) was heated to 80~95$^{\circ}C$ by continuous(method A) or instantaneous(method B) heating method and held at that temperature for 20min and then cooled at 15$^{\circ}C$ for 3hrs. The optimum deformation rate for the measurements of hardness and cohesiveness of cowpea mook by Instron Universal Testing Machine was 55~65% by method A and 60~70% by method B. The hardness of mook made by method A was the highest at heating temperature of 9$0^{\circ}C$, whereas that by method B was linearly decreased as the heating temperature increased at all concentrations. The mook made by method B had higher cohesiveness than that by method A. The ratio of cohesiveness to hardness was also higher in mook made by method B.

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Studies on Corn-Legume Intercropping System Ⅱ. Effect of corn-cowpea intercropping system on chemical composition and yield (Silage용 옥수수와 荳科作物의 間作에 關한 硏究 Ⅱ. Silage용 옥수수 (Zea mays L.)와 동부 (Vigna sinensis King)의 間作이 營養成分含量 및 收量에 미치는 影響)

  • Lee, Seung-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.128-134
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    • 1988
  • This experiment was carried out to compare chemical composition of corn-cowpea inter cropping and corn monocropping plants at different harvestion time and obtained the following results. 1. In both cropping systems, the contents of crude fat and nitrogen free extract (NFE) were significantly increased (P<0.01), while that of crude protein crude fiber and crude ash were decreased (P<0.01) with each harvesting time. 2. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and crude fiber contents were decreased same patterns in growing period, however, according to maturing of corn ears the difference between ADF and crude fiber contents reduced. 3. At mature stage, crude protein yields per 10a in corn monocropping and corn-cowpea intercropping system were 127.6kg and 152.1kg, respectively. The difference of crude protein content between corn-cowpea intercropping and corn monocropping system was 19.2%. 4. TDN yields of each cropping system, at mature stage, obtained similar results and TDN yields per 10a of corn monocropping and corn-cowpea intercropping system were 1006.1kg and 990.1, respectively. 5. Conseqently, corn-cowpea intercropping system could be increased protein yield without decreasing of dry matter yield in comparison with corn monocropping system.

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Studies on the Growth Charateristics and Productivity of Cowpea varieties for Soilage (청예사료를 위한 동부품종의 생육특성 및 생산성 비교에 관한 연구)

  • 이상무;구재윤;전병태
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 1996
  • In order to select the forage cowpea of high dry matter and protein yield, growth characteristics and yield performance of forage cowpea were investigated. The results obtained are as follows: Arn0r.g the five varieties tested, lT820-889 and lT83S-852 were top grass type, but IT830422 and lT84E-124 were short grass type. In stem diameter of soilage cowpea, IT83S-852 was the highest as 9.5mrn, but Swwon was the lowest as 7.8mm. In stem hardiness, lT84E-124 was the highest as 1.9kg/$cm^2$, but Seowon was the lowest as 0.8kg/$cm^2$. The palatability was high in the order of lT83S-852 > IT820-889 > Swwon, while IT820489 and IT 83S- 852 were lower than other varieties in 1990 and 1991 year. But palatability of cowpea was wholly lower than other soilage(Sudangrass hybrid and Soybean). In total dry matter yield and protein yield, lT820-889 and IT83S-852 were higher but IT830422 and lT84E- 124 were lower than other varieties. In conclusion, among the five varieties used, IT820-889 and lT83S-852 were higher as forage cowpea.

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