• Title, Summary, Keyword: Convective-dispersion model

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Study on the Characteristics of Cylinder Wake Placed in Thermally Stratified Flow(III) - Turbulent Dispersion from a Line Heat Source- (열성층유동장에 놓인 원주후류의 특성에 대한 연구 (3) -선형열원으로부터의 난류확산-)

  • 김경천;정양범
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.1300-1307
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    • 1995
  • The effect of thermal stratification on the turbulent dispersion from a fine cylindrical heat source was experimentally examined in a wind tunnel with and without a strong temperature gradient. A 0.5 mm dia. nichrome wire was used as a line heat source. Turbulent intensities, r.m.s. value of temperature and convective heat fluxes were measured by using a hot-wire and cold-wire combination probe. The results show that the peack value and the spread of the vertical turbulent intensity for the stratified case are far lower than those in the neutral case, which indicates that the stable temperature gradient suppresses the vertical velocity component. All of the third order moments including heat fluxes measured in the stable condition have very small values than those of the neutral case. This nature suggests that the decrease of scalar fluctuations in the stably stratified flow is mainly due to the suppression ofthe turbulent diffusion processes by the stable stratification. A simple gradient model with a composite timescale which has a simple weighted algebraic mean between dynamic and thermal time scale yields reasonably good numerical values in comparison with the experimental data.

Application of an Automated Time Domain Reflectometry to Solute Transport Study at Field Scale: Transport Concept (시간영역 광전자파 분석기 (Automatic TDR System)를 이용한 오염물질의 거동에 관한 연구: 오염물질 운송개념)

  • Kim, Dong-Ju
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.713-724
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    • 1996
  • The time-series resident solute concentrations, monitored at two field plots using the automated 144-channel TDR system by Kim (this issue), are used to investigate the dominant transport mechanism at field scale. Two models, based on contradictory assumptions for describing the solute transport in the vadose zone, are fitted to the measured mean breakthrough curves (BTCs): the deterministic one-dimensional convection-dispersion model (CDE) and the stochastic-convective lognormal transfer function model (CLT). In addition, moment analysis has been performed using the probability density functions (pdfs) of the travel time of resident concentration. Results of moment analysis have shown that the first and second time moments of resident pdf are larger than those of flux pdf. Based on the time moments, expressed in function of model parameters, variance and dispersion of resident solute travel times are derived. The relationship between variance or dispersion of solute travel time and depth has been found to be identical for both the time-series flux and resident concentrations. Based on these relationships, the two models have been tested. However, due to the significant variations of transport properties across depth, the test has led to unreliable results. Consequently, the model performance has been evaluated based on predictability of the time-series resident BTCs at other depths after calibration at the first depth. The evaluation of model predictability has resulted in a clear conclusion that for both experimental sites the CLT model gives more accurate prediction than the CDE model. This suggests that solute transport at natural field soils is more likely governed by a stream tube model concept with correlated flow than a complete mixing model. Poor prediction of CDE model is attributed to the underestimation of solute spreading and thus resulting in an overprediction of peak concentration.

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COMPARISON OF FLUX AND RESIDENT CONCENTRATION BREAKTHROUGH CURVES IN STRUCTURED SOIL COLUMNS (구조토양에서의 침출수와 잔존수농도의 파과곡선에 관한 비교연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Ju
    • Journal of Korea Soil Environment Society
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.81-94
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    • 1997
  • In many solute transport studies, either flux or resident concentration has been used. Choice of the concentration mode was dependent on the monitoring device in solute displacement experiments. It has been accepted that no priority exists in the selection of concentration mode in the study of solute transport. It would be questionable, however, to accept the equivalency in the solute transport parameters between flux and resident concentrations in structured soils exhibiting preferential movement of solute. In this study, we investigate how they differ in the monitored breakthrough curves (BTCs) and transport parameters for a given boundary and flow condition by performing solute displacement experiments on a number of undisturbed soil columns. Both flux and resident concentrations have been simultaneously obtained by monitoring the effluent and resistance of the horizontally-positioned TDR probes. Two different solute transport models namely, convection-dispersion equation (CDE) and convective lognormal transfer function (CLT) models, were fitted to the observed breakthrough data in order to quantify the difference between two concentration modes. The study reveals that soil columns having relatively high flux densities exhibited great differences in the degree of peak concentration and travel time of peak between flux and resident concentrations. The peak concentration in flux mode was several times higher than that in resident one. Accordingly, the estimated parameters of flux mode differed greatly from those of resident mode and the difference was more pronounced in CDE than CLT model. Especially in CDE model, the parameters of flux mode were much higher than those of resident mode. This was mainly due to the bypassing of solute through soil macropores and failure of the equilibrium CDE model to adequate description of solute transport in studied soils. In the domain of the relationship between the ratio of hydrodynamic dispersion to molecular diffusion and the peclet number, both concentrations fall on a zone of predominant mechanical dispersion. However, it appears that more molecular diffusion contributes to the solute spreading in the matrix region than the macropore region due to the nonliearity present in the pore water velocity and dispersion coefficient relationship.

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A Study on the Initial Behavior of Dredged Material Disposal in the Coastal Water (연안수역에서 투기준설토의 초기거동에 관한 연구)

    • Journal of Korean Port Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.45-56
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    • 1995
  • Investigation of the physical behavior of dredged material disposal in coastal water includes estimations of water column concentration in the receiving water, exposure time, the initial deposition pattern as well as thickness of material at the dumping fields near the estuary area. Calculation based on vertical setting and horizontal advection of single particles ignore the effects of bulk properties of the disposed material, vertical and horizontal diffusion, and material dilution due to the entrainment of ambient water during descent. This paper focuses on the spatial and temporal changes in the dumping fields for the water column and bottom at a hypothetically confined coastal water, where the ambient time-invariant velocity and density profiles are applied, within the initial time period following the instantaneous release of the dredged material. This model accounts the behavior of material after release divided into three phases: convective descent, dynamic collapse and long-term passive dispersion

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DETAILED EXAMINATION OF INVERSE-ANALYSIS PARAMETERS FOR PARTICLE TRAPPING IN SINGLE CHANNEL DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER

  • Jung, S.C.;Park, J.S.;Yoon, W.S.
    • International Journal of Automotive Technology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.165-177
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    • 2007
  • Predictions of diesel particulate filtration are typically made by modeling of a particle collection, and providing particle trapping levels in terms of a pressure drop. In the present study, a series of single channel diesel particulate filter (DPF) experiments are conducted, the pressure traces are inversely analyzed and essential filtration parameters are deducted for model closure. A DPF filtration model is formulated with a non-linear description of soot cake regression. Dependence of soot cake porosity, packing density, permeability, and soot density in filter walls on convective-diffusive particle transportation is examined. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on model parameters, relevant to the mode of transition. Soot cake porosity and soot packing density show low degrees of dispersion with respect to the Peclet number and have asymptotes at 0.97 and $70\;kg/m^3$, respectively, at high Peclet number. Soot density in the filter wall, which is inversely proportional to filter wall Peclet number, controls the filtration mode transition but exerts no influence on termination pressure drop. The percolation constant greatly alters the extent of pressure drop, but is insensitive to volumetric flow rate or temperature of exhaust gas at fixed operation mode.

A Theoretical Approach on the Migration of a Chelating Radionuclide in Porous Medium (다공성 매질에서의 착화하는 방사성핵종의 이동에 대한 이론적 접근)

  • Baik, Min-Hoon;Lee, Kun-Jai
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.49-59
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    • 1992
  • A new model was developed in order to investigate the effects of chelating agents on the migration of a radionuclide in the form of ion or chelate. The migration behavior of the chelated radionuclide was analyzed by formulating a convective-dispersion transport equation which included a degradation of chelating agent and chelated radionuclide. The mathematical model was analytically solved and checked with the existing retardation factor. The results show that the migration velocity of the chelated radionuclide was much faster than the ionic one due to the decreased retardation. Therefore, it was concluded that a new remedial action should be developed to reduce the generation and release of chelating agents from the nuclear power plant into the environment.

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An Analytical Model for Predicting Heat Transport due to a Point Source in Coastal Water under a Spring-Neap Modulation of Tidal Currents (조류의 대.소조 변동이 존재하는 연안역에서의 점열원에 의한 열오염의 이동 예측을 위한 해석해 모형)

  • 이호진;김종학
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.92-102
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    • 2004
  • In this paper, an analytical solution of calculating the excess temperature field due to a point heat source is presented in the presence of spring-neap modulation of convective alongshore flow. The basic form of the solution is identical to that given by Jung et al. (2003) but the convective term in the exponential kernel function is extended and a spring-neap variation in the horizontal eddy diffusivity is newly introduced. A set of calculations have been performed to examine the sensitivity of the heat build-up to the change in current fields and turbulent dispersion. Results indicate that the excess temperature field is confined within the tidal excursion distance, while the excess temperature field beyond the distance is mainly controlled by the horizontal diffusion. The heat build-up within the distance is considerably affected by the spring-neap variation in the horizontal eddy diffusivity; the relatively high excess temperature more than 1$^{\circ}C$ is extended further when the eddy diffusivity has spring-neap modulation.

Recycling of Suspended Particulates by Atmospheric Boundary Depth and Coastal Circulation (대기경계층과 연안순환에 의한 부유입자의 재순환)

  • Choe, Hyo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.721-731
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    • 2004
  • The dispersion of suspended particulates in the coastal complex terrain of mountain-inland basin (city)-sea, considering their recycling was investigated using three-dimensional non-hydrostatic numerical model and lagrangian particle model (or random walk model). Convective boundary layer under synoptic scale westerly wind is developed with a thickness of about I km over the ground in the west of the mountain, while a thickness of thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) is only confined to less than 200m along the eastern slope of the mountain, below an easterly sea breeze circulation. At the mid of the eastern slop of the mountain, westerly wind confronts easterly sea breeze, which goes to the height of 1700 m above sea level and is finally eastward return flow toward the sea. At this time, particulates floated from the ground surface of the city to the top of TIBL go along the eastern slope of the mountain in the passage of sea breeze, being away the TIBL and reach near the top of the mountain. Then those particulates disperse eastward below the height of sea-breeze circulation and widely spread out over the coastal sea. Total suspended particulate concentration near the ground surface of the city is very low. On the other hand, nighttime radiative cooling produces a shallow nocturnal surface inversion layer (NSIL) of 200 m thickness over the inland surface, but relatively thin thickness less than 100m is found near the mountain surface. As synoptic scale westerly wind should be intensified under the association of mountain wind along the eastern slope of mountain to inland plain and further combine with land-breeze from inland plain toward sea, resulting in strong wind as internal gravity waves with a hydraulic jump motion bounding up to about 1km upper level in the atmosphere in the west of the city and becoming a eastward return flow. Simultaneously, wind near the eastern coastal side of the city was moderate. Since the downward strong wind penetrated into the city, the particulate matters floated near the top of the mountain in the day also moved down along the eastern slope of the mountain, reaching the. downtown and merging in the ground surface inside the NSIL with a maximum ground level concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP) at 0300 LST. Some of them were bounded up from the ground surface to the 1km upper level and the others were forward to the coastal sea surface, showing their dispersions from the coastal NSIL toward the propagation area of internal gravity waves. On the next day at 0600 LST and 0900 LST, the dispersed particulates into the coastal sea could return to the coastal inland area under the influence of sea breeze and the recycled particulates combine with emitted ones from the ground surface, resulting in relatively high TSP concentration. Later, they float again up to the thermal internal boundary layer, following sea breeze circulation.

Fundamentals of Particle Fouling in Membrane Processes

  • Bhattacharjee Subir;Hong Seungkwan
    • Korean Membrane Journal
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2005
  • The permeate flux decline due to membrane fouling can be addressed using a variety of theoretical stand-points. Judicious selection of an appropriate theory is a key toward successful prediction of the permeate flux. The essential criterion f3r such a decision appears to be a detailed characterization of the feed solution and membrane properties. Modem theories are capable of accurately predicting several properties of colloidal systems that are important in membrane separation processes from fundamental information pertaining to the particle size, charge, and solution ionic strength. Based on such information, it is relatively straight-forward to determine the properties of the concentrated colloidal dispersion in a polarized layer or the cake layer properties. Incorporation of such information in the framework of the standard theories of membrane filtration, namely, the convective diffusion equation coupled with an appropriate permeate transport model, can lead to reasonably accurate prediction of the permeate flux due to colloidal fouling. The schematic of the essential approach has been delineated in Figure 5. The modern approaches based on appropriate cell models appear to predict the permeate flux behavior in crossflow membrane filtration processes quite accurately without invoking novel theoretical descriptions of particle back transport mechanisms or depending on adjust-able parameters. Such agreements have been observed for a wide range of particle size ranging from small proteins like BSA (diameter ${\~}$6 nm) to latex suspensions (diameter ${\~}1\;{\mu}m$). There we, however, several areas that need further exploration. Some of these include: 1) A clear mechanistic description of the cake formation mechanisms that clearly identifies the disorder to order transition point in different colloidal systems. 2) Determining the structure of a cake layer based on the interparticle and hydrodynamic interactions instead of assuming a fixed geometrical structure on the basis of cell models. 3) Performing well controlled experiments where the cake deposition mechanism can be observed for small colloidal particles (< $1\;{\mu}m$). 4) A clear mechanistic description of the critical operating conditions (for instance, critical pressure) which can minimize the propensity of colloidal membrane fluting. 5) Developing theoretical approaches to account for polydisperse systems that can render the models capable of handing realistic feed solutions typically encountered in diverse applications of membrane filtration.

Application of an Automated Time Domain Reflectometry to Solute Transport Study at Field Scale: Experimental Methodology and Calibration of TDR (시간영역 광전자파 분석기(Automatic TDR System)를 이용한 오염물질의 거동에 관한 연구: 실험방법 및 검정)

  • Kim, Dong-Ju
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.699-712
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    • 1996
  • Field scale experiments using an automated 144-channel TDR system were conducted which monitored the movement of solute through unsaturated loamy soils. The experiments were carried out on two different field plots of 0.54 ha to study the vertical movement of solute plume created by applying a square pulse of $CaCl_2$ as a tracer. The residence concentration was monitored at 24 locations on a transect and 5 depths per location by horizontally-positioning 50 cm long triple wire TDR probes to study the heterogeneity of solute travel times and the governing transport concept at field scale. This paper describes details of experimental methodology and calibration aspects of the TDR system. Three different calibration methods for estimation of solute concentration from TDR-measured bulk soil electrical conductivity were used for each field site. Data analysis of mean breakthrough curves (BTCs) and parameters estimated using the convection-dispersion model (CDE) and the convective-lognormal transfer function model (CLT) reveals that the automated TDR system is a viable technique to study the field scale solute transport providing a normal distribution of resident concentration in a high resolution of time series, and that calibration method does not significantly affect both the shape of BTC and the parameters related to the peak travel time. Among the calibration methods, the simple linear model (SLM), a modified version of Rhoades' model, appears to be promising in the calibration of horizontally-positioned TDR probes at field condition.

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