• Title, Summary, Keyword: Connectivity

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Connectivity Effects and Questions as Specificational Subjects

  • Yoo, Eun-Jung
    • Language and Information
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.21-45
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    • 2006
  • Connectivity effects have been central issues in dealing with specificational pseudoclefts. While syntactic approaches motivate their analysis in order to explain connectivity effects in terms of a connected clause, these accounts have numerous problems including a wide range of anti-connectivity effects that constitute crucial counterevidence. On the other hand, semantic accounts of connectivity effects treat BV and BT connectivity by independent interpretive mechanisms providing a more fundamental explanation for connectivity effects. Yet existing semantic accounts have limitations in explaining syntactic properties and syntactic connectivity effects in SPCs, and in accounting for BV anti-connectivity effects in English. Focusing on BV connectivity, this paper explores how the relevant (anti-)connectivity facts can be accounted for by an analysis that provides both an elaborate syntactic analysis of SPCs and a semantic mechanism for bound anaphora. Based on Yoo's (2005) non-deletion based, question-answer pair analysis of SPCs, this paper shows that a functional question analysis of a specificational subject, when combined with a theory of operator scope and a non-configurational condition on bound anaphora, can explain various BV (anti-)connectivity patterns in SPCs and related constructions.

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Measuring Connectivity in Heterogenous Landscapes: a Review and Application (이질적 경관에서의 연결성 측정: 리뷰 및 적용)

  • Song, Wonkyong;Kim, Eunyoung;Lee, Dong-Kun
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.391-407
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    • 2012
  • The loss of connectivity and fragmentation of forest landscapes are seriously hindering dispersal of many forest-dwelling species, which may be critical for their viability and conservation by decreasing habitat area and increasing distance among habitats. For understanding their environmental impacts, numerous spatial models exist to measure landscape connectivity. However, general relationships between functional connectivity and landscape structure are lacking, there is a need to develop landscape metrics that more accurately measure landscape connectivity in whole landscape and individual patches. We reviewed functional and structural definition of landscape connectivity, explained their mathematical connotations, and applied representative 13 indices in 3 districts of Seoul having fragmented forest patches with tits, the threshold distance was applied 500m by considering the dispersal of tits. Results of correlation and principal component analysis showed that connectivity indices could be divided by measurement methods whether they contain the area attribute with distance or not. Betweenness centrality(BC), a representative index measuring distance and distribution among patches, appreciated highly stepping stone forest patches, and difference of probability of connectivity(dPC), an index measuring including area information, estimated integrated connectivity of patches. Therefore, for evaluating landscape connectivity, it is need to consider not only general information of a region and species' characteristics but also various measuring methods of landscape connectivity.

THE CONNECTIVITY OF INSERTED GRAPHS

  • Adhikari, M.R.;Pramanik, L.K.
    • Journal of the Chungcheong Mathematical Society
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.73-80
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    • 2005
  • The aim of the paper is to study the connectivity and the edge-connectivity of inserted graph I(G) of a graph G with the help of connectivity and the edge-connectivity of that graph G.

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Environment Friendly Urban Open Space Planning - Enhancing the Connectivity of Habitats in Seoul, Korea - (환경친화적인 도시공원녹지계획 연구 - 생물서식처 연결성 향상을 위한 서울시 녹지조성 방안을 중심으로 -)

  • 안동만;김명수
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.34-41
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    • 2003
  • Connectivity is a quantitative indicator of landscape structure, and connectivity of urban green areas is an indicator of ecological integrity in urban landscapes. The purposes of this study are to assess the connectivity of urban green areas in Seoul, and to develop a method of siting new green areas for better connectivity. Diverse methods for connectivity assessment and indices of connectivity are reviewed and applied to the connectivity assesment of green areas in Seoul. The indices of connectivity of green areas in Seoul turned out to be higher than expected, maybe because many of them are rather evenly distributed, serving as stepping stones, and because there are many riparian corridors, including the Han River. Analysis also shows the optimum location of new green space patches or corridors will be those spots that would link the mainland, or large green areas outside the city, and existing green areas in the city. Restoration of urban streams as ecological corridors will significantly enhance connectivity. Three different scenarios with increasing numbers of new green areas in the city were then prepared. The changes of connectivity were measured and the possible success rates of animal dispersal were simulated. The results revealed that restoration of streams will increase the connectivity and success rates of animal dispersal.

A Methodology for Assessing the Network Connectivity Improvement for Transport Hubs (교통물류거점의 네트워크 연계성 개선효과 분석 방법론)

  • Park, Jun-Sik;Gang, Seong-Cheol;Kim, Geo-Jung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.167-177
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    • 2010
  • This study proposes a methodology for assessing the improvement of network connectivity of transport hubs. Extending a previously developed model that measures the connectivity of a node in transportation networks, we define two quantities called the supplied connectivity and the experienced connectivity. Using these quantities, we provide a systematic procedure for analyzing the network connectivity of a transport hub and also suggest criteria for determining whether a given project is effective in improving the network connectivity of the transport hub. The application of the methodology to a test site produces reasonable results, and as such it is expected that the methodology can be used for various transport hubs in the national road network. Once enough data from the application of the methodology are accumulated, a further study on the level of service in terms of network connectivity needs to be followed.

A Study of Connectivity in MIMO Fading Ad-Hoc Networks

  • Yousefi'zadeh, H.;Jafarkhani, H.;Kazemitabar, J.
    • Journal of Communications and Networks
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2009
  • We investigate the connectivity of fading wireless ad-hoc networks with a pair of novel connectivity metrics. Our first metric looks at the problem of connectivity relying on the outage capacity of MIMO channels. Our second metric relies on a probabilistic treatment of the symbol error rates for such channels. We relate both capacity and symbol error rates to the characteristics of the underlying communication system such as antenna configuration, modulation, coding, and signal strength measured in terms of signal-to-interference-noise-ratio. For each metric of connectivity, we also provide a simplified treatment in the case of ergodic fading channels. In each case, we assume a pair of nodes are connected if their bi-directional measure of connectivity is better than a given threshold. Our analysis relies on the central limit theorem to approximate the distribution of the combined undesired signal affecting each link of an ad-hoc network as Gaussian. Supported by our simulation results, our analysis shows that (1) a measure of connectivity purely based on signal strength is not capable of accurately capturing the connectivity phenomenon, and (2) employing multiple antenna mobile nodes improves the connectivity of fading ad-hoc networks.

Energy-Connectivity Tradeoff through Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

  • Xu, Mengmeng;Yang, Qinghai;Kwak, Kyung Sup
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.30-40
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we investigate topology control as a means of obtaining the best possible compromise between the conflicting requirements of reducing energy consumption and improving network connectivity. A topology design algorithm capable of producing network topologies that minimize energy consumption under a minimum-connectivity constraint is presented. To this end, we define a new topology metric, called connectivity efficiency, which is a function of both algebraic connectivity and the transmit power level. Based on this metric, links that require a high transmit power but only contribute to a small fraction of the network connectivity are chosen to be removed. A connectivity-efficiency-based topology control (CETC) algorithm then assigns a transmit power level to each node. The network topology derived by the proposed CETC heuristic algorithm is shown to attain a better tradeoff between energy consumption and network connectivity than existing algorithms. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the CECT algorithm.

Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Subgenual Cingulate Cortex in Major Depression (우울증 환자의 휴지기 슬밑 띠 피질의 기능적 뇌 연결성)

  • Ko, Daewook;Youn, So Young;Choi, Jean H.;Shin, Yong-Wook
    • Anxiety and mood
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2014
  • Objective : The subgenual cingulate cortex, a part of default-mode network, has been known to playa key role in the pathophysiology of depression. The previous studies have reported abnormal functional connectivity between the subgenual cingulate cortex and other brain regions in the patients with depression. The goal of this shldy was to explore the resting-state functional connectivity of the subgenual cingulate cortex between the patients with depression and healthy subjects. Methods : Twenty patients with major depression and age- and sex-matched 20 healthy subjects underwent 5-minute resting state fMRI scans. The functional connectivity map in each subject was acquired using seed-based correlation analysis with the seed located in the subgenual cingulate cortex (Talairach coordinates; x=-10, y=5, z=-10). The functional connectivity maps were calculated using AFNI and compared between the patient and healthy subject group via two-sample T-test using 3dttest++ in AFNI package. Results : Functional connectivity was decreased between the subgenual cingulate cortex and both sides of fusiform gyrus in depressed subjects. Connectivity was also decreased between the subgenual cingulate cortex and the left cerebellum in the patient group. There was no correlation between the severity of depression and the degree of functional connectivity between the subgenual cingulate cortex and the regions showing decreased functional connectivity. Conclusion : Decreased resting-state functional connectivity between the subgenual cingulate cortex and both sides of fusiform gyrus, and decreased connectivity between the subgenual cingulate cortex and the left cerebellum found in the patients with major depression in comparison to the healthy subjects might be related to abnormal emotional and cognitive processing of depressed patients.

Comparing Connectivity in Forest Networks of Seven Metropolitan Cities of South Korea (국내 7대 광역시 산림 연결성 비교 분석)

  • Kang, Wanmo;Kim, Jiwon;Park, Chan-Ryul;Sung, Joo Han
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.93-102
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    • 2014
  • This quantitative research aims to examine the connectivity of forest networks in seven metropolitan cities of South Korea using a graph-theoretical approach. We first estimated an overall network connectivity at multi-scales (i.e., dispersal distances), ranging from 100 m to 20 km, and quantified the contribution of small forest patches (less than 10 ha) to the overall network connectivity by comparing networks according to the presence and absence of small ones. As a result, the cities were divided into two groups depending on the network connectivity; one group of cities with high connectivity such as Daegu, Daejeon, and Ulsan and the other group of cities with low connectivity including Gwangju, Busan, Seoul, and Incheon. The result showed that small forest patches, especially in the cities with low connectivity, played a key role as stepping stones that connect large forested patches, thereby contributing to maintaining connectivity. This study also suggests that large and well-connected forest areas may be the key factor to preserve the connectivity in the cities with high connectivity, while the cites with low connectivity are in need of some complementary strategies. Through the study, we suggest that the creation of new forest patches in the areas where a gap in connectivity presents is needed in order to improve connectivity; and that the conservation of the existing small forest patches is essential in order to maintain the current connectivity level.

Connectivity Analysis of Cognitive Radio Ad-hoc Networks with Shadow Fading

  • Dung, Le The;An, Beongku
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.9 no.9
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    • pp.3335-3356
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, we analyze the connectivity of cognitive radio ad-hoc networks in a log-normal shadow fading environment. Considering secondary user and primary user's locations and primary user's active state are randomly distributed according to a homogeneous Poisson process and taking into account the spectrum sensing efficiency of secondary user, we derive mathematical models to investigate the connectivity of cognitive radio ad-hoc networks in three aspects and compare with the connectivity of ad-hoc networks. First, from the viewpoint of a secondary user, we study the communication probability of that secondary user. Second, we examine the possibility that two secondary users can establish a direct communication link between them. Finally, we extend to the case of finding the probability that two arbitrary secondary users can communicate via multi-hop path. We verify the correctness of our analytical approach by comparing with simulations. The numerical results show that in cognitive radio ad-hoc networks, high fading variance helps to remarkably improve connectivity behavior in the same condition of secondary user's density and primary user's average active rate. Furthermore, the impact of shadowing on wireless connection probability dominates that of primary user's average active rate. Finally, the spectrum sensing efficiency of secondary user significantly impacts the connectivity features. The analysis in this paper provides an efficient way for system designers to characterize and optimize the connectivity of cognitive radio ad-hoc networks in practical wireless environment.