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Surgery Alone or Postoperative Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Rectal Cancer - With Respect to Survival, Pelvic Control, Prognostic Factor - (직장암에서 수술단독 또는 수술후 방사선치료 -생존율, 골반종양제어율, 예후인자를 중심으로-)

  • Nam, Taek-Keun;Ahn, Sung-Ja;Nah, Byung-Sik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.327-334
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : To find out the role of postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of rectal cancer by comparing survival, pelvic control, complication rate, and any prognostic factor between surgery alone and postoperative radiotherapy group. Materials and methods : From Feb. 1982 to Dec. 1996 total 212 patients were treated by radical surgery with or without postoperative radiotherapy due to rectal carcinoma of modified Astler-Coiler stage $B2\~C3$. Of them, 18 patients had incomplete radiotherapy and so the remaining 194 patients were the database analyzed in this study. One hundred four patients received postoperative radiotherapy and the other 90 patients had surgery only. Radiotherapy was peformed in the range of $39.6\~55.8\;Gy$ (mean: 49.9 Gy) to the whole pelvis and if necessary, tumor bed was boosted by $5.4\~10\;Gy$. Both survival and pelvic control rates were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and their statistical significance was tested by Log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was peformed by Cox proportional hazards model. Results : 5-year actuarial survival rate (5YSR) and 5-year disease-free survival rate (5YDFSR) of entire patients were $53\%\;and\;49\%$, respectively. 5YSRs of surgery alone group and adjuvant radiotherapy group were $63\%\;vs\;45\%$, respectively (p=0.03). This difference is thought to reflect uneven distribution of stages between two treatment groups (p<0.05 by $\chi^2-test$) with more advanced disease patients in adjuvant radiotherapy group. 5YSRs of surgery alone vs adjuvant radiotherapy group in MAC B2+3, C1, C2+3 were $68\%\;vs\;55\%$ (p=0.09), $100\%\;vs\;100\%$, $40\%\;vs\;33\%$ (p=0.71), respectively. 5YDFSRs of surgery alone vs adjuvant radiotherapy group in above three stages were $65\%\;vs\;49\%$ (p=0.14), $100\%\;vs\;100\%$, $33\%\;vs\;31\%$ (p=0.46), respectively. 5-year pelvic control rate (5YPCR) of entire patients was $72.5\%$. 5YPCRs of surgery alone and adjuvant radiotherapy group were $71\%\;vs\;74\%$, respectively (p=0.41). 5YPCRs of surgery alone vs adjuvant radiotherapy group in B2+3, C1, C2+3 were $79\%\;vs\;75\%$ (p=0.88), $100\%\;vs\;100\%$, $44\%\;vs\;68\%$ (p=0.01), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that only stage was significant factor affecting overall and disease-free survival in entire patients and also in both treatment groups. In view of pelvic control, stage and operation type were significant in entire patients and only stage in surgery alone group but in adjuvant radiotherapy group, operation type instead of stage was the only significant factor in multivariate analysis as a negative prognostic factor in abdominoperineal resection cases. Conclusion : Our retrospective study showed that postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy could improve the pelvic control in MAC C2+3 group. To improve both pelvic control and survival in all patients with MAC B2 or more, other treatment modality such as concurrent continuous infusion of 5-FU, which is the most standard agent, with radiotherapy should be considered.

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Clinical Analysis of Arteriovenous Fistula in Chronic Renal Failure Patients (만성 신부전 환자에서의 동정맥루 조성술의 임상고찰)

  • Song Chang-Min;Ahn Jae-Bum;Kim In-Sub;Kim Woo-Sik;Shin Yong-Chul;Yoo Hwan-Kuk;Kim Byung-Yul
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.39 no.9 s.266
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    • pp.692-698
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    • 2006
  • Background: Owing to the fact that the average life span has increased and the progress in medical science has been made, the number of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) who have to take hemodialysis (HD) has been going up gradually. Accordingly, it is considered to be as a significant issue to obtain blood vessels which can be used repetitively and supply enough blood flows. Therefore, there have been various kinds of study on an inosculation rate andfactors influencing it following an arteriovenous fistula (AV fistula) and lots of studies are ongoing for the purpose of escalating the inosculation rate. The authors analyzed the effects of short-term result, age, sex, diabetes and hypertension on arteriovenous inosculations in 134 anatomical snuffbox operated subjects among the patients who have taken an AV fistula at this center. Material and Method: Based on 134 patients who underwent an AV fistula at the department of thoracic surgery of this center from July, 2000 to May, 2004, the difference in arteriovenous inosculation rate was compared and analyzed depending or age (discriminated by 65-year-old), sex and the condition of the presence or absence of diabetes and hypertension. Correlation analyses were conducted for each parameter and statistical tests were performed by using SPSS for windows Release 11.0.1, which were determined to be statistically significant if p value was below 0.05. Result: The total number of operations was 169 including 35 of re-operations. The male/female rate was 70 : 64 (52% : 48%). The average age was $56.3{\pm}12.26$ years and there were 33 (24%) old aged patients above 65-year-old; there were 103 (71%) patients with hypertension and 90 (67%) patients with diabetes. Overall arteriovenous inosculation rate was $93{\pm}2.4%,\;91{\pm}2.7%,\;89{\pm}3.0%$ at 6, 12, 24 months, respectively. The arteriovenous inosculation rate of above 65-year-old patient group was $85{\pm}4.8%,\;80{\pm}5.8%,\;80{\pm}5.8%$ and below 64-year-old patient group's was $85{\pm}4.8%,\;80{\pm}5.8%,\;80{\pm}5.8%$ at given time points, respectively, which showed higher inosculation rate in below 64-year-old patient group with a statistical significance (p=0.0034). However, no statistical significance was found between the patients with hypertension and diabetes and the patients with no complication. In addition, there was no statistical significance in inosculation rate between male and female. Conclusion: The arteriovenous inosculation ratewas higher in the treated patient below 64-year-old than in the treated patient above 65-year-old. Thus it is advantageous for increase in long-term inosculation rate to obtain hemodialysis routes at an early age. The conditions of sex and the presence or absence of diabetes and hyper- tension do not make statistically significant effect on the arteriovenous inosculation rate.

Clinical Results and Optimal Timing of OPCAB in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (급성 심근경색증 환자에서 시행한 OPCAB의 수술시기와 검색의 정도에 따른 임상성적)

  • Youn Young-Nam;Yang Hong-Suk;Shim Yeon-Hee;Yoo Kyung-Jong
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.39 no.7 s.264
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    • pp.534-543
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    • 2006
  • Background: There are a lot of debates regarding the optimal timing of operation of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Off pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) has benefits by avoiding the adverse effects of the cardio-pulmonary bypass, but its efficacy in AMI has not been confirmed yet. The purpose of this study is to evaluate retrospectively early and mid-term results of OPCAB in patients with AMI according to transmurality and timing of operation. Material and Method: Data were collected in 126 AMI patients who underwent OPCAB between January 2002 and July 2005, Mean age of patients were 61.2 years. Male was 92 (73.0%) and female was 34 (27.2%). 106 patients (85.7%) had 3 vessel coronary artery disease or left main disease. Urgent or emergent operations were performed in 25 patients (19.8%). 72 patients (57.1%) had non-transmural myocardial infarction (group 1) and 52 patients (42.9%) had transmural myocardial infarction (group 2). The incidence of cardiogenic shock and insertion of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was higher in group 2. The time between occurrence of AMI and operation was divided in 4 subgroups (<1 day, $1{\sim}3\;days,\;4{\sim}7\;days$, >8 days). OPCAB was performed a mean of $5.3{\pm}7.1$ days after AMI in total, which was $4.2{\pm}5.9$ days in group 1, and $6,6{\pm}8.3$ days in group 2. Result: Mean distal an-astomoses were 3.21 and postoperative IABP was inserted in 3 patients. There was 1 perioperative death in group 1 due to low cardiac output syndrome, but no perioperative new MI occurred in this study. There was no difference in postoperative major complication between two groups and according to the timing of operation. Mean follow-up time was 21.3 months ($4{\sim}42$ months). The 42 months actuarial survival rate was $94.9{\pm}2.4%$, which was $91.4{\pm}4.7%$ in group 1 and $98.0{\pm}2.0%$ in group 2 (p=0.26). The 42 months freedom rate from cardiac death was $97.6{\pm}1.4%$ which was $97.0{\pm}2.0%$ in group 1 and $98.0{\pm}2.0%$ in group 2 (p=0.74). The 42 months freedom rate from cardiac event was $95.4{\pm}2.0%$ which was $94.8{\pm}2.9%$ in group 1 and $95.9{\pm}2.9%$ in group 2 (p=0.89). Conclusion: OPCAB in AMI not only reduces morbidity but also favors hospital outcomes irrespective of timing of operation. The transmurality of myocardial infarction did not affect the surgical and midterm outcomes of OPCAB. Therefore, there may be no need to delay the surgical off-pump revascularization of the patients with AMI if surgical revascularization is indicated.

Clinical Analysis of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections by Influenza Virus in Children (인플루엔자 바이러스에 의한 소아 급성 호흡기 감염증의 유행 및 임상 양상)

  • Kwon, Min Kyoung;Kim, Mi Ran;Park, Eun Young;Lee, Kon Hee;Yoon, Hae Sun;Kim, Kwang Nam;Lee, Kyu Man
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.45 no.12
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    • pp.1519-1527
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : Although influenza virus is one of the most important causes of acute respiratory tract infections(ARTIs) in children, virus isolation is not popular and there are only a few clinical studies on influenza in Korea. We evaluated the epidemiologic and clinical features of ARTIs by influenza virus in children. Methods : From February 1995 to August 2001, nasopharyngeal aspirations were obtained and cultured for the isolation of influenza virus in children admitted with ARTIs. The medical records of patients with influenza virus infection were reviewed retrospectively. Results : Respiratory viruses were isolated in 997(22.0%) out of 4,533 patients examined, and influenza virus was isolated in 164 cases(3.6%). Influenza virus was isolated year after year mainly from December to April of next year. The ratio of male and female was 1.9 : 1 with a median age of 15 months. The most common clinical diagnosis of influenza virus infection was pneumonia, and fever and cough developed in most patients. There was no difference between influenza A and B infection in clinical diagnoses and symptoms. All patients recovered without receiving antiviral treatment except for one patient diagnosed with pneumonia who had underlying disease of Down syndrome with ventricular septal defect. Conclusion : ARTIs caused by influenza virus developed every winter and spring during the period of study. Because fatal complication can develop in the high risk group, prevention, early diagnosis and proper management of influenza should be emphasized.

Effects of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy Following Curative Surgery in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer (국소 진행된 직장암에서 근치적 절제술 후 방사선치료와 항암화학요법과의 병용치료에 대한 효과)

  • Kang, Ki-Mun;Choi, Ihl-Bohng;Kim, In-Ah;Jang, Jee-Young;Shin, Kyung-Sub;Jang, Suck-Kyun;Lee, Jae-Hak;Kim, Young-Ha;Won, Chong-Man;Choi, Dong-Hwan;Kim, Jin-Seung;Park, Shinn-Hee
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.121-128
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    • 1997
  • Purpose : To evaluate the effect of postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy on the survival, pattern of failure and complication for locally advanced rectal carcinoma Materials and Methods : From October 1992 to September 1995, twenty eight patients with rectal carcinoma were treated by postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy Radiation therapy was delivered with 6MV and 15MV linear accelerator, 180c0y fractions 5 day per week. Total radiation doses were 5040cGy in $B_{2+3}$ and 5580cGy in $C_{2+3}$. Within 4 weeks after radical surgery. 5-FU$(400mg/m^2/day)\;and\;Leucovorin(20mg/m^2/day)$ were administered by intravenous injection for 4 days during the first and fifth week of radiation therapy. The median follow up was 19 months with a range 2 to 47 months. Results : The 2 year overall survival and disease free survival rates were $78.6\%\;and\;70.8\%$, respectively. The 2 year overall survival was $93.0\%\;in\;B_{2+3}$ and $76.2\%\;in\;C_{2+3}$(p=0.11) The 2 year disease free survival was $79.4\%\;in\;B_{2+3}\;and\;69.2\%\;in\;C_{2+3}(p=0.13)$. The overall failure rate was $21.42\%$(6/28) including $10.72\%$(3/28) locoregional recurrence, $3.62\%$(1/28) distant metastasis and $7.12\%$(2/28) locoregional recurrence with distant metastasis. The overall locoregional recurrence rate was $17.92\%$(5/28). The 2 year locoregional recurrence rates were $13.32\%(2/15)\;and\;23.12\%$(3/13) for respectively for $B_{2+3}\;and\;C_{2+3}$ The difference between the locoregional recurrence of $B_{2+3}\;and\;C_{2+3}$ patients was not significant(p=0.07). Complications developed in 13 patients$(46.42\%)$, including 8 dermatitis, 7 loose stool, 6 leukopenia, 4 tenesmus, 2 diarrhea. In Univariate analysis, there was no statistically significant factor except for tumor grade in locoregional recurrence, disease free survival and overall survival rate(p=0.04, 0.05, 0.04). Conclusion : This study sugges1s that postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy is effective in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Therefore these results need to be confirmed with a long term follow-up and larger number of patients with the further clinical trials including prospective controlled studies.

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The Results of Curative Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of Uterine cervix (자궁 경부암의 근치적 방사선 치료 및 유도 화학요법과의 병행 치료성적)

  • Kang Ki Mun;Ryu Mi Ryeong;Chang Gee Young;Suh Tae Suk;Yoon Sei Chul;Bahk Yong Whee;Shinn Kyung Sub;Namkoong Sung Eun;Kim Seung Jo
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.149-158
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    • 1993
  • This is a retrospective analysis of 135 patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with curative radiotherapy from March 1983 through October 1989 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Kang-Nam 51. Mary's Hospital. Among them, 78 patients received radiotherapy alone and 42 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy and 15 patients were lost to follow up. All patients had follow up from 2 to 106 months (median; 62 months). Age of the patients ranged from 32 to 79 years at presentation (median; 59 years). According to FIGO classification, there were 20 ($16.7{\%}$) in stage IB, 19 ($15.8{\%}$) in stage IIA,49 ($40.8{\%}$) in stage IIB, 5 ($4.2{\%}$) in stage IIIA, 13 ($10.8{\%}$,) in stage IIIB,14 ($11.7{\%}$) in stage IVA. The pathological classification showed 96 ($80.0{\%}$) squamous cell carcinomas, 5 ($4.2{\%}$) adenocarcinomas and 19 ($15.8{\%}$) proven by cytology. The overall 5-year survival rates was $50.8{\%}$, and the 5-year survival rates by stage IB, IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB, IVA was $47.7{\%},\;70.2{\%},\;64.1{\%},\;40.0{\%},\;23.1{\%},\;14.3{\%}$, respectively. The 5-year survival rates was noted $51.2{\%}$ of radiotherapy alone and $50.4{\%}$of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The overall failure rate was $18.3{\%}$(22/120) including $11.7{\%}$ (14/120) locoregional failure, $5.8{\%}$ (7/120) distant metastasis and $0.8{\%}$(1/120) locoregional failure with distant metastasis. Treatment failure rates by the stages were $15{\%}$ (3/20) in stage IB. $10.5{\%}$ (2/19) in stage IIA, $10.2{\%}$, (5/49) in stage IIB, $20{\%}$ (1/5) in stage IIIA, $61.5{\%}$(8/13) in stage IIB, and $28.6{\%}$ (4/14) in stage IVA. The overall complication rate was $34.2{\%}$(41/120) including wet desquamation $7.5{\%}$, (9/120), diarrhea $6.7{\%}(8/120), radiation proctitis $5.8{\%}$(7/120) in decreasing order. A multivariate analysis of factors influencing the survival showed patient age (p < 0.0291), FIGO stage (p<0.0001), Karnofsky performance status (p<0.0043), initial hemoglobin level (p<0.0001), and intracavitary radiation (p<0.0004), but, no significancy in histology (p<0.29) and treatment method (p < 0.87).

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Parotid Gland Sparing Radiotherapy Technique Using 3-D Conformal Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal CarcinomB (비인강암에서 방사선 구강 건조증 발생 감소를 위한 3차원 입체조형치료)

  • Lim Jihoon;Kim Gwi Eon;Keum Ki Chang;Suh Chang Ok;Lee Sang-wook;Park Hee Chul;Cho Jae Ho;Lee Sang Hoon;Chang Sei Kyung;Loh Juhn Kyu
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2000
  • Purpose : Although using the high energy Photon beam with conventional Parallel-opposed beams radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, radiation-induced xerostomia is a troublesome problem for patients. We conducted this study to explore a new parotid gland sparing technique in 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3-D CRT) in an effort to prevent the radiation-induced xerostomia. Materials and Methods : We peformed three different planning for four clinically node-negative nasopharyngeal cancer patients with different location of tumor(intracranial extension, nasal cavity extension, oropharyngeal extension, parapharyngeal extension), and intercompared the plans. Total prescription dose was 70.2 Gy to the isocenter. For plan-A, 2-D parallel opposing fields, a conventional radiotherapy technique, were employed. For plan-B, 2-D parallel opposing fields were used up until 54 Gy and afterwards 3-D non-coplanar beams were used. For plan-C, the new technique, 54 Gy was delivered by 3-D conformal 3-port beams (AP and both lateral ports with wedge compensator; shielding both superficial lobes of parotid glands at the AP beam using BEV) from the beginning of the treatment and early spinal cord block (at 36 Gy) was peformed. And bilateral posterior necks were treated with electron after 36 Gy. After 54 Gy, non-coplanar beams were used for cone-down plan. We intercompared dose statistics (Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D95, DO5, V95, VOS, Volume receiving 46 Gy) and dose volume histograms (DVH) of tumor and normal tissues and NTCP values of parotid glands for the above three plans. Results : For all patients, the new technique (plan-C) was comparable or superior to the other plans in target volume isodose distribution and dose statistics and it has more homogenous target volume coverage. The new technique was most superior to the other plans in parotid glands sparing (volume receiving 46 Gy: 100, 98, 69$\%$ for each plan-A, B and C). And it showed the lowest NTCP value of parotid glands in all patients (range of NTCP; 96$\~$100$\%$, 79$\~$99$\%$, 51$\~$72$\%$ for each plan-A, B and C). Conclusion : We conclude that the new technique employing 3-D conformal radiotherapy at the beginning of radiotherapy and cone down using non-coplanar beams with early spinal cord block is highly recommended to spare parotid glands for node-negative nasopharygeal cancer patients.

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An Analysis on Factors Affecting Local Control and Survival in Nasopharvngeal Carcinoma (비인두암의 국소 종양 치유와 생존율에 관한 예후 인자 분석)

  • Chung Woong-Ki;Cho Jae-Shik;Park Seung Jin;Lee Jae-Hong;Ahn Sung Ja;Nam Taek Keun;Choi Chan;Noh Young Hee;Nah Byung Sik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.91-99
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    • 1999
  • Propose : This study was performed to find out the prognostic factors affecting local control, survival and disease free survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinomas treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods : We analysed 47 patients of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, histologically confirmed and treated at Chonnam University Hospital between July 1986 and June 1996, retrospectively. Range of patients' age were from 16 to 80 years (median; 52 years). Thirty three (70$\%$) patients was male. Histological types were composed of 3 (6$\%$) keratinizing, 30 (64$\%$) nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and 13 (28$\%$) undifferentiated carcinoma. Histoiogicai type was not known in 1 patient (2$\%$). We restaged according to the staging system of 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer Forty seven patients were recorded as follows: 71: 11 (23$\%$), T2a; 6 (13$\%$), T2b; 9 (19$\%$), 73; 7 (15$\%$), 74: 14 (30$\%$), and NO; 7 (15$\%$), Nl: 14 (30$\%$), N2; 21 (45%), N3: 5 (10%). Clinical staging was grouped as follows: Stage 1; 2 (4$\%$), IIA: 2 (4$\%$), IIB; 10 (21$\%$), III; 14 (30$\%$), IVA; 14 (30$\%$) and IVB; 5 (11$\%$). Radiation therapy was done using 6 MV and 10 MV X- ray of linear accelerator. Electron beam was used for the Iymph nodes of posterior neck after 4500 cGy. The range of total radiation dose delivered to the primary tumor was from 6120 to 7920 cGy (median; 7020 cGy). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed with cisplatin +5-fluorouracil (25 patients) or cisplatin+pepleomycin (17 patients) with one to three cycles. Five patients did not received chemotherapy. Local control rate, survival and disease free suwival rate were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Generalized Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the difference of survival rates between groups. multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard model was done for finding prognostic factors. Results: Local control rate was 81$\%$ in 5 year. Five year survival rate was 60$\%$ (median survival; 100 months). We included age, sex, cranial nerve deflicit, histologic type, stage group, chemotherapy, elapsed days between chemotherapy and radiotherapy, total radiation dose, period of radiotherapy as potential prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. As a result, cranial none deficit (P=0.004) had statistical significance in local control rate. Stage group and total radiation dose were significant prognostic factors in survival (P=0.000, P=0.012), and in disease free survival rates (P=0.003, P=0.008), respectively. Common complications were xerostomia, tooth and ear problems. Hypothyroidism was developed in 2 patients. Conclusion : In our study, cranial none deficit was a significant prognostic factor in local control rate, and stage group and total radiation dose were significant factors in both survival and disease free survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We have concluded that chemotherapy and radiotherapy used in our patients were effective without any serious complication.

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Analysis of Neurological Complications on Antegrade Versus Retrograde Cerebral Perfusion in the Surgical Treatment of Aortic Dissection (대동맥 박리에서 전방성 뇌 관류와 역행성 뇌 관류의 신경학적 분석)

  • Park Il;Kim Kyu Tae;Lee Jong Tae;Chang Bong Hyun;Lee Eung Bae;Cho Joon Yong
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.38 no.7 s.252
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    • pp.489-495
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    • 2005
  • In the surgical treatment of aortic dissection, aortic arch replacement under total circulatory arrest is often performed after careful inspection to determine the severity of disease progression. Under circulatory arrest, antegrade or retrograde cerebral perfusion is required for brain protection. Recently, antegrade cerebral perfusion has been used more, because of the limitation of retrograde cerebral perfusion. This study is to compare these two methods especially in the respect to neurological complications. Material and Method: Forty patients with aortic dissection involving aortic arch from May 2000 to May 2004 were enrolled in this study, and the methods of operation, clinical recovery, and neurological complications were retrospectively reviewed. Result: In the ACP (antegrade cerebral perfusion) group, axillary artery cannulation was performed in 10 out of 15 cases. In the RCP (retrograde cerebral perfusion) group, femoral artery Cannulation was performed in 24 out of 25 cases. The average esophageal and rectal temperature under total circulatory arrest was $17.2^{\circ}C\;and\;22.8^{\circ}C$ in the group A, and $16.0^{\circ}C\;and\;19.7^{\circ}C$ in the group B, respectively. Higher temperature in the ACP group may have brought the shorter operation and cardiopulmonary bypass time. However, the length of period for postoperative clinical recovery and admission duration did not show any statistically significant differences. Eleven out of the total 15 cases in the ACP group and thirteen out of the total 25 cases in the RCP group showed neurological complication but did not show statistically significant difference. In each group, there were 5 cases with permanent neurological complications. All 5 cases in the ACP group showed some improvements that enabled routine exercise. However all 5 cases in RCP group did not show significant improvements. Conclusion: The Antegrade, cerebral perfusion, which maintains orthordromic circulation, brings moderate degree of hypothermia and, therefore, shortens the operation time and cardiopulmonary bypass time. We concluded that Antegrade cerebral perfusion is safe and can be used widely under total circulatory arrest.

Early and Mid-term Results of Operation for Infective Endocarditis on Mitral Valve (감염성 승모판 심내막염의 중단기 수술 성적)

  • Ahn, Byong-Hee;Chun, Joon-Kyung;Yu, Ung;Ryu, Sang-Wan;Choi, Yong-Sun;Kim, Byong-Pyo;Hong, Sung-Bum;Bum, Min-Sun;Na, Kook-Ju;Park, Jong-Chun;Kim, Sang-Hyung
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2004
  • Background: Infective endocarditis shows higher operative morbidity and mortality rates than other cardiac diseases. The vast majority of studies on infective endocarditis have been made on aortic endocarditis, with little attention having been paid to infective endocarditis on the mitral valve. This study attempts to investigate the clinical aspects and operative results of infective endocarditis on the mitral valve. Meterial and Method: The subjects of this study consist of 23 patients who underwent operations for infective endocariditis on the mitral valve from June 1995 to May 2003. Among them, 2 patients suffered from prosthetic valvular endocarditis and the other 21 from native valvular endocarditis. The subjects were evenly distributed age-wise with an average age of 44.8$\pm$15.7 (11∼66) years. Emergency operations were performed on seventeen patients (73.9%) due to large vegetation or instable hemodynamic status. In preoperative examinations, twelve patients exhibited congestive heart failure, four patients renal failure, two patients spleen and renal infarction, and two patients temporary neurological defects, while one patient had a brain abscess. Based on the NYHA functional classification, seven patients were determined to be at Grade II, 9 patients at Grade III, and 6 patients at Grade IV. Vegetations were detected in 20 patients while mitral regurgitation was dominant in 19 patients with 4 patients showing up as mitral stenosis dominant on the preoperative echocardiogram. Blood cultures for causative organisms were performed on all patients, and positive results were obtained from ten patients, with five cases of Streptococcus viridance, two cases of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, and one case each of Corynebacteriurn, Haemophillis, and Gernella. Operations were decided according to the AA/AHA guidelines (1988). The mean follow-up period was 27.6 $\pm$23.3 (1 ∼ 97) months. Result: Mitral valve replacements were performed on 43 patients, with mechanical valves being used on 9 patients and tissue valves on the other 4. Several kinds of mitral valve repair or mitral valvuloplasty were carried out on the remaining 10 patients. Associated procedures included six aortic valve replacements, two tricuspid annuloplasty, one modified Maze operation, and one direct closure of a ventricular septal defect. Postoperative complications included two cases of bleeding and one case each of mediastinitis, low cardiac output syndrome, and pneumonia. There were no cases of early deaths, or death within 30 days following the operation. No patient died in the hospital or experienced valve related complications. One patient, however, underwent mitral valvuloplasty 3 months after the operation. Another patient died from intra-cranial hemorrhage in the 31st month after the operation. Therefore, the valve-related death rate was 4.3%, and the valve-related complication rate 8.6% on mid-term follow-up. 1, 3-, and 5-year valve- related event free rates were 90.8%, 79.5%, and 79.5%, respectively, while 1, follow-up. 1, 3-, and 5-year valve- related event free rates were 90.8%, 79.5%, and 79.5%, respectively, while 1, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 100%, 88.8%, and 88.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a complete removal of infected tissues is essential in the operative treatment of infectious endocarditis of the mitral valve. It is also suggested that when infected tissues are completely removed, neither type of material nor method of operation has a significant effect on the operation result. The postoperative results also suggest the need for a close follow-up observation of the patients suspected of having brain damage, which is caused by preoperative blood contamination or emboli from vegetation, for a possible cerebral vascular injury such as mycotic aneurysm.