• Title, Summary, Keyword: Colorectal carcinoma

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Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-cancer Investigation of Boswellia Serrata Bioactive Constituents In Vitro

  • Ahmed, Hanaa H;Abd-Rabou, Ahmed A;Hassan, Amal Z;Kotob, Soheir E
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.7179-7188
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    • 2015
  • Cancer is a major health obstacle around the world, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) as major causes of morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, there isgrowing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products for HCC and CRC, owing to the anticancer activity of their bioactive constituents. Boswellia serrata oleo gum resin has long been used in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate a variety of health problems such as inflammatory and arthritic diseases. The current study aimed to identify and explore the in vitro anticancer effect of B. Serrata bioactive constituents on HepG2 and HCT 116 cell lines. Phytochemical analysis of volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Oleo-gum-resin of B. Serrata was then successively extracted with petroleum ether (extract 1) and methanol (extract 2). Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis of the lipoidal matter was also performed. In addition, a methanol extract of B. Serrata oleo gum resin was phytochemically studied using column chromatography (CC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) to obtain four fractions (I, II, III and IV). Sephadex columns were used to isolate ${\beta}$-boswellic acid and identification of the pure compound was done using UV, mass spectra, $^1H$ NMR and $^{13}C$ NMR analysis. Total extracts, fractions and volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo-gum resin were subsequently applied to HCC cells (HepG2 cell line) and CRC cells (HCT 116 cell line) to assess their cytotoxic effects. GLC analysis of the lipoidal matter resulted in identification of tricosane (75.32%) as a major compound with the presence of cholesterol, stigmasterol and ${\beta}$-sitosterol. Twenty two fatty acids were identified of which saturated fatty acids represented 25.6% and unsaturated fatty acids 74.4% of the total saponifiable fraction. GC/MS analysis of three chromatographic fractions (I,II and III) of B. Serrata oleo gum resin revealed the presence of pent-2-ene-1,4-dione, 2-methyl- levulinic acid methyl ester, 3,5- dimethyl- 1-hexane, methyl-1-methylpentadecanoate, 1,1- dimethoxy cyclohexane, 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)benzene and 17a-hydroxy-17a-cyano, preg-4-en-3-one. GC/MS analysis of volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin revealed the presence of sabinene (19.11%), terpinen-4-ol (14.64%) and terpinyl acetate (13.01%) as major constituents. The anti-cancer effect of two extracts (1 and 2) and four fractions (I, II, III and IV) as well as volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin on HepG2 and HCT 116 cell lines was investigated using SRB assay. Regarding HepG2 cell line, extracts 1 and 2 elicited the most pronounced cytotoxic activity with $IC_{50}$ values equal 1.58 and $5.82{\mu}g/mL$ at 48 h, respectively which were comparable to doxorubicin with an $IC_{50}$ equal $4.68{\mu}g/mL$ at 48 h. With respect to HCT 116 cells, extracts 1 and 2 exhibited the most obvious cytotoxic effect; with $IC_{50}$ values equal 0.12 and $6.59{\mu}g/mL$ at 48 h, respectively which were comparable to 5-fluorouracil with an $IC_{50}$ equal $3.43{\mu}g/mL$ at 48 h. In conclusion, total extracts, fractions and volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin proved their usefulness as cytotoxic mediators against HepG2 and HCT 116 cell lines with different potentiality (extracts > fractions > volatile oil). In the two studied cell lines the cytotoxic acivity of each of extract 1 and 2 was comparable to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil, respectively. Extensive in vivo research is warranted to explore the precise molecular mechanisms of these bioactive natural products in cytotoxicity against HCC and CRC cells.

In vitro Anti-tumor Effect of an Engineered Vaccinia Virus in Multiple Cancer Cells and ABCG2 Expressing Drug Resistant Cancer Cells (재조합 백시니아 바이러스의 다양한 암세포 및 ABCG2 과발현 내성 암세포에 대한 항 종양 효과 연구)

  • Park, Ji Hye;Yun, Jisoo;Heo, Jeong;Hwang, Tae Ho;Kwon, Sang Mo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.835-846
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    • 2016
  • Chemo-resistance is the biggest issue of effective cancer therapy. ABCG2 is highly correlated with multi-drug resistance, and represent a typical phenotype of multiple cancer stem-like cells. Accumulating evidence recently reported that oncolytic viruses represent a new strategy for multiple aggressive cancers and drug resistant cancers including cancer stem cell-like cells and ABCG2 expressing cells. In this study, we generated an evolutionally engineered vaccinia virus, SLJ-496, for drug-resistant cancer therapy. We first showed that SLJ-496 treatment enhanced tumor affinity using cytopathic effect assay, plaque assay, as well as cell viability assay. Next, we clearly demonstrated that in vitro SLJ-496 treatment represents significant cytotoxic effect in multiple cancers including colorectal cancer cells (HT-29, HCT-116, HCT-8), gastric cancer cells (AGS, NCI-N87, MKN-28), Hepatocellular carcinoma cells (SNU-449, SNU-423, SNU-475, HepG2), as well as mesothelioma cell (NCI-H226, NCI-H28, MSTO-221h). Highly ABCG2 expressing HT-29 cells represent cancer stem like phenotype including stem cell marker expression, and self-renewal bioactivities. Interestingly, we demonstrated that in vitro treatment of SLJ-496 showed significant cytotoxicity effect, as well as viral replication capacity in ABCG2 overexpressing cell. In addition, we also demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of SLJ-496 in Adriamycin-resistant cell lines, SNU-620 and ADR-300. Taken together, these findings provide us a pivotal clue that cancer therapy using SLJ-496 vaccinia virus might be new therapeutic strategy to overcome ABCG2 expressing cancer stem-like cell and multiple chemo-resistance cancer cells.

Tumor-suppressor Protein p53 Sensitizes Human Colorectal Carcinoma HCT116 Cells to 17α-estradiol-induced Apoptosis via Augmentation of Bak/Bax Activation (17α-Estradiol에 의한 인체 대장암 세포주 HCT116의 에폽토시스에 수반되는 Bak/Bax의 활성화에 미치는 종양억제단백질 p53의 강화효과)

  • Han, Cho Rong;Lee, Ji Young;Kim, Dongki;Kim, Hyo Young;Kim, Se Jin;Jang, Seokjoon;Kim, Yoon Hee;Jun, Do Youn;Kim, Young Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1230-1238
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    • 2013
  • The regulatory effect of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 on the apoptogenic activity of $17{\alpha}$-estradiol ($17{\alpha}-E_2$) was compared between HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) and HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) cells. When the HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) and HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) cells were treated with $2.5{\sim}10{\mu}M$ $17{\alpha}-E_2$ for 48 h or with $10{\mu}M$for various time periods, cytotoxicity and an apoptotic sub-$G_1$ peak were induced in the HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, the HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) cells were much less sensitive to the apoptotic effect of $17{\alpha}-E_2$. Although $17{\alpha}-E_2$ induced aberrant mitotic spindle organization and incomplete chromosome congregation at the equatorial plate, $G_2/M$ arrest was induced to a similar extent in both cell types. In addition, $17{\alpha}-E_2$-induced activation of Bak and Bax, ${\Delta}{\Psi}m$ loss, and PARP degradation were more dominant in the HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) than in the HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) cells. In accordance with enhancement of p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15) and p53 levels, p21 and Bax levels were elevated in the HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) cells treated with $17{\alpha}-E_2$. The HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) cells exhibited barely or undetectable levels of p21 and Bax, regardless of $17{\alpha}-E_2$ treatment. On the other hand, although the level of Bcl-2 was slightly lower in the HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) than in the HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) cells, it remained relatively constant after the $17{\alpha}-E_2$ treatment. Together, these results show that among the components of the $17{\alpha}-E_2$-induced apoptotic-signaling pathway, which proceeds through mitotic spindle defects causing mitotic arrest, subsequent activation of Bak and Bax and the mitochondria-dependent caspase cascade, leading to PARP degradation, $17{\alpha}-E_2$-induced activation of Bak and Bax is the upstream target of proapoptotic action of p53.