• 제목/요약/키워드: Cognitive Difficulties

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A Study on Cognitive Load and Related Factors at e-PBL

  • JUNG, Jaewon;JUNG, Hyojung;KIM, Dongsik
    • Educational Technology International
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.79-100
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    • 2012
  • The focus of this research is on identifying the problems that learners experience during online problem-based learning (e-PBL) from a cognitive perspective. The study is concentrated on learners' cognitive load level at each stage of e-PBL. The research questions are specifically as follows: What is the level of cognitive load at each stage of e-PBL and what is the relationship between cognitive load and group performance? What cognitive difficulties are experienced by learners in e-PBL and what causes cognitive difficulties? In this study, we found that cognitive load was the highest in stage 1 and there was negative relationship between cognitive load at stage 1 and group performance. In addition, learners experienced difficulties during e-PBL such as the complexity of task, the difficulty in collaboration, and the lack of appropriate references. For further study, we will investigate some strategies regarding adjusting learners' cognitive load in the early stages of e-PBL.

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Review of Cognitive Difficulties of Students to Learn Computer Programming (컴퓨터 프로그래밍 학습자의 인지적 어려움에 대한 문헌고찰)

  • Kim, Dong Man;Lee, Tae Wuk
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Computer Information Conference
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    • 2020.07a
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    • pp.225-228
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    • 2020
  • 이 연구의 목적은 문헌고찰을 통해 초보 프로그래머가 겪는 어려움의 원인을 이해하고 보다 효과적인 교육 방향과 전략을 수립하는데 기여하는 데 있다. 그래서 인지 과학적 관점에서 프로그래밍에 필요한 지식의 유형에 따라 초보 프로그래머가 겪는 어려움에 대해 고찰하였다. 이 연구의 결론은 1)초보 프로그래머들은 구문 지식, 개념적 지식, 전략적 지식의 부재로 어려움을 겪고, 특히 개념적 지식의 부재가 가장 많은 원인으로 확인되었고, 2)교육용 프로그래밍 언어를 이용한 입문자 과정에서는 학습자의 개념적 지식 형성에 중점을 두고 지도해야 하고, 3)초보 프로그래머가 전략적 지식을 배양하기 위해서는 컴퓨터의 특성을 올바로 인지할 수 있게 도와주어야 하고, 4)프로그래밍에 필요한 개념적 지식의 실체를 구체적으로 밝혀야 할 이유를 확인하였다.

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Study of Sleep Patterns on Depression and Cognitive Difficulties among Older People Living in the Community (재가 노인의 수면 양상과 우울 및 인지기능의 관계에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Ye Sun;Tak, Young Ran
    • 한국노년학
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.633-648
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    • 2016
  • This study focuses on the sleep pattern of the elderly people living in the community and its relationship to the occurrences of the depression and deterioration of the cognitive function. Our primary data is the raw data gathered by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2008 in the National Senior Living Conditions and Well-being Needs Assessment Survey. The survey contained data from 12,087 people over 65 years of age living in the community. We have used the secondary data analysis method on this raw data to see if there exists correlation between age, gender, soundness of the sleep, total sleep time and the depression and the cognitive difficulties. Our study finds that the older a person is, the more trouble she has in sleeping. It also shows that too much sleep (in excess of 9 hours) and too little sleep (less than 6 hours) can both be linked to more occurrence of depression. Lack of restful sleep could also be linked to more frequent occurrence of depression and cognitive difficulties. Changes in the sleep pattern is not always pathological in elderly people. However, our study shows that it is important the primary health-care givers understand the role of sleep in elderly person's daily life. They should examine the elderly person's sleep pattern focusing on the quantity and the quality of sleep and develop programs suited for individuals to prevent and intervene sleep disorder.

On the Students' Understanding of Mathematical Induction (수학적 귀납법에 대한 학생들의 이해에 관하여)

  • Hong, Jin-Kon;Kim, Yoon-Kyung
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.123-135
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    • 2008
  • This study analysed the schemata which are requisite to understand and prove examples of mathematical induction, and examined students' construction of the schemata. We verified that the construction of implication-valued function schema and modus ponens schema needs function schema and proposition-valued function schema, and needs synthetic coordination for successive mathematical induction schema. Given this background, we establish $1{\sim}4$ levels for students' understanding of the mathematical induction. Further, we analysed cognitive difficulties of students who studying mathematical induction in connection with these understanding levels.

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Prevalence and Characteristics of Chemotherapy-related Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Breast Cancer (유방암 환자에서 화학요법관련 인지기능저하의 발생률과 발생양상)

  • Park, Jin-Hee;Bae, Sun Hyoung;Jung, Yong-Sik;Jung, Young-Mi
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.118-128
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Evidence suggests that some patients with breast cancer experience cognitive difficulties following chemotherapy. This longitudinal study was done to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and trajectory of cognitive function over time in women with breast cancer, who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: Participants were 137 patients with breast cancer. They completed neuropsychological tests and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function before adjuvant therapy (pretest), toward the end of adjuvant therapy (posttest), and 6 months after the completion of adjuvant therapy (follow-up test). Of the patients, 91 were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and 46 patients who did not receive chemotherapy made up the comparison group. A reliable-change index and repeated-measure ANOVA were used for statistical analyses. Results: At the posttest point, over 30% of patients showed complex cognitive impairment and reported greater difficulty in subjective cognitive function. At the follow-up test point, 22.0% of patients exhibited complex cognitive impairment and 30.8% of patients complained of subjective cognitive impairment. Repeated-measure ANOVA showed significant decreases after receiving chemotherapy followed by small improvements 6 months after the completion of chemotherapy in cognitive domains of change for attention and concentration, memory, executive function, and subjective cognitive function. Conclusion: These results suggest that chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer may be associated with objective and subjective cognitive impairments. Further studies are needed to explore the potential risk factors and predictor of chemotherapy-related cognitive changes. Also nursing interventions for prevention and intervention of cognitive impairments should be developed and tested.

Case Study on the 6th Graders' Understanding of Concepts of Variable (초등학교 6학년 학생들의 변수 개념 이해에 관한 사례 연구)

  • Ha, Su-Hyun;Lee, Gwang-Ho
    • The Mathematical Education
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.213-231
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the 6th graders' understanding of the concepts of variable on various aspects of school algebra. For this purpose, the test of concepts of variable targeting a sixth-grade class was conducted and then two students were selected for in-depth interview. The level of mathematics achievement of the two students was not significantly different but there were differences between them in terms of understanding about the concepts of variable. The results obtained in this study are as follows: First, the students had little basic understanding of the variables and they had many cognitive difficulties with respect to the variables. Second, the students were familiar with only the symbol '${\Box}$' not the other letters nor symbols. Third, students comprehended the variable as generalizers imperfectly. Fourth, the students' skill of operations between letters was below expectations and there was the student who omitted the mathematical sign in letter expressions including the mathematical sign such as x+3. Fifth, the students lacked the ability to reason the patterns inductively and symbolize them using variables. Sixth, in connection with the variables in functional relationships, the students were more familiar with the potential and discrete variation than practical and continuous variation. On the basis of the results, this study gives several implications related to the early algebra education, especially the teaching methods of variables.

Fibromyalgia from the Psychiatric Perspective (정신과적 관점에서의 섬유근통)

  • Lee, Yunna;Lee, Sang-Shin;Kim, Hyunseuk;Kim, Hochan
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.99-107
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    • 2020
  • Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by the core symptom of chronic widespread pain, along with fatigue, sleep disturbances, mood changes, and cognitive difficulties. The etiology of fibromyalgia involves a combination of biological factors, such as genetic vulnerability, alterations in pain processing and stress response system ; psychological factors, such as anxiety, depression, anger, and perceived stress ; environmental factors, such as infections, febrile diseases, and trauma. Central sensitization, which is amplified in the process of sensory stimulation, has been emphasized as a key etiological factor, as supported by enhanced wind-up, delayed aftersensation, decreased nociceptive flexion reflex threshold and functional imaging studies. Several guidelines recommend that a multimodal approach be used to treat fibromyalgia, including both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, tailored to each individual, and that clinicians should provide an intellectual framework through sufficient education and emphasis on the importance of self-management. The prevalence of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and other psychiatric problems is 7-9 times higher in patients with fibromyalgia than in the general population ; moreover, the association between fibromyalgia and certain psychopathologies or sleep problems has also been suggested. Since psychiatric problems, with shared vulnerabilities and risk factors, interact with fibromyalgia bidirectionally and also affect the disease course, an integrated management approach is needed to determine the risk of comorbidities.

Understanding the Role of Wonderment Questions Related to Activation of Conceptual Resources in Scientific Model Construction: Focusing on Students' Epistemological Framing and Positional Framing (과학적 모형 구성 과정에서 나타난 사고 질문의 개념적 자원 활성화의 이해 -인식론적 프레이밍과 위치 짓기 프레이밍을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Cha-Eun;Kim, Heui-Baik
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.471-483
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to explore how students' epistemological framing and positional framing affect the role of wonderment questions related to the activation of conceptual resources and to investigate what contexts affect students' framings during scientific model construction. Four students were selected as focus group and they participated in collaborative scientific model construction of mechanisms relating to urination. According to the results, one student whose framings were "understanding phenomena" and "facilitator" asked wonderment questions, but the others whose framings were "classroom game" and "non-respondent" were not able to activate their conceptual resources. However, they were able to activate their conceptual resources when they shared the epistemological framing of "understanding phenomena" and shifted between the positional framings of "facilitator" and "respondent." Although they were able to activate their conceptual resources, these activated resources were not able to contribute to their model when they shifted to the framings of "classroom game" and "receiver." In contrast, when students constantly shared an "understanding phenomena" framing and dynamically shifted between the framings of "facilitator" and "respondent," they were able to activate various conceptual resources and develop their group model. The students' framings were affected by the contexts. These included: when students were confronted with cognitive difficulties and were not provided proper scaffolding; when the teacher played the role of answer provider and guided the activity with correctness; when there were several possible explanatory models that students could choose from; and when the teacher played the role of thought facilitator. This study contributes to supporting teaching and learning environments for productive scientific model construction.

Relationship between Sleep Disturbances and Cognitive Impairments in Older Adults with Depression (노인성 우울증 환자에서 수면 장애와 인지기능 저하의 관련성)

  • Lee, Hyuk Joo;Lee, Jung Suk;Kim, Tae;Yoon, In-Young
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: Depression, sleep complaints and cognitive impairments are commonly observed in the elderly. Elderly subjects with depressive symptoms have been found to show both poor cognitive performances and sleep disturbances. However, the relationship between sleep complaints and cognitive dysfunction in elderly depression is not clear. The aim of this study is to identify the association between sleep disturbances and cognitive decline in late-life depression. Methods: A total of 282 elderly people who underwent nocturnal polysomnography in a sleep laboratory were enrolled in the study. The Korean version of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery developed by the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-K) was applied to evaluate cognitive function. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the geriatric depression scale (GDS) and subjective sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI). Results: The control group ($GDS{\leq}9$) when compared with mild ($10{\leq}GDS{\leq}16$) and severe ($17{\leq}GDS$) depression groups, had significantly different scores in the Trail making test part B (TMT-B), Benton visual retention test part A (BVRT-A), and Stroop color and word test (SCWT)(all tests p<0.05). The PSQI score, REM sleep duration, apnea-hypopnea index and oxygen desaturation index were significantly different across the three groups (all indices, p<0.05). A stepwise multiple regression model showed that educational level, age and GDS score were predictive for both TMT-B time (adjusted $R^2$=35.6%, p<0.001) and BVRT-A score (adjusted $R^2$=28.3%, p<0.001). SCWT score was predicted by educational level, age, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and GDS score (adjusted $R^2$=20.6%, p<0.001). Poor sleep quality and sleep structure alterations observed in depression did not have any significant effects on cognitive deterioration. Conclusion: Older adults with depressive symptoms showed mild sleep alterations and poor cognitive performances. However, we found no association between sleep disturbances (except sleep apnea) and cognitive difficulties in elderly subjects with depressive symptoms. It is possible that the impact of sleep disruptions on cognitive abilities was hindered by the confounding effect of age, education and depressive symptoms.