• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Cod Liver Oil

검색결과 9건 처리시간 0.062초

Effects of Cod Liver Oil and Chromium Picolinate Supplements on the Serum Traits, Egg Yolk Fatty Acids and Cholesterol Content in Laying Hens

  • Lien, Tu-Fa;Wu, Chaen-Ping;Lu, Jin-Jenn
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.1177-1181
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    • 2003
  • This study investigated the effects of cod liver oil and chromium picolinate on the serum traits and egg yolk fatty acids and cholesterol content in laying hens. One hundred 45-week old single comb white Leghorn laying hens were assigned randomly to four groups. These groups were: (1) control (soybean oil), (2) 1,000 ppb (${\mu}g/kg$) chromium (organic form chromium picolinate) (Crpic), (3) 3% cod liver oil (CLO), and (4) 1,000 ppb chromium with 3% cod liver oil (CLO+Crpic). The experiment was conducted for 40 days. Results indicated that serum triacylglycerol (TG) and cholesterol contents in the CLO group and the serum glucose content in the Crpic group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05-0.01). The yolk cholesterol content in the CLO and Crpic groups were also lower than the control group (p<0.01). The lipoprotein profile displayed that in the Crpic group, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the control group. Meanwhile, low-density lipoprotein+very low-density lipoprotein (LDL+VLDL) and LDL-C+VLDL-C were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the control group. Notably, of all four groups, the CLO group displayed a more profound effect on serum traits and lipoprotein (p<0.05-0.001). Furthermore, the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks presented that C18:2 in the CLO and Crpic groups was significantly lower (p<0.05-0.001) compare to the control. However, only in the CLO group, C18:3, C20:5 and C22:6 were significantly higher (p<0.001) than the control. Only serum glucose and LDL+VLDL showed the CLO${\times}$Crpic interaction (p<0.05), most parameters did not. Therefore, supplemented chromium picolinate or cod liver oil in the diet of laying hens had beneficial effects. However, when these two factors were combined, there was no interaction with most parameters.

Effect of Dietary Lipid Sources on Growth, Enzyme Activities and Immuno-hematological Parameters in Catla catla Fingerlings

  • Priya, K.;Pal, A.K.;Sahu, N.P.;Mukherjee, S.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1609-1616
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    • 2005
  • Ninety advanced Catla catla fingerlings (av. wt. 16 g) were randomly distributed in six treatment groups with three replicates each for an experimental period of 60 days to study the effect of dietary lipid source on growth, enzyme activities and immuno-hematological parameters. Six isoprotein (40.0-41.9%) and isocaloric (4,260 kcal $kg^{-1}$) semi-purified diets were prepared with varying levels of soybean oil (SBO) and cod liver oil (CLO) within a total of 8% lipid viz., $D_1$ (Control), $D_2$ (8% SBO), $D_3$ (6% SBO and 2% CLO), $D_4$ (4% SBO and 4% CLO), $D_5$ (2% SBO and 6% CLO) and $D_6$ (8% CLO). Highest SGR was noted in $D_5$ (0.73${\pm}$0.03) group, which was similar with $D_3$ (0.71${\pm}$0.02) and $D_4$ (0.69${\pm}$0.01) groups. Activity of intestinal lipase, hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) of the lipid treatment groups were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the control group. The respiratory burst activity of the phagocytes (Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)) was highest in $D_2$ (1.95${\pm}$0.21) followed by $D_3$ (1.19${\pm}$0.15) group, which were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the other groups. Globulin level was significantly higher in $D_3$ (1.29${\pm}$0.08) than in the other groups expect $D_4$. Hemoglobin content and total erythrocyte count did not show any significant difference. From this study, it is concluded that a diet containing 6% soybean oil and 2% cod liver oil ($D_3$) yields higher growth and immune response in Catla catla fingerlings and would be cost effective.

Antioxidative Effects of Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Extract on Polyunsaturated Oils in Oil-in-water Emulsion

  • Jang, Mi-Soon;Park, Hee-Yeon;Ushio, Hideki;Ohshima, Toshiaki
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.604-609
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    • 2009
  • The antioxidative activities of the water solution of crude extract from edible mushroom enokitake Flammulina velutipes were compared with those of ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid 6-palmitate in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions of cod liver oil. Oxidation of the emulsions was carried out at 40 and $50^{\circ}C$ in the dark. The antioxidant activities were measured by in vitro assay against oxygen uptake, 2-thiobarbituric acid value, hydroperoxide formation of the oils. Also, residual docosahexaenoic acid content was measured as indices of lipid oxidation. The cod liver oil in O/W emulsions with added enokitake crude extract (ECE) was significantly more stable against lipid oxidation than the control emulsions without the extract in terms of any oxidation indices used. Moreover, ECE provided remarkable antioxidative properties to eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester in emulsion system. These observations demonstrate that F. velutipes can be used as a natural antioxidant, which effectively prevents oxidation of polyunsaturated oils in emulsion system.

Protective effect of dietary oils containing omega-3 fatty acids against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

  • Elbahnasawy, Amr Samir;Valeeva, Emiliya Ramzievna;El-Sayed, Eman Mustafa;Stepanova, Natalya Vladimirovna
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.323-331
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are implicated in secondary osteoporosis, and the resulting fractures cause significant morbidity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a vital role in bone metabolism. However, few trials have studied the impact of omega-3 PUFA-containing oils against GC-induced osteoporosis. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine whether supplementation with omega-3 PUFA-containing dietary oils such as fish oil, flaxseed oil or soybean oil can impede the development of GC-induced osteoporosis. Methods: The fatty acids (FAs) content of oils was determined using gas chromatography. Male rats were subdivided into 5 groups (8 rats each): normal control (balanced diet), prednisolone control (10 mg/kg prednisolone daily), soybean oil (prednisolone 10 mg/kg + soybean oil 7% w/w), flaxseed oil (prednisolone 10 mg/kg + flaxseed oil 7% w/w), and fish oil (from cod liver; prednisolone 10 mg/kg + fish oil 7% w/w). Results: The study data exhibited a significant depletion in bone mineral density (BMD) and femur mass in the prednisolone control compared to the normal control, accompanied with a marked decrease in the levels of plasma calcium and 1,25-$(OH)_2$-vitamin $D_3$, and elevated levels of C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-${\alpha}$) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Supplementation with fish oil, soybean oil or flaxseed oil helped to improve plasma calcium levels, and suppress oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Additionally, bone resorption was suppressed as reflected by the decreased CTX levels. However, fish oil was more effective than the other two oils with a significant improvement in BMD and normal histological results compared to the normal control. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that supplementation with dietary oils containing omega-3 PUFAs such as fish oil, soybean oil or flaxseed oil can play a role in the prevention of bone loss and in the regulation of bone metabolism, especially fish oil which demonstrated a greater level of protection against GC-induced osteoporosis.

흰쥐의 위산분비 및 혈장 Gastrin농도에 미치는 대상회전 제거의 영향 (Effect of Cingulate Cortical Ablation on Gastric Acid Secretion and Plasma Gastrin Concentration in Rats)

  • 김명석;조양혁;김태욱;최현
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 1984
  • It has been recently reported that cingulate cortex mar facilitate gastric acid secretion, but its facilitatory mechanism on the gastric acid secretion is still unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the facilitatory mechanism of the cingulate cortex upon gastric acid secretion in rats. Twenty·three male albino rats were divided into the cingulate(N= 13) and the operated control(N= 10) groups. The cingulate group in which cingulate cortex was removed by suction through a slit-shaped opening on each side of, and parallel to, the sagittal suture. In the operated control group, the surgical procedure was ended with the skull opening and the incision of dura mater. The gastric juice was collected via a chronic gastric cannula after 24 hours of fast, with water ad libitum. The juice was collected continuously for 6 hours, starting 3 hours prior to the injection of gastric secretagogue, pentagastrin$(12\;{\mu}g/kg)$ or histamine dihydrochloride $(320\;{\mu}g/kg)$. Three one·hour samples were obtained before ana after the administration of each secretagogue. The two agents were injected separately and subcutaneously at intervals of 1 week, the blood samples were drawn from the abdominal aorta for the radioimmunoassay of postprandial plasma gastrin concentration in response to the forced feeding of 10% cod liver oil. 1) After pentagastrin administration, the volume of gastric juice tended to decrease, but its acidity tended to increase in the cingulate group compared with those of the operated control group. However, there was no any difference in the acid output between the two groups. 2) Histamine-stimulated acid output and volume of the gastric juice of the cingulate group decreased significantly compared with those of the operated control group, while there was not significantly different in the acidity between the two groups. 3) Before pentagastrin or histamine administration, any change was not observed in the gastric acid secretion following the cingulate cortical ablation. 4) Postprandial plasma gastrin concentration in response to the forced feeding of 10% cod liver oil was insignificantly lower in the cingulate group than in the operated control group. It is inferred from the above results that the cingulate cortex exerts a facilitatory influence upon the histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion in rats, and its influence may not be mediated by the stimulation of gastrin secretion.

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Incorporation of n-3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids into Duck Egg Yolks

  • Chen, Tian-Fwu;Hsu, Jenn-Chung
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.565-569
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    • 2003
  • The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of different levels of refined cod liver oil (RCLO) on laying performance, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids composition (n-3 PUFAs) and the organoleptic evaluation of duck egg yolks. A total of 180 30 wk old laying Tsaiya ducks, at the beginning of peak production, were allotted into 6 treatments with 3 replicates each. Ducks were fed one of the 6 experimental diets, supplemented with 2% tallow (control) and graded levels of RCLO at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6% to a corn-soybean diets, respectively, for 6 wks. All of the experimental diets were formulated to be both isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period. The results indicated that the RCLO supplementation levels did not affect (p>0.05) egg production, egg mass, feed intake, feed efficiency or body weight change. Egg weight was the lightest when the ducks received the 6% RCLO diet. The eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 PUFAs contents in the yolks increased with increasing RCLO supplementation. The taste and general acceptability of the hard-boiled eggs were not significantly different among the treatments. However, a fishy flavor was much higher when ducks were fed diets supplemented with 5% and 6% RCLO diets.

유유아(乳幼兒) 및 성장기 아동을 위한 영양식품 개발에 관한 연구 -흰쥐 성장에 미치는 영향- (The Protein rich Food Mixtures for Korean Infants)

  • 호진희;김숙희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.95-99
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    • 1970
  • Korea is one of the typical rice eating countries where availability of animal protein is limited even for the growing generation. Nutritive food products for infants and children are not available commercially in large scale at the present time, although a limited amount of expensive milk products are produced. The present study deals with a pioneering attempt on a new food mixture to meet this demand. Several food mixtures, possibly produced in the country, consisting of rice, soybean, FPC, vitamin, minerals and other food additives are developed in this work Sixty female and male rats aged $30{\sim}40$ days were divided into five groups, twelve rats each. The rats had been maintained with the six different diets, as follow. Formulation of proposed infant food mixturesComposition F-R-1 F-S-2 F-F-3 F-P-4 S Rice 100% 40% 37% 46% 70% Sugar - 12 13 10 70 Casein - - - - 20 Bean - 40 37 24 - Yeast - 3 2 3 - Mineral Vitamain - 2 4 2 4.3 F.P.C - 3 4 7 - Fat - - 4 8 4 Cod liver Oil - - - - 3 The findings of this study presented in FER, PER, final organ weights, body weights growth, percentage of nitrogen retention in the body. F-P-4 group tended to remain the heaviest and F-R-1 the lightest in the body weight among three groups throughout the experimental period. In terms of FER (Feed Efficiency Ratio) and PER (Prortein E. R.) value, F-P-4 group kept the highest record throughout. F-P-4 group showed the highest value of nitrogen retention in the body. In comparision between F-P-4 groups and casein 20% group (standard) in all respects of this experiment, F-P-4 group which is the most superior among experimental group, revealed statisfically no significant inferior than that of standard group. This fact could be interpreted that most limiting a. a., methionine in the soy protein produced little inferiority of the experimental groups in the study.

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High performance liquid chromatography를 이용한 빈카민 분석 및 빈카마이너의 항산화능 측정 (Analysis of Vicamine Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Antioxidant Activity of Vincaminor Extract)

  • 정종희;백유미;이광근
    • 한국식품과학회지
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.599-602
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    • 2008
  • 빈카마이너 유효 성분인 빈카민은 인돌알카로이드의 일종으로 뇌혈관 질환 치료에 자주 사용 되어 왔다. 빈카마이너의 항산화능을 알아보기 위하여, 빈카마이너 추출액과 빈카민의 항산화능을 DPPH와 lipid MA 측정법으로 측정하였다. 빈카마이너 잎을 분쇄하여 물, 메탄올, 에탄올 용매로 추출하였다. 추출물의 항산화능은 추출용매와 측정방법에 따라 상이한 결과를 보였다. DPPH 방법으로 항산화능을 측정한 결과, 물 추출액에서 가장 높은 항산화능을 보였다. 그러나 lipid MA 측정법에 의한 결과에서는 에탄올 추출액이 5,000 ${\mu}g/mL$ 농도에서 대구 간유의 MA 형성을 82%까지 저해시킨 것으로 나타나 가장 높은 항산화능을 보였다. 빈카마이너 추출액 중 빈카민은 HPLC에 의해 분석되었으며 빈카민의 함량은 0.42$\pm$0.005 ${\mu}g/mL$이었다.

한국 식품재료로 상용되는 식물로부터 분리한 향기추출물의 항산화능 탐색 (Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile Extracts from Plants Commonly Used in Korean Foods)

  • 장혜원;이화정;이광근
    • 한국식품과학회지
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.723-729
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    • 2005
  • 식물체로 한국에서의 식품 재료로 주로 사용되는 미나리, 쑥갓, 참깨가 지닌 향기 성분의 항산화능에 대하여 연구하였다. 식물체 식품재료의 향기 성분은 감압하의 증기 증류와 dichloromethane을 용매로한 액체-액체 연속 추출을 이용하여 추출하였고, 추출된 향기 성분의 정성 및 정량 분석과 이들이 지닌 항산화능에 대하여 연구하였다. 연구 결과는 미나리, 쑥갓, 참깨의 고유한 향기 성분을 가진다는 것과 이들의 향기 추출물이 Aldehyde/Carboxylic acid assay와 Lipid MA assay에서 항산화능을 가지고 있음을 보여준다. 특히, 쑥갓의 향기 추출물은 $500{\mu}g/mL$의 농도에서 두 실험결과에서 모두 50% 이상의 항산화능을 나타냈다. Aldehyde/Carboxylic acid assay에서 $100{\mu}g/mL$의 농도에서 참깨의 향기 추출물이 90%이상의 항산화 효과를 보였고, 쑥갓과 미나리의 향기추출물이 각각 63%, 12%의 항산화 효과를 나타냈다. $500{\mu}g/mL$의 농도에서 hexanal 산화 저해 효과는 참깨>쑥갓>미나리의 순으로 나타났다. 쑥갓, 참깨의 향기 추출물은 95% 이상의 항산화 효과를 보였고, 미나리의 향기 추출물은 25%로 가장 작은 항산화 효과를 보였다. 이 세 가지 식품소재의 향기성분들은 천연항산화제인 {\alpha}-tocopherol$과 비교하여도 뒤떨어지지 않았다 Lipid MA assay에서는 $100{\mu}g/mL$의 농도에서 MA형성에 대한 저해 효과는 마늘이 $20{\mu}g/mL$의 농도에서처럼 51%로 가장 높았고 미나리와 참깨가 각각 41%, 12%를 나타냈었다. $500{\mu}g/mL$의 농도에서 MA 저해 효과는 쑥갓>미나리>참깨의 순으로, 각각 54, 48, 29%를 나타냈다. 참깨는 20, $100{\mu}g/mL$의 농도에서처럼 가장 작은 효과를 보여줬고, 쑥갓은 50% 이상의 항산화 효과를 나타냈다. Aldehyde/Carboxylic acid assay에서는 참깨가 가장 높은 효과를 보여줬지만 Lipid MA asaay에서는 그에 비해 가장 낮은 효과를 나타냈다.