• Title, Summary, Keyword: Climate Scenario

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Selecting Climate Change Scenarios Reflecting Uncertainties (불확실성을 고려한 기후변화 시나리오의 선정)

  • Lee, Jae-Kyoung;Kim, Young-Oh
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.149-161
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    • 2012
  • Going by the research results of the past, of all the uncertainties resulting from the research on climate change, the uncertainty caused by the climate change scenario has the highest degree of uncertainty. Therefore, depending upon what kind of climate change scenario one adopts, the projection of the water resources in the future will differ significantly. As a matter of principle, it is highly recommended to utilize all the GCM scenarios offered by the IPCC. However, this could be considered to be an impractical alternative if a decision has to be made at an action officer's level. Hence, as an alternative, it is deemed necessary to select several scenarios so as to express the possible number of cases to the maximum extent possible. The objective standards in selecting the climate change scenarios have not been properly established and the scenarios have been selected, either at random or subject to the researcher's discretion. In this research, a new scenario selection process, in which it is possible to have the effect of having utilized all the possible scenarios, with using only a few principal scenarios and maintaining some of the uncertainties, has been suggested. In this research, the use of cluster analysis and the selection of a representative scenario in each cluster have efficiently reduced the number of climate change scenarios. In the cluster analysis method, the K-means clustering method, which takes advantage of the statistical features of scenarios has been employed; in the selection of a representative scenario in each cluster, the selection method was analyzed and reviewed and the PDF method was used to select the best scenarios with the closest simulation accuracy and the principal scenarios that is suggested by this research. In the selection of the best scenarios, it has been shown that the GCM scenario which demonstrated high level of simulation accuracy in the past need not necessarily demonstrate the similarly high level of simulation accuracy in the future and various GCM scenarios were selected for the principal scenarios. Secondly, the "Maximum entropy" which can quantify the uncertainties of the climate change scenario has been used to both quantify and compare the uncertainties associated with all the scenarios, best scenarios and the principal scenarios. Comparison has shown that the principal scenarios do maintain and are able to better explain the uncertainties of all the scenarios than the best scenarios. Therefore, through the scenario selection process, it has been proven that the principal scenarios have the effect of having utilized all the scenarios and retaining the uncertainties associated with the climate change to the maximum extent possible, while reducing the number of scenarios at the same time. Lastly, the climate change scenario most suitable for the climate on the Korean peninsula has been suggested. Through the scenario selection process, of all the scenarios found in the 4th IPCC report, principal climate change scenarios, which are suitable for the Korean peninsula and maintain most of the uncertainties, have been suggested. Therefore, it is assessed that the use of the scenario most suitable for the future projection of water resources on the Korean peninsula will be able to provide the projection of the water resources management that maintains more than 70~80% level of uncertainties of all the scenarios.

Evaluating Changes and Uncertainty of Nitrogen Load from Rice Paddy according to the Climate Change Scenario Multi-Model Ensemble (기후변화시나리오 다중모형 앙상블에 따른 논 질소 유출 부하량 변동 및 불확실성 평가)

  • Choi, Soon-Kun;Jeong, Jaehak;Yeob, So-Jin;Kim, Minwook;Kim, Jin Ho;Kim, Min-Kyeong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.62 no.5
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    • pp.47-62
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    • 2020
  • Rice paddy accounts for approximately 52.5% of all farmlands in South Korea, and it is closely related to the water environment. Climate change is expected to affect not only agricultural productivity also the water and the nutrient circulation. Therefore this study was aimed to evaluate changes of nitrogen load from rice paddy considering climate change scenario uncertainty. APEX-Paddy model which reflect rice paddy environment by modifying APEX (Agricultural Policy and Environmental eXtender) model was used. Using the AIMS (APCC Integrated Modeling Solution) offered by the APEC Climate Center, bias correction was conducted for 9 GCMs using non-parametric quantile mapping. Bias corrected climate change scenarios were applied to the APEX-Paddy model. The changes and uncertainty in runoff and nitrogen load were evaluated using multi-model ensemble. Paddy runoff showed a change of 23.1% for RCP4.5 scenario and 45.5% for RCP8.5 scenario compared the 2085s (2071 to 2100) against the base period (1976 to 2005). The nitrogen load was found to be increased as 43.9% for RCP4.5 scenario and 76.0% for RCP8.5 scenario. The uncertainty analysis showed that the annual standard deviation of nitrogen loads increased in the future, and the maximum entropy indicated an increasing tendency. And Duncan's analysis showed significant differences among GCMs as the future progressed. The result of this study seems to be used as a basis for mid- and long-term policies for water resources and water system environment considering climate change.

The Use and Abuse of Climate Scenarios in Agriculture (농업부문 기후시나리오 활용의 주의점)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Yun, Jin I.
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.170-178
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    • 2016
  • It is not clear how to apply the climate scenario to assess the impact of climate change in the agricultural sector. Even if you apply the same scenario, the result can vary depending on the temporal-spatial downscaling, the post-treatment to adjust the bias of a model, and the prediction model selection (used for an impact assessment). The end user, who uses the scenario climate data, should select climate factors, a spatial extend, and a temporal range appropriate for the objectives of an analysis. It is important to draw the impact assessment results with minimum uncertainty by evaluating the suitability of the data including the reproducibility of the past climate and calculating the optimum future climate change scenario. This study introduced data processing methods for reducing the uncertainties in the process of applying the future climate change scenario to users in the agricultural sector and tried to provide basic information for appropriately using the scenario data in accordance with the study objectives.

Predicting Potential Epidemics of Rice Leaf Blast Disease Using Climate Scenarios from the Best Global Climate Model Selected for Individual Agro-Climatic Zones in Korea (국내 농업기후지대 별 최적기후모형 선정을 통한 미래 벼 도열병 발생 위험도 예측)

  • Lee, Seongkyu;Kim, Kwang-Hyung
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.133-142
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    • 2018
  • Climate change will affect not only the crop productivity but also the pattern of rice disease epidemics in Korea. Impact assessments for the climate change are conducted using various climate change scenarios from many global climate models (GCM), such as a scenario from a best GCM or scenarios from multiple GCMs, or a combination of both. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of using a climate change scenario from the best GCM for the impact assessment on the potential epidemics of a rice leaf blast disease in Korea, in comparison to a multi?model ensemble (MME) scenario from multiple GCMs. For this, this study involves analyses of disease simulation using an epidemiological model, EPIRICE?LB, which was validated for Korean rice paddy fields. We then assessed likely changes in disease epidemics using the best GCM selected for individual agro?climatic zones and MME scenarios constructed by running 11 GCMs. As a result, the simulated incidence of leaf blast epidemics gradually decreased over the future periods both from the best GCM and MME. The results from this study emphasized that the best GCM selection approach resulted in comparable performance to the MME approach for the climate change impact assessment on rice leaf blast epidemic in Korea.

Changes in the Tsushima Warm Current and the Impact under a Global Warming Scenario in Coupled Climate Models (기후모델에 나타난 미래기후에서 쓰시마난류의 변화와 그 영향)

  • Choi, A-Ra;Park, Young-Gyu;Choi, Hui Jin
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.127-134
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    • 2013
  • In this study we investigated changes in the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) under the global warming scenario RCP 4.5 by analysing the results from the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Among the four models that had been employed to analyse the Tsushima Warm Current during the 20th Century, in the CSIRO-Mk3.6.0 and HadGEM2-CC models the transports of the Tsushima Warm Current were 2.8 Sv and 2.1 Sv, respectively, and comparable to observed transport, which is between 2.4 and 2.77 Sv. In the other two models the transports were much greater or smaller than the observed estimates. Using the two models that properly reproduced the transport of the Tsushima Warm Current we investigated the response of the current under the global warming scenario. In both models the volume transports and the temperature were greater in the future climate scenario. Warm advection into the East Sea was intensified to raise the temperature and consequently the heat loss to the air.

LONG-TERM STREAMFLOW SENSITIVITY TO RAINFALL VARIABILITY UNDER IPCC SRES CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIO

  • Kang, Boo-sik;Jorge a. ramirez, Jorge-A.-Ramirez
    • Water Engineering Research
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.81-99
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    • 2004
  • Long term streamflow regime under virtual climate change scenario was examined. Rainfall forecast simulation of the Canadian Global Coupled Model (CGCM2) of the Canadian Climate Center for modeling and analysis for the IPCC SRES B2 scenario was used for analysis. The B2 scenario envisions slower population growth (10.4 billion by 2010) with a more rapidly evolving economy and more emphasis on environmental protection. The relatively large scale of GCM hinders the accurate computation of the important streamflow characteristics such as the peak flow rate and lag time, etc. The GCM rainfall with more than 100km scale was downscaled to 2km-scale using the space-time stochastic random cascade model. The HEC-HMS was used for distributed hydrologic model which can take the grid rainfall as input data. The result illustrates that the annual variation of the total runoff and the peak flow can be much greater than rainfall variation, which means actual impact of rainfall variation for the available water resources can be much greater than the extent of the rainfall variation.

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The Effect of Climate Change on Water Quality Analysis in a Dam River Basin (기후변화시나리오에 따른 댐유역의 장기 수질변화 예측)

  • Jung, Je Ho;Kim, Dong Il;Choi, Hyun Gu;Han, Kun Yeun
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.107-121
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    • 2011
  • To assess the impact of climate change on water quality in an impounded river basin, this study estimated future air temperature and rainfall in the years of 2020, 2050 and 2080 by statistically downscaling the simulation results from two GCM models combined with two emission scenarios (A2 and B1). Both scenarios were selected from the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) suggested by IPCC. The A2 scenario represents an extreme condition whereas the B1 scenario represents a clean and energy efficient condition which is similar to that of study basin. With the results of estimated climate factors and land use data, the discharge and the concentrations of BOD, TN and TP in the Andong dam basins were simulated using the SWAT model. The change in BOD concentration for the B1 emission scenario was greater than the A2 scenario in the annual increase range and the pollution level. The concentration of TN was decreased during March? June which is drought period and increased again afterward. In contrast to TN, the concentration of TP was generally decreased. The change in TP concentration was greater for the B1 scenario than the A2 scenario.

A Study of Future Residential Land Use Change considering Climate Change using Land Use Equilibrium Model in Jeju (토지이용균형 모델을 이용한 기후변화에 따른 주거용 토지이용변화 - 제주 지역을 대상으로 -)

  • Yoo, Somin;Lee, Woo-Kyun;Yamagata, Yoshiki;Kim, Jiyoung;Kim, Moon-Il;Lim, Chul-Hee
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2015
  • Climate change lead to environmental pollution caused by the radical economic growth and development of industry. The amount of damage from abnormal climate is increasing rapidly for this reason in Korea. In particular, the cities is a lot of carbon emission quantity from the radical growth. Thus the government present "low carbon green growth" for eco-friendly city planning. As one of the important factors effecting climate change, active researches on land use change is performed. In this study, we knew land use change of each scenarios using land use equilibrium model which is kind of predictive model of land use in Japan. First, we selected study area to Jeju lsland. For this study, indicators for input data were selected and spatial data for input data were established using GIS program. Second, we established future scenarios based in 2040s. There are 2 future scenarios: dispersion scenario, compact scenario. Third, we compared with residential area of current and residential area for future scenarios. Results showed that residential area of the difference between current and dispersion scenario were 1,230 ha and residential area of the difference between current and compact scenario were 1,515 ha. Finally, for comparing carbon dioxide absorption volume between dispersion scenarios and compact scenarios, we calculated carbon dioxide absorption volume according to residential area decreased of each future scenarios. Results showed that carbon dioxide absorption volume in dispersion scenario was 477,878 ton and carbon dioxide absorption volume in compact scenario was 588,606 ton. Therefore, the study showed that land use equilibrium model is expected to put to use for future enhancement in creating data for climate change stabilization. And it is also expected to be utilized for city planning research in Korea.

Long-term Effects on Forest Biomass under Climate Change Scenarios Using LANDIS-II - A case study on Yoengdong-gun in Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea - (산림경관천이모델(LANDIS-II)를 이용한 기후변화 시나리오에 따른 산림의 생물량 장기변화 추정 연구 -충청북도 영동군 학산면 봉소리 일대 산림을 중심으로 -)

  • Choi, Young-Eun;Choi, Jae-Yong;Kim, Whee-Moon;Kim, Seoung-Yeal;Song, Won-Kyong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.27-43
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    • 2019
  • This study applied the LANDIS-II model to the forest vegetation of the study area in Yeongdong-gun, Korea to identify climate effects on ecosystems of forest vegetation. The main purpose of the study is to examine the long-term changes in forest aboveground biomass(AGB) under three different climate change scenarios; The baseline climate scenario is to maintain the current climate condition; the RCP 4.5 scenario is a stabilization scenario to employ of technologies and strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions; the RCP 8.5 scenario is increasing greenhouse gas emissions over time representative with 936ppm of $CO_2$ concentration by 2100. The vegetation survey and tree-ring analysis were conducted to work out the initial vegetation maps and data for operation of the LANDIS model. Six types of forest vegetation communities were found including Quercus mongolica - Pinus densiflora community, Quercus mongolica community, Pinus densiflora community, Quercus variabilis-Quercus acutissima community, Larix leptolepis afforestation and Pinus koraiensis afforestation. As for changes in total AGB under three climate change scenarios, it was found that RCP 4.5 scenario featured the highest rate of increase in AGB whereas RCP 8.5 scenario yielded the lowest rate of increase. These results suggest that moderately elevated temperatures and $CO_2$ concentrations helped the biomass flourish as photosynthesis and water use efficiency increased, but huge increase in temperature ($above+4.0^{\circ}C$) has resulted in the increased respiration with increasing temperature. Consequently, Species productivity(Biomass) of trees decrease as the temperature is elevated drastically. It has been confirmed that the dominant species in all scenarios was Quercus mongolica. Like the trends shown in the changes of total AGB, it revealed the biggest increase in the AGB of Quercus mongolica under the RCP 4.5 scenario. AGB of Quercus mongolica and Quercus variabilis decreased in the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios after 2050 but have much higher growth rates of the AGB starting from 2050 under the baseline scenario. Under all scenarios, the AGB of coniferous species was eventually perished in 2100. In particular they were extinguished in early stages of the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. This is because of natural selection of communities by successions and the failure to adapt to climate change. The results of the study could be expected to be effectively utilized to predict changes of the forest ecosystems due to climate change and to be used as basic data for establishing strategies for adaptation climate changes and the management plans for forest vegetation restoration in ecological restoration fields.

SENSITIVITY OF THE KEUM RIVER BASIN TO CLIMATE CHANGE

  • Kim, Young-Oh;Seo, Yong-Won;Lee, Seung-Hyun;Lee, Dong-Ryul
    • Water Engineering Research
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.267-277
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    • 2000
  • This study reports an examination of the sensitivity of water resources in the Keum River basin to climate change. Assuming a doubling in $CO_2$ concentrations, a cooperative study provided four climate change scenarios for this study, which have been translated into temperature and precipitation scenarios on a basin scale. The study utilized these temperature and precipitation data for each climate change scenario as inputs to the NWS-PC model to generate the corresponding streamflow scenario over the Keum River basin. A reservoir simulation model for the Dae-Chung Dam in the Keum River basin has been developed with an object-oriented simulation environment, STELLA. For each streamflow scenario, the performance of the reservoir was assessed in terms of reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability. Although the simulation results are heavily dependent on the choice of the climate change scenarios, the following conclusions can be clearly concluded: (1) the future streamflow over the Dae-Chung Dam tends to decease during the dry period, which seriously increases competitive water use issues and (2) flood control issues predominate under the $2CO_2$-High case.

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