• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chinese red ginseng

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Remarkable impact of steam temperature on ginsenosides transformation from fresh ginseng to red ginseng

  • Xu, Xin-Fang;Gao, Yan;Xu, Shu-Ya;Liu, Huan;Xue, Xue;Zhang, Ying;Zhang, Hui;Liu, Meng-Nan;Xiong, Hui;Lin, Rui-Chao;Li, Xiang-Ri
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.277-287
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    • 2018
  • Background: Temperature is an essential condition in red ginseng processing. The pharmacological activities of red ginseng under different steam temperatures are significantly different. Methods: In this study, an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was developed to distinguish the red ginseng products that were steamed at high and low temperatures. Multivariate statistical analyses such as principal component analysis and supervised orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis were used to determine the influential components of the different samples. Results: The results showed that different steamed red ginseng samples can be identified, and the characteristic components were 20-gluco-ginsenoside Rf, ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rg1, and malonyl-ginsenoside Rb1 in red ginseng steamed at low temperature. Meanwhile, the characteristic components in red ginseng steamed at high temperature were 20R-ginsenoside Rs3 and ginsenoside Rs4. Polar ginsenosides were abundant in red ginseng steamed at low temperature, whereas higher levels of less polar ginsenosides were detected in red ginseng steamed at high temperature. Conclusion: This study makes the first time that differences between red ginseng steamed under different temperatures and their ginsenosides transformation have been observed systematically at the chemistry level. The results suggested that the identified chemical markers can be used to illustrate the transformation of ginsenosides in red ginseng processing.

Comparative Study on the Essential Oil Components of Panax Species (인삼속(Pauax species) 식물의 정유성분 조성 비교)

  • Ko, Sung-Ryong;Choi, Kang-Ju;Kim, Young-Hoi
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.42-48
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out to determine the differences of essential oil components among Korean, Chinese and Japanese red ginseng, and Korean white ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Mayer) , American and Canadian ginseng (P. Quinquefolium), and sanchi ginseng (P notoginseng). The steam distilled oils of these ginsengs were analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and 22 sesquiterpenes, 8 sesquiterpene alcohols, 8 monoterpenes, 5 aldehydes, 4 esters, 3 acids, 2 alcohols and 5 miscellaneous components were identified. The major oil components of Korean, Chinese and Japanese red ginseng were $\beta$-panasinsene, $\beta$-caryophyllene, $\alpha$-panasinsene, $\alpha$-neoclovene, selina-4,11-diane, bicyclo-ger-macrene and spathulenol. The contents of $\beta$-panasinsene, $\alpha$-neoclovene, $\alpha$-basabolene and spathulenol were higher in Korean red ginseng than Chinese and Japanese red ginseng. The contents of $\alpha$-cubebene, selina-4,11-diene and ledol were higher in Chinese red ginseng than Korean and Japanese red ginseng, but those of selina-4,11-diene and spathulenol were lower in Japanese red ginseng than Korean or Chinese red ginseng. On the other hand, the GC patterns of the oils from American, Canadian and sanchi ginseng were different from that of Korean white ginseng.

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The Comparison of the Appearances Between the Korean Ginseng the Chinese Ginseng (한국인삼과 중국인삼의 외관 비교)

  • 손현주;백남인
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.187-195
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    • 1997
  • The Chinese ginseng roots were collected at twelve places of Jilin Province and two places of Liaoning Province in China and their appearances were compared with those of the Korean ginseng roots. The color of the most of the Chinese red ginseng was brown or dark brown and the color of many of the Chinese dried ginseng was pale yellow and the root-age of the most of the Chinese red ginseng as well as the Chinese dried ginseng was evaluated five or six year regardless of the collection places, so it cannot be easily concluded that the color and the root-age of the Chinese ginseng roots are different from those of the Korean ginseng roots. However the rhizomes and the lateral roots of the Chinese ginseng roots were poorly developed and many of them did not have either rhizome or lateral roots. Moreover the rhizomes of the Chinese red ginseng as well as the Chinese dried ginseng were much more easily removed than those of the Korean red ginseng and the Korean white ginseng. Therefore it is thought that the development status of the rhizome and the lateral roots of the Chinese ginseng roots are quite different from those of the Korean ginseng roots.

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Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Component on Lipolytic Action of Toxohormone-L from Cancerous Ascites Fluid (고려홍삼 성분이 암독소 호르몬-L의 체지방 분해작용에 미치는 영향)

  • 이성동;황우익
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.105-109
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    • 1995
  • This study was devised to observe the inhibitory effects of 3 kinds of petroleum ether extracts (percolation by petroleum ether) from Korean red ginseng, Chinese red ginseng and American white ginseng on a lipolytic action of Toxohormone-L which has been known as lipolytic and anorexigenic factors. Toxohormone-L was obtained by partial purification of the ascites fluid from mice which had been Inoculated with sarcoma-180. The yields of petroleum ether extract from Korean red ginseng, Chinese red ginseng and American white ginseng were 0.64, 0.47 and 0.58 and respectively, indicating that the yield of Korean red ginseng was the highest. In vitro, at the concentration of 2 mg /ml, the inhibition rate of lipolysis by the petroleum ether extract of Korean red ginseng, Chinese red ginseng and American white ginseng were 55.1, 50.0 and 44.9% respectively, and the total inhibitory activity per gram of ginseng material were 18, 12 and 13 unit respectively, indicating that the Korean red ginseng was the most effective in the inhibition of the lipolysis.

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The Comparison of the Break Intensity of the Rhizome Between the Korean Ginseng and the Chinese Ginseng (한국인삼과 중국인삼의 뇌두 부러짐 강도 비교 연구)

  • 손현주;노길봉
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.201-208
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    • 1997
  • In order to compare the physical property of the rhizome of the Korean ginseng with the Chinese ginseng, the break intensity of the ginseng rhizome was measured using a rheometer (FVDOH RHEO METER, Rheotech Co.). The intensities for the Korean red ginseng were 10.0$\pm$ 2.1 kg/cm2(n=72), while the intensities for the Chinese red ginseng were 4.0$\pm$2.4 kg/cm2(n=142) which were significantly lower than those for the Korean red ginseng at 1% level. The intensities for the Korean white ginseng were 9.9$\pm$2.0 kg/cm2 (n=97), while the intensities for the Chinese deied ginseng were 4.5$\pm$2.7 kg/cm2(n=138) which were significantly lower than those for the Korean white ginseng at 1% level. These results suggest that the rhizome of the Chinese ginseng might be much more easily broken than the rhizome of the Korean ginseng. Conclusively the break intensity of the ginseng rhizome is thought to be useful for differentiating the Chinese ginseng with the Korean ginseng.

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Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Blood Pressure and Aortic Vascular(endothelial) Histological Changes in Rats (홍삼이 정상 흰쥐의 혈압 및 대동맥 조직 소견 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Joo, Il-Woo;Sung, Kyung-Hwa;Park, Jung-Min;Lew, Jae-Hwan;Oh, Han-Jin
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.324-331
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    • 2008
  • Introduction : Korean red ginseng has been shown to have an preventive effect on atheroma formation and enhancing effect on nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cell inducing vasodilatation. However, there are few studies showing the effect of Korean red ginseng on blood pressure and vascular(endothelial) pathologic changes together. We designed this study to show changes of blood pressure and vascular pathologic findings with Korean red ginseng administration compared with Chinese red ginseng and control for 3 months in rats. Materials and methods : We studied the in vitro hypotensive effect and effect on vascular pathologic changes of Korean red ginseng compared with Chinese red ginseng and control. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups(Korean red ginseng, Chinese red ginseng and control) and evaluated by blood pressure and aortic vascular(endothelial) pathologic changes monthly during 3-month administration. All results were analyzed by paired T-test, ANOVA and post-hoc. Results : Blood pressure lowering effect was noted on Korean red ginseng and Chinese red ginseng compared to control. Especially, in Korean red ginseng group, hypotensive effect was showed in first and second month, but, in Chinese red ginseng group, it was just noted in first month. In case of vascular(aortic endothelial) pathologic finding, endothelial wall thickening and elastic fiber tearing were noted in Chinese red ginseng group compared with Korean red ginseng group and control with statistical significance.(p<0.05) Discussion : These results suggested Korean red ginseng could have more hypotensive effect and maintenance rather than Chinese red ginseng. And the difference of hypotensive effect between Korean red ginseng and Chinese red ginseng might has some association with difference of vascular pathologic findings in each group. However, further evaluation and research of other mechanism will be needed to convince this hypothesis.

Analysis of oligosaccharides from Panax ginseng by using solid-phase permethylation method combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Q-Orbitrap/mass spectrometry

  • Li, Lele;Ma, Li;Guo, Yunlong;Liu, Wenlong;Wang, Yang;Liu, Shuying
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.775-783
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    • 2020
  • Background: The reports about valuable oligosaccharides in ginseng are quite limited. There is an urgent need to develop a practical procedure to detect and analyze ginseng oligosaccharides. Methods: The oligosaccharide extracts from ginseng were permethylated by solid-phase methylation method and then were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Q-Orbitrap/MS. The sequence, linkage, and configuration information of oligosaccharides were determined by using accurate m/z value and tandem mass information. Several standard references were used to further confirm the identification. The oligosaccharide composition in white ginseng and red ginseng was compared using a multivariate statistical analysis method. Results: The nonreducing oligosaccharide erlose among 12 oligosaccharides identified was reported for the first time in ginseng. In the comparison of the oligosaccharide extracts from white ginseng and red ginseng, a clear separation was observed in the partial least squares-discriminate analysis score plot, indicating the sugar differences in these two kinds of ginseng samples. The glycans with variable importance in the projection value large than 1.0 were considered to contribute most to the classification. The contents of oligosaccharides in red ginseng were lower than those in white ginseng, and the contents of maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose, maltoheptaose, maltooctaose, maltononaose, sucrose, and erlose decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in red ginseng. Conclusion: A solid-phase methylation method combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to analyze the oligosaccharides in ginseng extracts, which provides the possibility for holistic evaluation of ginseng oligosaccharides. The comparison of oligosaccharide composition of white ginseng and red ginseng could help understand the differences in pharmacological activities between these two kinds of ginseng samples from the perspective of glycans.

Comparative Study on the Cytotoxic Activities of Red Ginseng of Korea and China (한국 및 중국 홍삼의 암세포 증식억제 효과 비교연구(III))

  • 황우익;손정원
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.196-202
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    • 1993
  • A study was performed to compare the anticancer effects of Korean and Chinese red ginseng roots. The whole crude extracts or chloroform, methanol and acetone fractions of the crude extracts were added in the culture medium of three cancer cell lines, a mouse leukemia cell line ($P_{388}$), a human colon carcinoma cell line (HT-29) and a human rectal carcinoma cell line (HRT-18), to screen the growth inhibition effects. The results are summarized as follows : 1. Crude extracts of both Korean and Chinese red ginseng roots inhibited the proliferation of all the three cancer cell lines tested in a dose dependent manner. However, the growth inhibition effects of Korean red ginseng extracts were significantly greater than that of Chinese red ginseng. 2. An acetone fraction showed the greatest antiproliferative effects among the 11'hole crude extracts, chloroform, methanol and acetone fractions of the crude extracts. 3. These results suggest that the active antiproliferative components of the crude extracts are present mostly in the acetone fraction.

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Flavor Characteristics of Korean Red Ginseng (한국홍삼의 향 특성)

  • 손현주;이성계;위재준
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.148-152
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    • 2000
  • The flavor characteristics of the Korean red ginseng were compared with those of the Chinese red ginseng organoleptically. The Korean red ginseng had strong sweety and roasted odor while the Chinese red ginseng had strong earthy, woody and hay-like odor. The sweety odor and the roasted odor of the Korean red ginseng occurred in the neutral subfraction of the ether-soluble fraction of its headspace volatiles.

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Taxonomy of fungal complex causing red-skin root of Panax ginseng in China

  • Lu, Xiao H.;Zhang, Xi M.;Jiao, Xiao L.;Hao, Jianjun J.;Zhang, Xue S.;Luo, Yi;Gao, Wei W.
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.506-518
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    • 2020
  • Background: Red-skin root of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) significantly reduces the quality and limits the production of ginseng in China. The disease has long been thought to be a noninfectious physiological disease, except one report that proved it was an infectious disease. However, the causal agents have not been successfully determined. In the present study, we were to reveal the pathogens that cause red-skin disease. Methods: Ginseng roots with red-skin root symptoms were collected from commercial fields in Northeast China. Fungi were isolated from the lesion and identified based on morphological characters along with multilocus sequence analyses on internal transcription spacer, β-tubulin (tub2), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1α (tef-1α). Pathogens were confirmed by inoculating the isolates in ginseng roots. Results: A total of 230 isolates were obtained from 209 disease samples. These isolates were classified into 12 species, including Dactylonectria sp., D. hordeicola, Fusarium acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. solani, F. torulosum, Ilyonectria mors-panacis, I. robusta, Rhexocercosporidium panacis, and three novel species I. changbaiensis, I. communis, and I. qitaiheensis. Among them, I. communis, I. robusta, and F. solani had the highest isolation frequencies, being 36.1%, 20.9%, and 23.9%, respectively. All these species isolated were pathogenic to ginseng roots and caused red-skin root disease under appropriate condition. Conclusion: Fungal complex is the causal agent of red-skin root in P. ginseng.