• Title/Summary/Keyword: Cervix cancer

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The Clinical Significance of Follow Up SCC Levels in Patients with Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix (재발성 자궁경부 편평상피암 환자들에서 Squamous Cell Carcinoma 항원의 유용성)

  • Choi Young Min;Park Sung Kwang;Cho Heung Lae;Lee Kyoung Bok;Kim Ki Tae;Kim Juree;Sohn Seung Chang
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.353-358
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : To investigate the clinical usefulness of a follow-up examination using serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) for the early detection of recurrence in patients treated for conical squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods : 20 patients who were treated for recurrent cervical squamous cell carcinoma between 1997 and 1998, who had experienced a complete remission after radiotherapy and who underwent an SCC test around the time when recurrence was detected, were included in this study. The levels of SCC were measured from the serum of the patients by immunoassay and values less than 2 ng/mL were regarded as normal. The sensitivity of the SCC test for use in the detection of recurrence, the association between the SCC values and the recurrence patterns and the tumor size and stage, and the temporal relation between the SCC increment and recurrence detection were evaluated. Results : The SCC values were above normal in 17 out of 20 patients, so the sensitivity of the SCC test for the detection of recurrence was $85\%$, and the mean and median of the SCC values were 15.2 and 9.5 ng/mL, respectively. No differences were observed in the SCC values according to the recurrence sites. For 11 patients, the SCC values were measured over a period of 6 months before recurrence was detected, and the mean and median values were 13.6 and 3.6 ng/mL, respectively. The SCC values of 7 patients were higher than the normal range, and the SCC values of the other 4 patients were normal but 3 among them were above 1.5 ng/mL. At the time of diagnosis, the SCC valuess were measured for 16 of the 20 recurrent patients, and the SCC values of the patients with a bulky tumor $(\geq4\;cm)$ or who were in stage IIb or III were higher than those of the patients with a non-bulky tumor or who were in stage Ib or IIa. Conclusion : The SCC test is thought to be useful for the early detection of recurrence during the follow up period in patients treated for cervical squamous cell carcinoma. When an effective salvage treatment is developed in the future, the benefit of this follow-up SCC test will be increased.

Results of Radiation Therapy for Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix (자궁경부암의 방사선치료 성적)

  • Lee Kyung-Ja
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.359-368
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    • 1995
  • Purpose : This is a retrospective analysis for pattern of failure, survival rate and prognostic factors of 114 patients with histologically proven invasive cancer of the uterine cervix treated with definitive irradiation. Materials and Methods : One hundred fourteen patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix were treated with a combination of intracavitary irradiation using Fletcher-Suit applicator and external beam irradiation by 6MV X-ray at the Ewha Womans University Hospital between March 1982 and Mar 1990. The median age was 53 years(range:30-77 years). FIGO stage distribution was 19 for IB, 23 for IIA, 42 for IIB, 12 for IIIA and 18 for IIIB. Summation dose of external beam and intracavitary irradiation to point A was 80-90 Gy(median:8580 cGy) in early stage(IB-IIA) and 85-100 Gy(median:8850 cGy) in advanced stage(IIB-IIIB). Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival rate and multivariate analysis for progrostic factors was performed using the Log likelihood for Weibull Results : The pelvic failure rates by stage were $10.5{\%}$ for IB. $8.7{\%}$ for IIA, $23.8{\%}$ for IIB, $50.0{\%}$ for IIIA and $38.9{\%}$ for IIIB. The rate of distant metastasis by stage were $0{\%}$ for IB, $8.7{\%}$ for IIA, $4.8{\%}$ for IIB. $0{\%}$ for IIIA and $11.1{\%}$ for IIIB. The time of failure was from 3 to 50 months and with median of 15 months after completion of radiation therapy. There was no significant coorelation between dose to point A($\leq$90 Gy vs >90 Gy) and pelvic tumor control(P>0.05). Incidence rates of grade 2 rectal and bladder complications were $3.5{\%}$(4/114) and $7{\%}$(8/114), respectively and 1 patient had sigmoid colon obstruction and 1 patient had severe cystitis. Overall 5-year survival rate was $70.5{\%}$ and disease-free survival rate was $53.6{\%}$. Overall 5-year survival rate by stage was $100{\%}$ for IB, $76.9{\%}$ for IIA, $77.6{\%}$ for IIB $87.5{\%}$ for IIIA and $69.1{\%}$ for IIIB. Five-rear disease-free survival rate by stage was $81.3{\%}$ for IB, $67.9{\%}$ for IIA, $46.8{\%}$ for IIB, $45.4{\%}$ for IIIA and $34.4{\%}$ for IIIB. The prognostic factors for disease-free survival rate by multivariate analysis was performance status(p= 0.0063) and response rate after completion of radiation therapy(p= 0.0026) but stage, age and radiation dose to point A were not siginificant. Conclusion : The result of radiation therapy for early stage of the uterine cervix cancer was relatively good but local control rate and survival rate in advanced stage were poor inspite of high dose irradiation to point A above 90 Gy. Prospective randomized studies are recommended to establish optimal tumor doses for various stages and volume of carcinoma of uterine cervix, And ajuvant chemotherapy or radiation-sensitizing agents must be considered to increase the pelvic control and survival rate in advanced cancer of uterine cervix.

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The Analysis of Dose in a Rectum by Multipurpose Brachytherapy Phantom (근접방사선치료용 다목적 팬톰을 이용한 직장 내 선량분석)

  • Huh, Hyun-Do;Kim, Seong-Hoon;Cho, Sam-Ju;Lee, Suk;Shin, Dong-Oh;Kwon, Soo-Il;Kim, Hun-Jung;Kim, Woo-Chul;K. Loh John-J.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: In this work we designed and made MPBP(Multi Purpose Brachytherapy Phantom). The MPBP enables one to reproduce the same patient set-up in MPBP as the treatment of the patient and we tried to get an exact analysis of rectal doses in the phantom without need of in-vivo dosimetry. Materials and Methods: Dose measurements were tried at a point of rectum 1, the reference point of rectum, with a diode detector for 4 patients treated with tandem and ovoid for a brachytherapy of a cervix cancer. Total 20 times of rectal dose measurements were made with 5 times a patient. The set-up variation of the diode detector was analyzed. The same patient set-ups were reproduced in self-made MPBP and then rectal doses were measured with TLD. Results: The measurement results of the diode detector showed that the set-up variation of the diode detector was the maximum $11.25{\pm}0.95mm$ in the y-direction for Patient 1 and the maximum $9.90{\pm}4.50mm,\;20.85{\pm}4.50mm,\;and\;19.15{\pm}3.33mm$ in the z-direction for Patient 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Un analyzing the degree of variation in 3 directions the more variation was showed in the z-direction than x- and y-direction except Patient 1. The results of TLD measurements in MPBP showed the relative maximum error of 8.6% and 7.7% at a point of rectum 1 for Patient 1 and 4, respectively and 1.7% and 1.2% for Patient 2 and 3, respectively. The doses measured at R1 and R2 were higher than those calculated except R point of Patient 2. this can be thought to related to the algorithm of dose calculation, whcih corrects for air and water but is guessed not to consider the correction for the scattered rays, but by considering the self-error (${\pm}5%$) TLD has the relative error of values measured and calculated was analyzed to be in a good agreement within 15%. Conclusion: The reproducibility of dose measurements under the same condition as the treatment could be achieved owing to the self-made MPMP and the dose at the point of interest could be analyzed accurately. If a treatment is peformed after achieving dose optimization using the data obtained in the phantom, dose will be able to be minimized to important organs.

Comparison of CT based-CTV plan and CT based-ICRU38 plan in brachytherapy planning of uterine cervix cancer (자궁경부암 강내조사 시 CT를 이용한 CTV에 근거한 치료계획과 ICRU 38에 근거할 치료계획의 비교)

  • Shim JinSup;Jo JungKun;Si ChangKeun;Lee KiHo;Lee DuHyun;Choi KyeSuk
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : Although Improve of CT, MRI Radio-diagnosis and Radiation Therapy Planing, but we still use ICRU38 Planning system(2D film-based) broadly. 3-Dimensional ICR plan(CT image based) is not only offer tumor and normal tissue dose but also support DVH information. On this study, we plan irradiation-goal dose on CTV(CTV plan) and irradiation-goal dose on ICRU 38 point(ICRU38 plan) by use CT image. And compare with tumor-dose, rectal-dose, bladder-dose on both planning, and analysis DVH Method and Material : Sample 11 patients who treated by Ir-192 HDR. After 40Gy external radiation therapy, ICR plan established. All the patients carry out CT-image scanned by CT-simulator. And we use PLATO(Nucletron) v.14.2 planing system. We draw CTV, rectum, bladder on the CT image. And establish plan irradiation-$100\%$ dose on CTV(CTV plan) and irradiation-$100\%$ dose on A-point(ICRU38 plan) Result : CTV volume($average{\pm}SD$) is $21.8{\pm}26.6cm^3$, rectum volume($average{\pm}SD$) is $60.9{\pm}25.0cm^3$, bladder volume($average{\pm}SD$) is $116.1{\pm}40.1cm^3$ sampled 11 patients. The volume including $100\%$ dose is $126.7{\pm}18.9cm^3$ on ICRU plan and $98.2{\pm}74.5cm^3$ on CTV plan. On ICRU planning, the other one's $22.0cm^3$ CTV volume who residual tumor size excess 4cm is not including $100\%$ isodose. 8 patient's $12.9{\pm}5.9cm^3$ tumor volume who residual tumor size belows 4cm irradiated $100\%$ dose. Bladder dose(recommended by ICRU 38) is $90.1{\pm}21.3\%$ on ICRU plan, $68.7{\pm}26.6\%$ on CTV plan, and rectal dose is $86.4{\pm}18.3\%,\;76.9{\pm}15.6\%$. Bladder and Rectum maximum dose is $137.2{\pm}50.1\%,\;101.1{\pm}41.8\%$ on ICRU plan, $107.6{\pm}47.9\%,\;86.9{\pm}30.8\%$ on CTV plan. Therefore CTV plan more less normal issue-irradiated dose than ICRU plan. But one patient case who residual tumor size excess 4cm, Normal tissue dose more higher than critical dose remarkably on CTV plan. $80\%$over-Irradiated rectal dose(V80rec) is $1.8{\pm}2.4cm^3$ on ICRU plan, $0.7{\pm}1.0cm^3$ on CTV plan. $80\%$over-Irradiated bladder dose(V80bla) is $12.2{\pm}8.9cm^3$ on ICRU plan, $3.5{\pm}4.1cm^3$ on CTV plan. Likewise, CTV plan more less irradiated normal tissue than ICRU38 plan. Conclusion : Although, prove effect and stability about previous ICRU plan, if we use CTV plan by CT image, we will reduce normal tissue dose and irradiated goal-dose at residual tumor on small residual tumor case. But bigger residual tumor case, we need more research about effective 3D-planning.

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The Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a Highly Significant Prognostic Factor in Stage IB Carcinoma of the Cervix (병기 IB 자궁경부암에서 혈관내피세포성장인자(VEGF)의 발현이 예후에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Ik Jae;Park Kyung Ran;Lee Jong Young;Lee Kang Kyoo;Song Ji Sun;Lee Kwang Gil;Cha Dong Soo;Choi Hyun Il
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.335-344
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : The aim of this study was to clarify the role of VEGF expression as an independent prognostic factor and to identify the patients at high risk for poor prognosis in stage IB cervical cancer. Materials and methods : A total of 118 patients with stage IB cervical cancer who had radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection were included in the study. All known high risk factors of the patients were pathologically confirmed from the surgical specimen. Of the 118 patients, n patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. VEGF expression was examined using immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of post-hysterectomy surgical materials. A semiquantitative analysis was made using a scoring system of 0, +, ++, and +++ for increasing intensity of stain. We classified the patients with scores from 0 to ++ as low VEGF expression and the patients with a score of +++ as high VEGF expression. Results : Of the 118 patients, 35 patients $(29.7\%)$ showed high VEGF expression. Strong correlations were found between the high VEGF expression and both deep stromal invasion (p=0.01) and the positive pelvic node (p=0.03). The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates for all 118 patients were $95.5\%\;and\;93.8\%$. The 5-year overall (p=0.03) and disease-free survival (p<0.001) rates were $98.5\%\;and\;100%$ for low VEGF expression (0, +, and ++) and $85.5\%\;and\;79.7\%$ for high VEGF expression, respectively. Pelvic and distant failures for low versus high VEGF expression were $1.2\%$ versus $17.1\%$, (p=0.001) and $0\%$ versus $14.3\%$ (p<0.001), respectively. In a Cox multivariate analysis of survival, the high VEGF expression (p=0.02) and the bulky mass (p=0.02) were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. The high VEGF expression (p=0.002), and bulky mass (p=0.01) demonstrated as significant prognostic indicators for disease free survival. Conclusion : These results showed that VEGF expression was a highly significant predictor for pelvic and distant failure and the most significant prognostic factor of overall and disease free survival for the patients with stage IB cervix cancer treated with radical surgery. We strongly suggest that the immune-histochemistry for VEGF expression be performed in a routine clinical setting in order to identify the patients at high risk for poor prognosis in early stage cervical cancer. Furthermore, postoperative and/or chemotherapy did not reduce the pelvic failure and distant metastasis. To improve the cure rate for the patients with high VEGF expression in stage IB cervical cancer, antiangiogenic therapy including anti-VEGF Ab may be new treatment option.

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Packing effects on the intracavitary radiation Therapy 3-Dimension plan of the uterine cervix cancer (자궁경부암 강내조사 3차원 치료계획 시 Packing의 유용성 분석)

  • Si, Chang-Keun;Jo, Jung-Kun;Lee, Du-Hyun;Kim, Sun-Yeung;Kim, Tae-Yoon
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : An effect of a packing to uterine treatment of a cervical cancer using a dose-volume histogram for a point dose and a volume dose of the bladder and the rectum was analyzed by establishing a three-dimensional treatment plan using a CT image. Materials and methods : Reference points of the bladder and the rectum were marked, respectively at a treatment plan device (plato brachytherapy V14.2.4) by photographing CT(marconi, USA) when the packing was used and removed under the same condition and a treatment plan was performed to Apoint depending on ICRU38. However, in case of the rectum, a maximum point was looked up and compared with the above point because the point presented from the ICRU is not proper as a representative value of a rectum point dose. Further, the volume dose depending on volume of $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder was measured. The measured values were used to analyze the effect of the packing through a Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (a SAS statistical analysis process program). Result : The reference points at the bladder and rectum doses when the packing was removed were $116.94\;35.42\%$ and $117.59\;21.08\%$, respectively. The points when the packing was used were $107.08\;38.12\%$ and $95.19\;21.32\%$, respectively. After the packing was used, the reference points at the bladder and the rectum were decreased by $9.86\%$ and $22.4\%$, respectively. When the packing was removed, the maximum points at the bladder and the rectum were $164.51\;50.89\%,\;128.81\;33.05\%$, respectively. When the packing was used, the maximum points at the bladder and the rectum were $142.31\;44.79,\;110.08\;37.03\%$, respectively. After the packing was used, the maximum points at the bladder and the rectum were decreased by $22.2\%$ and $18.73\%$, respectively. When the packing was removed, the bladder volume at $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder were $48.62{\pm}18.09\%,\;16.12{\pm}11.15\%,\;and\;7.51{\pm}6.63\%$, respectively and its rectum volume were $23.41{\pm}14.44\%,\;6.27{\pm}4.28\%,\;2.79{\pm}2.27\%$, respectively. When the packing was used, the bladder volume at $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder were $40.33{\pm}16.72,\;11.63{\pm}8.72,\;and\;4.87{\pm}4.75\%$, respectively and its rectum volume were $18.96{\pm}8.37\%,\;4.75{\pm}2.58\%,\;and\;1.58{\pm}1.06\%$, respectively. After the packing was used, the bladder volume at $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder were decreased by $8.29\%,\;4.49\%,\;and\;2.64\%$, respectively and its bladder volume were decreased by $4.45\%,\;1.52\%,\;and\;1.21\%$, respectively. Conclusion : Values at Reference point doses of the bladder and the rectum recommended from the ICRU 38 were 0.0781 and 0.0781, respectively and values of their maximum point doses were 0.0156 and 0.0156, respectively, as a result of which an effect of the packing using at the uterine intracavitary treatment of an uterine cervical cancer through the three-dimensional treatment plan used CT were measured. That is, the values at reference point doses and the values at maximum point doses show similar difference. However, P value was 0.15 at over $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ volume doses and the value shows no similar difference. In other words, the effect of the packing looks like having a difference at the point dose, but actually shows no difference at the volume dose. The reason is that the volume of the bladder and the rectum are wide but the volume of the packing is only a portion. Therefore, the effect of decreasing the point dose was not great. Further, the farer the distance is, the more weak the intensity of radiation is because the intensity of radiation is proportional to inverse square of a distance. Therefore, the effort to minimize an obstacle of the bladder and the rectum by using the packing should be made.

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